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Sixt6 "EJiitioiv. 



Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in tlie year 1850, by 


.□ the Clerk's Oifico of the District Court for the Scutheiri District 
of NcM--YovI;. 


P B E P A G E . 

"> 'diLE revising a chronological manual, in compiling whiofi I had, 
-.t the age of fifteen,* employed many midnight hours, I h ive found 
'Material assistance in the tahlcs prepan,d liy my Idto tiiond, J). A. 
Talboys, pubhahei, of Oxford, England, usually called the Oxford 
jronological Tables In the alphabetical part of the voliime, the 
i;oniprehenaive and useful Dictionary of Dates, hy Hajdn.t has been 
incorporated airaost entire, with such additions relating to the United 
Hates as were nece^ary to its completeness, and with oontinuations 
tlie present year. 

The contemporary tables which I had formerly prepared, had 
jst much diligent application, and I was glad to find on collating 
hem with the more recent works, that some slight additions only 
,vere needed to make them as full and complete as was desirable for 
the pill-pose in view, viz. : a convenient and portable volume for refer- 
ence, not over-burdened with details, hut indicating to the intelligent 
reader all the great landmarks of history in their order of succession ; 
fl.ud showing also what was going on at the same time in different 
countries. To reader this glance more comprehensive and clear, 
many of the details in the former tahles are now omitted, as they 
are given more at large in the alphabetical part of the volume. 

To a reader of history the utility of such a glance at contempo- 
rary persons and events, is too obvious to need illustration : but while 
the more elaborate and ponderous works of Blair, Talboys, and 

* Chronclogij—Aa Index tc Universal History, &c. 12ino. Leavitt, Hew- 
Vork, 1833. The volume has bKOn long out of print, 

■\ Fourth edit, Svo. Loncl., IS-IT. That work neetis no praise here. 


others, ate ayailablc to the historian or the merely literary man, they 
are usually repulsive to the general reader, for the very reason 
that they contain (ooirtwA for ordinary purposes; their Tery elaborate- 
ness Bci-ves to puzzle and to mystify. 

Wliat is here aimed at is simply to indicate, in brief and euggeS' 
tive terms, the succession of the prominent occurrences and of th( 
governments in tlie chief nations of the world — enongi merely t'' 
recall to the reader of liistory the full pictures of these events, and 
to enable him to classify them correctly in his roemoi-y. 

The alphalet-kal part of the volume ^ves, in most cases, moi-f 
full and ample references to the same historical facts ; but still th, 
whole work is but an index to the souroes of knowledge— a Diction- 
ary of Dates. It has been planned so as to facilitate access to thb 
largest amount of useful information in the smallest poasibk 

There are some discrepancies among tlie authoritieSj as to namet 
and dates — especially in tho Middle Ages — and in some instance 
the dictionary varies from the tables ; but these instances are no 
numerous or important. 

The Uiographioal List at the close of the volume will cgntributo, 
it is presumed, to render the contemporary tables far more variously 
useful than would be at first supposed. By asocrtaining from it 
the dates of birth and death of any eminent person, the tables will 
show at a glance what events happened, and what other eminent per- 
sons lived during the life-time of that individual. 

It would be superfinous to say more by way of esplanation. That 
such a volume can be qnite free from imperfections is not to be 
supposed j but the compiler trusts that it will be found to answer all 
reasonable espeetations, as a compact manual of reference to tho 
World's Progress in Arts, Literature, and Sooiiil Life, as well as in 
Polities and Government. G. P. P, 




HI Era ID the reign of Cdoe 

D III.-(li8jeaia.)-0Joace 
D IV.-tl73 yeara.>-Mahoni 
D v.— (aw yeait)— CharloD 

□ VU.— IHrennL)— OihnienU) theFallortheEaBtemEmpirs 
D Vin.— (145 jBara,>-FaU of Easlem Empire K Ihs Edict of Nam 
D IX.— aSO yeara,)— Ediol of Naiilea lo Uio death, of OharleB xn., < 
D X.— (97 jsEire.)— ChatiM Xlt. of Sweden lo the Fall of Napolooi 





^ivscnting, in a Chronological Series, the Eue, Ileijdv.Hiins, and Fall .f the 
principal Empires of Ihe World. 

By examining tho Terdcai columns, na asceMaia Iha comsinporarj' slals of diSfereol naUons al 
: pedal m fix dpun. Fdf Instance : about ISOa jeai^ lehre ChiisE, ire ebb Bialea fomiinK la 
sece ; Ihe Israeliles in Egypt (from wlience tliey depart nine joats after) ; llie Egyptian, Asay- 
-n, Psrrian, ClUneBB, and other tlnsdoma had been founded several cenluriea previoue— bunlielt 
;toi'y unceilaln and obecure. At Ihe time of Christ, we lind the RoniBn Empire spread oier a 
alerpartotlhe then known world, bm the PBrlhiam, Britons, and Germans, as yol unsuMuod 

ihcm, 700 yeais aOer, thie empire easts only in Turliey, and ia former terrilories are under 
rbariana ; Ihe Heptarchy in Englana ; the Lombards in Italy, the Franks in Ganl ; Ihe Aftican 
ovinoes, and a, laiEe pari of Asia imflet Ihe Saracena. In 1500 wo find Ihe Eastern or Greei: 
npire fallen under iJie Turks; iha Tarlsrs powetful in Asia; many of Ihs modem slates ol 

On the other band, the rBtoliiUona of each counlcy may bo Men in tionlhiuaUon by looking 

the Medes, aljout 1500 a. 0, i ia extended by Cyrus into Assyria, Asia Mhiot, and Egypl, 53B ; lalla 
turn, under the Macedonians, Porihiana, Saracens, Turfts, and Tanara, aucceaaivoly.— The 
-aeifles in Egypt from irae 10 WBlB.o,; In CanfiBn W51 ; uotler the Judges about laiKI; under 
Liga, 1090 ; Ten Tribes separatetl, 976 ; Ihcy are conquered, 721, andjudah, BB3, by the AEsytJans ; 

Kss, IBOi conqnoied by the Romans, 63 1 by the Saracens, a.b. SIS; afterwanlB iy iheoru- 
iBre, Mamelukes, and Turks, emcessirely.—^nj/amJ subdued Hy tha Romana iolho first can- 
ty; relinquished by them, i. 1,410 J subdued by the SasonB,a»; by the Danes, S60; bythe 
iiraana (iBcelving French territories), lOeO; united wldi Ireland, II70; with Wales, 109); with 
otiand, leOO.—Ilali/ in antiquity poKcssed by seTeral petty liihes ; by the BoniBjis from 300-^00 
a. la 49) A. D., then by the Herulii, Ostrogoths, Lombards, and Franks, Euccesslrely ;— In modEtn 
ass, divided mto several small republics and principalities ; joined to the Frsnch empire about 
30, and now divided chiefly between Austria, the Graml Dukes of Tuscany, Hodena, Ac, the 
jpe, and the King of Naples. 
" Thoy are rather melancholy reflscUona which Iha view of such a chart of history is apt to 

irked upon it.' What torrents of human blood has the restless ambition of mortals shed, and In 
lal comphcatsd distress has the discontent of powerful individuals involved a great part of 
Mr species I "—PriesIU'j. 




PAllT I. 
:abdlar tie¥s or universal history. 

AiiccEHT Chbonologs — from ihe Creation to the Bhlh of Christ — 4004 yeara. 
MouEttN CuRONOLOGT — -from tile Birth of Christ to the present lime — 1850 yeara. 


From the CreBtion, ■I'oM 
lo Iho Uclugo, 234S KbBye.M» Tiis Anledilmian PerM. 

From the Delii'e, aW8 
loiheCaliofAlrahani, 192! daryoara The Dispersion Period, 

rum Ihs Capdvity, 

le Biilh of ChiJBt, 

;konnd B 



EIEST PERIOD— {(Ae Antediluvian)— IQ5Q years. 


E DELDGB, [Hales placea k 31M 
I • See alphabellcsl ponion of IhiH voLi 

ion, and to ffon,orniod an 
jsacAttlofiir andHtdngod En 

Eurp«Bfi o1 instTumoaiB or 

the mitBl g«n«rally received eLendard. 
t No dal«s are aodgned in Siuiptute lo the 
e honeiec conlempoisry with thoee ioDui oihcr 


SECOND 'P'EmOJy— {Dispersion of ManHna.)- 

347. Ths descendanls of Noah dispersed 
rhrough Ihe eanh : Ihcrae of Shem prabably 
ia ^a, of Ham in Africa, and of Japhel u; 

a?. 'ftecnraepronouncsfluponUicdeacend' 

Q!H7. TlK building of Babel,* 

3Bi5. BABYLON founded by Nimrod, son o/ 

WiNEViSH founded byAahur, Eon o) 

Alliotca (son of Men: 

SCulptuTe and Painting omptoyE 


"ff ^i^^'^'^'T *" melhof of 'iSin^ 
Bread from wlieal, and nino from rior 

Howled byGoogIc 

127 years. — The Deltige to AJ/raham. 


PROFANE mSTOUY.-(iii Wis psriOJ muJ 







CHINA. The fuel, imperial 

<Kho,i3 perhaps Jjoah hioi- 

EGYPT, andliegina IhoE- 
gjptian moDalchy. 

BelUB Migoa in BABYLON— 




2111, THEBES founded bj 

of Ih* Assyrian empire, Is 

3l«f°0^ymandyas, Uia firs 

warlike king, paass inw 

QtoglBls, SEeSactedHLal.) 

Asia, and conquers Baclria, 

aB?, Bgypl conquered by fan 
who hold ll 2^ years. 

acG9. sicYON, 

dom of OREE 

hefitet king- 


Ninus, atjo of Belus, reigns in 


He e™b?i;*6B Ihe ASS YRl AN 




lislies Babjlon, ond mates i 

ihcsBi of empire. [By oihets 

placed 210;b.c.1 


Semiramis iniadea Ly6ia,B (hi 


The Arabs «iKNiiJeveh.O) 



Howled byGoogIc 

THE world's progkess. 
THIRD PERIOD— (TAe Mrahamic or Patriwrchai)- 



B. 0. The Jews. 

Iffil, Abraham Mlled. 

Cold anil silvei fu-sl mentions^ =3 monfj. 


^ellfoia Lot ftom captiviiy, aod r 

Godi-eneuraliiacojenanlwiih Abrahai 
Isaac born. 

£e"=cs fiiai used in Egjpt 6y SypLioas. 


Abraham commanded lo offer laaac 


Jacob and Esiu ton.. 
Abraham dies, aged 17a 

Memimn invcnla tha EgypLiaii olplmbci. 




Joseph sold into Egypt. 

1b made governor under Pharaoh. 

Jacob and hia family settle io Egypt. 

End of the seven yeais' tamine. 

Death of Jacob. 

1635^ Death of Joseph. 

The dirmOogy of Iho Arumislian martlse 

begins. ^ 

The cymSn! used allho feasia of Cjbele. 

157l! Mf^Bburn! 

Dancing to uiueLc liHToduoed iiy Curclea. 

1^31. IVlDse^ a^cs into MidJan. 

1513. The supposed era of Job. 

Thej!n/s invented It Hyagnis, a Phrjeian. 

1491, God appears to Moses In a bt.™tnsb. 

atHo«l),ai.d senflshtin to Egypt to Jeih 

Uie laraefile;. 











IB I ichue I e P e ian 
plaosa^ onyinARGOS 

E^ Jhotmeqa teigiB Id 

China. The aa Impetkl fly- 

17M Ogyge- Bgi-^nBffois. 
173a. Tfe Ogyg»ao D--lute n 
1711 The city of Areos bull! 

TV^Ja' called Magna. O teoia'' 

1618, Sooslria reign 

• EgJPt 


16ES. ATHENS ftiuidefl by 
Cectopa. ^ 

1662. Triopaa. king of AreOB. 
The kinsilaio ilivideil, Poty- 


1629 Delu-e of Deufalinn In 

1616 'iwr a founiled/and Uie 
k ogdomql Laconia, orLa- 

1508 CroiopasauMeedsto Ihe 
□n A gos. _ 

V kngdomofMBBae. 


FOURTH PBRtOD,— (T/w; Mosaic or Theocratic)- 

fKofoh, Daibanj and Abtra 
'es rhB Peniaieuch, and die 

0. -nie itibe ot Beni 


4 Orpitous and £^us,B0iis of ApoUo, akille 

13 The temple qf JpaOo at Delphi buik by th 

JaaoQ leada the AifonauLJc expediLioa; Eh 
Stat mmal eipediuoa on record. 

'jrCf wedget wimble and lever^ also mas 
sails (oi ebipa invented by Dffidalus 

Israel Bubaued b; Jabin, king of Cam 
Deborab and Barali defeal ihe Cani 

S. lame! ensTaveo by th 
ft. dideon, with 301) ra 



9G years. — Mbses to Saul. 






liai. Pbaraoh and hia amy 

drowned in Che Red Sea. 

1135. ECTPluo reigns, and 


Dardmua, king of TK>y, buiWs 

1474. Danaus usurps Ihe king- 

W57. TliB kingdom of Myoene 
hsgina under Perseus, lale 

1453. Olympic fames iiral ce- 


lebrated ai Elk 
USB. Fandlon tegins 10 [dgn 

Mcsopoimia. (See Scrip- 

1400. Minos re^ in Crale. 

kingdom under Sisyphus. 


1376. SMh™:rigns in Egypt. 

im Ceres amvcs in AHica. 
13J6. The Isthmian games in- 

Troas, liing of Troj. 


.,.,„.,T.™, ,..,.,,., 

12SS. ^i™B, tUig of Thebes. 
1S63. The Arsonaulic Enpe- 

lais'liiB Arcadtans conduclea 




Sscond ABirytian Dynaslj ; 

Millireaua or Ninua II. 

Troy lakca by ihe ArgODauia. 

1S33, Cart; ^eeromdedljy Ihe 


ISaS, First Theban War.- 

Prlam, king of lioy- 
TaulanaiS, King of Assyria. 

Buriaihenes and Prodes, 


l^'^ll^.^iad off by 

Troy taken, 403 years flefare 

Theseus, IS recovered by 


TeulaeuE, king of Asajiia. 
Tmjans migtaiB iuio lialy. 

laM. Helen elopes with Paris. 

im E^Us; Pyrthus Neop. 



Fourih Pei-iod.—{Tlie Mosaic or Theocratic.)- 

ahmenl of Ibe HEBKBVV MO 



96 fears.— {Continued.) — Moses to Satd. 

.1 Temple of EphesHS buml by 
iinisus,'liiog of Asajri 

lai— aadjnaslj;— Tclii 

Alba^Lon^ bviilt 



FIFTH PEniOD.— (The Monarchical.)-' 


IMS. Davia Bubaoes Che Phllisllnes, Mo;" 
K Euphisies, on the Bau, Ibe Red Sea, o 

Ihe EuphiMo^ on the Bau, 


or (I^limJra) In 


07 years. — Saul to Cyru. 







kiiigJoui d( 

1070,Beremon, fr 

m Gailicia, 


lefl hitnaelf 

1060. Alhciia g 

tmmJ by 

The Ionian, emlgtmls eeltlo 


Alliance b. 



•m. "uiics 



(Shlshali ID Sorip- 
E«f Egypt. 

976. CapjB teis 


; world's PRociKESS. 

Fifth Feriod.—{The 31bnarchical.)- 


__________ — . . 




The Jews, 



M3. Asa dcfoita Ze 

tah, king nf EthiQ 
pia, wilS a minjan 


Ml. _m«k«aleague 

or Syria, 

930. Eiah, king, 

^' oZ"'ki^' 

9ia A.»b, king. 

Bi-enslplalfs iiivenled by Jasm, 

914. JehoBhaphal 

3SS.I Jchoohapliat a 

907. Beiihiiilad, kine of 
Syria, besiegea Sa- 



897. Ahaiiah, king. 
895! ElijrfTSanBlal^ 


Ifamfr's poems brouehl inlo Grceo 

est Atojah, king. 

EM, Jcliu,king, 


L^curgas leformB Uie coiiaUluIion 
Said Biid eilxc cained by PiMi: 


878.™XoaEh, k]^g.°' 

85C. JeLoahaz,king. 

Pro^iliecies of Jaiiah. 

The PmphBt Jo 

ra.'Amaiiah king. 
810, Aiariah,fclug. 



— ='= 

rael, end ia bribed 
to depart with 1000 




7K, jDlliani, ting, 
742, ALai,ldng. 

721, CAPnvITS'oF 


"sasiit— '"• 


717. Bsiekiah. king. 

■His B«diSa rei^on intraduMdby Gaqlsma 

7ia, Sennacherib in 

inn. India. 

7ll^n^'"a^y C18B, 


iftwmn Ctofamiorreftmiffli, They 
12 nunlhe inslaaf of 10 as before 
Augun ineUtuled by Numa. 
Iambic verm Inttoduced by .ArcM 

ar divided, 

BO, IV- 

MO*'— • 



507 years. — Said to Cyrus. — (Oontiaued.) 





935, Baccliu3,kinsof Corintll. 

916, CalpetoB, ting of Alba. 

9113. TiharinuB, king of Alba. 
895. Tiberinus drowned In the 

liver Albula, which l9 thence 

caUed the Tiber. 

8M. Romulus, king of Alba 

J^ah pte=chea lo the Nine- 

869. Didn arrives in Afiice 
and builds Byrsa. 

845. Avantinus, king of Alba. 


ra.. The dynasty of ae Tf^ 
nittsi^n Egypt [beslnswilb 

314. The kingdom of MACE- 
DON founaed by Caraniis. 

ArijEEUB, 1st king of LYDIA, 

80S. Procas, king of Alba- 


781, The dynasty of the Sailea 

79^Atna.W" " 

SarflMiapalus, king of Nioe- 

ill Bgypl, 

Olam Fodia, kuig in Ire- 


land. 0) 

769. Syracuse founfled by 
Aceblaa of Corinth. 




Catania founded by a co- 

7i7. Union of Bomons and 



743. Ist Messloian War. 

737. Sebacon invades Egypt. 

veh, takes Samatia. and car- 

Tics Ibe Ten Tribea Into 


716, Romulna murdered by the 

Oytee usurps the throne of 



Smnmherib, king of NineTeh. 

under Dpocei. 

703. Corcytilrailtby the Co, 
685, MMBBsinianWar. 

Babyba unci Niaeveb under 



Period. — {The Monarchical)- 



Phqs^esb of Society .™ ths Arts, 

The Jews. 

G??. Mana5aeh cairiod to Balylon, is after- 


Auampt 10 diswyer liie ptlniiti™ lanKunge of 
molicos ; 'children edqcalad In the language 
Se°»)"S'hStorof China bcglna. 


The /^asrico! /brm cf Ihe earlh mS ihe true 
cai.Ee Df lunii edipsea taught by TAote., 
who dlecoveis the eleclrieity of omber. 

MO, Animon.liingorJu^Sih. 
641, Josiah^ilogSfJufeJi. 


Pertaoder enooutagos laatnlng ai Corioth. 


D™m ftaracs his bloody code of laws nt 

Josiah killed at Mcgiddo, by Pharaoh- Ke- 


out a Phffloioiaa llsel which, aailina llirough 
IhiiH year by Uie Strain of feibraHat, llms 
Ci'mimjMniteflHn? Africa. 

60R- Jehoahaa, king, doposed and carried lo 



MileMB), flourlah al Ihis lime. 



■males' pradiclion of a solar eclipse accooi- 
pllshot— (See Asia.) 


Solon's legleladon in Athens, eupersedes thai 
The pjv^oa Oames at Delphi. 

SSa JehotachJn, king, tei^s tbree months, 
™Zedekla'h,kin|."™'° ° * ™' 



oLdio/. prophesies. 


501' years. — Saul io Cyrus. — (Continued.) 






Ardj3La II., king of Lyflia, 

678, Argffiiia, lat king of Ma- 

Holofejnes, issjviaii general. 


animeliciw. Jiing of 
— Memphis becomes 

672. Tuilus Iloatiliua, king oi 

663, Messina in Sicily founded. 

m. Sea light beiween llie 
Coriolhlans and Corcyceana. 

Phraorlc^ king of Media, 


pical of .he kingdom. 

638, BTZANTIUM fouQded. 

Sarocua, king of Babylon and 

'"AEi^'r;"''" ^"''^ 

coaquered by the Romans,— 


Philip, l3t king of Mace- 

629. Pei'iander rules at Cd- 

^5eS" '''™'' '^''" 
Alyatles 11., kins of Lydia. 
Nineyet a aecoiKl lime destjoy- 

NalrapolasBar, king of Baby. 

616. Tarquiniijs Pciscus, king 


raoh.NeoLo, king of 

Daniel 'iolerpreU Ihe king's 


mmis, ting of Egypt. 

m. «;top™, king of Mate. 
don, conquers Illyiia. 

Birth of Cyrua. 

Asiyagee of Media drives onl 

UlC ScyttlEUIB. 


■aoh.Hophra, king of 

m Solon, Ai-chor of Athena 


; woklb's progress. 

SIXTH 'PSIilOD.—iThe fersian.)- 


PnooBBas or Soo^kit. 




Muieycoinedil Roma by Set- 

Etam— lakss &i8a. 

572. TytelakmbyNehnohad- 


DepteniM and Scyllia open s 
Jfmicralmr given uTihe Gieeto 

New Tyre foiuided. 

ons carl,^; Suaarion and 

659. Hnndwriling nn the wall 

Effii CttMua. king of Lydi^ 
Solon and .ffiaopathiBcourl. 
661. Evil-MBrodicli, ting o( 

669. Noriglieear or BsMbzsu 
killed in the Jiighl. 

Cyajates 11. (Darius; 
bins or Media. 
, Cyrus ihe Persian as=iai9 

Asia AffiHB- subjecied Id Crra 


The,Cori«(W-m 0^ of aj- 

nwjrfs parfornB tha first 
tn^y at Athens. 

636. RebulMing of the leoi- 
p\e begina. 

^eAariah, Haggal, 

546 Sar lis lab 1 by Cyrus - 

K3''baB\L0N TAKEN by 

''fulled hj CiftrS con 

639. Canihyaea, king of Per- 


fli».-^ral pi^^ litreiy 

CmfucltH the Cbluese phllo 
Thu 5>m'c issued b; Datloa. 

"'t^ple!™'™" "'™" 

6^. Darius Ilyslaspes, king 



— Cyriis to Aleaxmder tlie Great. 






Egypt iriviulcd by Nebucliaa- 

(jffi. DealbofPetiander.lyranL 
saa Corinth 'becomes arcpub- 

67S, Scryius TiiU 



Amaais, king—conneclion bc- 
raemGre™ and Egypt 

600. Pisislralua, tyrant of AtJi- 

M9. Temple or Apollo at 
517^ ArayolaB, king of Mat^o- 

(now MaraeillCE). 

S6S, First ccnsu 
M,700 citizens. 

of Homo: 


PjHiagoras visila Egjpl. 

'Q- FiHiBiratus dies. 

634., Tarqiiiiiraa 



Egypt —Invaal JO of tarn- 

figyptiana al Palusiuoi, and 
lales Memphis. 

Sia Poly.ralc^, tynnt of Sa- 
'Bl Hippiae itiid ntppori;huB 

Athena.— Staluea etected to 

Howled byGoogIc 

d's peogeess. 
Si^h Period.— {The Persian.)— 


Pbooi»;bs 01. SocEiv. 

The Jews. 



Repailie at Romo. 

SOS. Davius ooniiuota India, 


phets.— CoriBno, poateaa 


The Fh,^«ipi^ ;eh«-s caniea 

ID £«bxil2 fCDm ^KliK. 

Pyiliagoras «^hea xhe doc 

irim of celeeiinlmalinns. 

dsa, Th8 miians revolt from 

500,000 menJiiU G(E%e. 



The BWwinns excel in miiaii;, 
iLc di-ama and ai-chiloolure. 

^sdiylus, Pindar, poels. 

4S3. JoaiJiim, High Pi-ieH. 

486, Xo«BS,liinsofPersir. 

4S0, The family of Areheao- 
actea, ftom iftytileile Bel[[a 



Empirics inwiluted bv Jcrmi, 




— ™ 

Vopse of Uie CarLiagiolanB 

coUscla fliS Jewish Sciip- 
453. — wrilBslbe Chmnicles. 


TiiE world's 
258 years. — Cyrus to Alexander. — (Continued.) 

497. Alexander lal, king 

kingdom of Ihe O jryas 

l^pl, undef TnanH, k 
Jl Egypl reilucBdbj Kefaby- 

■lUTsLnrllua, flistDicla 

-Tlliunea of the people. 
496. Poalhumlus, BictalOT. 

Cardiaginians de 

teaied by Gelon 

4(11. EanhEjuake at Rome. 



The Siiah Feriod.—[Tke Persian.)- 

Beradallls leaAB k 

tippaa^ aoA ATttisIhejKSy 

ClDfiophen.— PAJifjas the 
at ecuJptor qI antiquity, 
— Etiripiaegf ;raglc posL 
The Baiiering Smi iay^a'^ 

Ira begina his lunnr racfe. 

Dpoorotedf of GoSf the lather 
Tlaai/didea, Clesias, hUlD- 

isophei-. ' 



358 years. — Cyrus to Alexander. — {Continued,) 




454. PerdlccBB,^.,Jdllgof^U- 

451. Decemviri— Ihe biws 

Virginia killed hy h 

446. Syracuso reduces Ag 
4j^M'i™ary Tribunea. 

440. Pericles tat« Samoa, 

440- Famine (a It^me. 

337. Amphipdis planlcd by 

436. CotiMh al Wat with Cor- 

437. Tha Veil defeated. 

43t War Willi the Tuacani 
433. Tlic templo of Apollo 

43a Revolt of PoliiliBB frnm 

431, The Equi and Volacl 

43a Tha Plague el Athena. 
^». PericlH^sa, having gov- 
erned Alheue 40 years. 

435. An earthquake aepaiaieB 
Ihe penlOBiila of feuicea. 

4IM, Exile of Thucydidse. 
Campaign of Braaidaa in 


41fl. Nicias, general of the 
414. Hie AUieaiane-ilturnied by 

Ihto^SjSu'^ "'"' ° 
413. AnSielaUB, king of Mace- 

Aniytlffius, king of Rgspi, 
atakoa off Ihe yoke of Per- 

OyO men inlo Sicily. 

412. Alhens governed to Uie 

41l!'A]cib1adBe at the court of 

410. AfiihiTdep iIofpoi9 ih.' 

405. Lysand'T defeats the 
Athenians - lakM Athena, 
and eatabhshei the 30 t> 


'orld'e progkcss. 
The Sixth Pmod.—{The Persian.)— 



The Jew3. 



CalmmUrB inyenlei byS&nii/- 

PAitoifnes, iho poet, 

Treatise oo conic sections bj 

Diogenes, (he cynic ; fiocroto 
and Jsmua, oralors. 

^ eeJpsn-ol globe trouglil inta 
Gteeee ftoin Egjpl, 

Pliillppios of nemoslhenea- 

Commerte of JM»dss vpiUi 
X/rica and Bjianliiim 

366. Joshua .skin by JoMr,^ 
Wmpie, fnf"wliich''a heavy 
flna islaidoalhoJailyaicn- 

401, CyruB Ihc joiingur de- 
fonma.-Rcu-eal of Ihc 10,OH11 
under XenopLion. 

400. Tkeclt'jqf Delhi {i>ant\ 
tiibutatjK^PeraU. " 

36f."Dad''u3 0chu3,or"Arlai. 
ones IIL king of Peraio. 



^58 years. — Cyrus to Alescandei: — (Continued.) 


llOMIi AM, i,'*LV. 


Tlie CarlliagJniaiia 1=11.1 in 

Tachos, king of Egypt 


401. Thraajbulua eipels ilie 

399. Amynlaa 11., king of Ma- 

396. Agesilmis coea iiilo Asia. 
395. CotiolbianVat liesuii— 

3BS. Theba laken ty Phcbi- 
*" lOoSoi^piai""'**' 



■ AlffitandaElL,ldijgofMa- 
.fti*wi(?mnce qfTh^es. 

364, Pelopiilas killed in-batUe. 
364 Banfeof Mammea,deaib 

3S8, Philip lakBB Amphipolis 
and loses bis righl eye by an 


Tiie Temple of Diana al 
Epheaua burnt 

400, Siegeof Veil begun. 

307. Lake Alba, dmined. 

391. CsMiLutfl, Diclalor, lakat 
Veii, allar a siege of lao 

376, Lucius Sexliis, Rnt pie- 

expelled from Syiacuse. 


SEVENTH PERIOD— (T-fe Grecian.)-. 



T..1D JjEwa. 



ArisM!^., the lodcian and phi- 
loaophBt, founder of Iha Pe- 
tipawtici; -EscWsEB, ora- 

DetnoslSenes ; Icetas, of Sjta- 

The Lycoum built in Atlica. 


Aloianfct spsrea Ihn house of 

CauiKc palaUag or (he an 
of Immim Cillers into mwd 

m- ivmy, invenled hj Gau- 
slas, a painlei of ^cf on. 

33S, Battle of fts«s.-.P9nhia, 
bj ALeiander. 

333. Tyre subdued after Been 

monihe' aiese. 

High Pcieal, dad ID bis 

33l"™"H(rV jT6e(a.-Tii8 

Persian armj tolallf defeal- 
330, CONaUEfrr of ibe PER- 

robea, he da^Ures he had 
seen iilm in a vision, iuvit 
ing him to Asia, ani pro- 
miang him Ihe Peratan em 
plre.*Hs goes loUte Tern 



The voyage of Nssichua from 


Die Indue 10 Che Euphmleg. 

Jpcfte, ihe painwri CWe 


-lAmss. philosopher. 

399. Peidiccas takes Gappo- 

Afcnnndfr. the inyenlot of the 

Lj^aral™ mvenle moulds 



rirat work on mechanics, wril- 

390. Pielcmy carries 100,000 
Jews inlo feypl. 

SiO. EumenesdefealedhyAn 

ten by Aristotle. —iHvfllf 
Sen flrat menlianeil. 



184 years. — Alexander to the Fall of Greece. 

3*8. End of Iho Sacred 

Philip UlUkb Olyna 

M6. Philip adminefl i 

' npliioiyontc Councl 

3)3. Thrace iribuloij lo 

CanhaginiiiHS delea(f d by * 

tyrant, and ^feats the Cn 
tWiniana ai Agriaentum. 

33S. Philip is murdered by 

I empire and Egypt, and 

SPwlcniyl. (Soter, son of la- 3 

3i\. Anlipaier,rege 



The Seventh Period.— {The 


PR08Sfi83 PP Soc^lZTV, KTC. 

The Ji^ws. 



OommereB of Macedon with 
India, through Egypt. 


— Tfio Wnmi™ iuvciitecl to 



meaeure alliludcs. 

311. Judei subject lo Ai;ligo- 

311. SeleucuB Nlcalot teialte. 
After a reign of Bii yeare, is 

305. War in India, againsl 


301. same of Jps^.~A^aso. 

^^Mithridate^= III, tMg of 


The fital sun-dial ereclod al 
Rome iy Papirius Outflot, 
and Ilia umo llrsl divided 

aai, SeleucuB founda Anlioeh, 


Fahita laaaAates painti^ aL 

The Colossus of Rlwaes 
builHiyChatee, of Lindas. 


Theacrlles, the falher of paa- 

S5. The Scythians iuvai: 


The S^iaagint traaBlaUon of 


Howled byGoogIc 



— (Continued) 





3ia Phocim pul In fleaUi by 

■■i'ssssr'— ■ 

313. Cassaiidsrrf btiiWa TyisJss, 


310. The Canliacinians defeat 
AgaLhocles, anB heBiege gy- 




™ Sicily =11(1 Oat- 

306. DsmocrBcyeeUliliehedal 

3M. Aihepiraa repaLaed rroni 

senemi of *e Gieoian Slaiea.' 

29L. Death of CaBsander,— 
Alexnnder end Aniipater 

SsTaese of Alhenu, by De- 
Biiclfir|"nd ™iMa ilie Uiioiic 

aS^i'^PyiTliHS cspslle.I from 

SIIO. Fi rst PItb e iuii High PilesE. 

a«l EndoflteSamnteWar. 

3W. I.™ nf Hotisnrfus. by 
which Ihe dacreea of Che 
iwople had tha force of lho» 
of iKe Bciuue. 


The Seventh Period.— (TJie Grecian.) — 

■I'HE Jews. 


The Pto™ liuill al AIbmii- 
dtia, IhB fitsl listil-houae on 

PhilelBriis. of PsrgamuB, pa- 
tron of Ois ar«, espBcially 

JiSirtirilie «m« of Ihe 
luamed, and cenlre of uade. 

ChartoB armed wlih aqilhea, 
BnAJortifiei cainps, in uae. 

a^ The ftjnsdom of PEU- 

kiilod Hy SeleucHS-Amlo 
chus So»r succeoda Salcu- 

FiKl BocJely 0/ mftVs foi-inEtl. 


lil^ Arioliiraiiieg 111 , kt -i. 

ThB Pni-iim Chronics com- 

G^faiors Bi3t aihiUileil al 

-bi Anliorhi sSoIer ieleiliij 

Beroeia, IJie hismrian of Ba- 


by £r(isIos(4»juis mho maJe 
ihe first alloin pito dcCc L rouie 
lUe icojlt of a. degice 

5nftp ailsandBciBiCM™"" 

*6 KinsdQin qI P^RTI.- 

^L^ o/ch"M'"eelS.'' " 


513 Oi,laaII,.hiKliprii,=t 


! world's teogkess. 

184 years. — (Continued.) 






Plolemy PM]adelnliu3 king of 

2S3. The Guuls and Etm- 

The AchEBan League □! 


277. AniLgonuB Oonalus, king 

274. PjlThua Invadea Mate- 
don, defefUH Ani^nuB, and 
is ptodaimBd king. 

V^oSl, and at """'"' 
279 —ABCulum. 

273. SIcHy conquered by Pyrr- 

275. Curiua defeata Pyrrhus, 


"■"""■— - 



niiB Qonaius. 
Giui]9 InM Hscedon. 





nvades Africa, and is 
S^erS"""^''""' " 

255. Anligonu. liberalta 
"*' aXus joins IheAchEean 

251. Sioym joins Uie kebman 



a54°^atol:^'ti'i^ by IJia 
Koniana — Aboul thla Uma 
Ihe Ituna are fim heard of, 
goyeraed by Taaium. 


The Seventh Period. — {The Grecian.) — 



THE Jews. 


ass. AnliocLus 11. poieonoil by 

211. AllaluB 1., king o] Pcrga- 


Comrfiesfiw acted ^tRonif, 

237, gh™ii.,HighPiioa, 

The orieLial MSS. of ^mky- 
Ua, Eiirimdes and fiWAo- 
cks, lent liv Ihe AUiBiuans 
to l*toleiny, OBE plBdga of 16 

^WKsPi-qjoT, (he fim Roman 

J^?^», ft, tnath^Btl. 
oiD, demonwniln ths pro- 
peiSaa of t]io lever, and 

aim [he art of measutd^ 
9Slids and surrsce3,gna conic 

aae. s=ieuM3nj.,k.ofSjna, 



thrown down. 

Tlie art of Surgsry mtrodueed. 

213. Chi H«]e Ti destroya the 
records of Oie Chtneee cm- 

aiJ, Anlio[;hna ih. 
Great, kingof Syria. 

by Google 

184 years. — (Continued.) 

; c. 



ILotaiE, I.™. 


Kamitcar Barcas, general Dl 
PiDleni)' Buigeies subdues Sy- 





341. End of llie fu-sl Punio 

as, Philip m., of Macedun. 

231, Sai-diiiiaaHdCorsicaoon. 


Canliagena in Spain, bulll by 

If 3^2 

la, defeats the Achcean^ 

IHS. Tbe Romans send anolher 
embafsy lo Greece. Tbey 
are admiliod lo a share in 

emil«d Iho liMSmS Alh- 

335. The Gauls repulsed in 


Ptolemy Philopaler. king of 


m. Batile or Sellasla, 

2aS,'l'nsXria (SBtoT^Liiu- 


Cenquesfa of Hannibal, 

aa). TheSocialWar. 

pla''^'l.ycS|^ ^^ 
218. "iMnanm Sed w Philip. 

ai5. Aralus poisoned al 

liini, and croaaes Ihe Alps." 
ai8. The Second PuHio 


wtaMHefoaled^ Huuubal! 

ail. Alliance of Philip wilb 

aia. Syracuse and Sicily coo- 
fmm Capua. 

Honied byGoogIc 

would's progress. 
The Seventh Period. — [The Grecian.)— 

5. ThEflynastyof II 8 

Tha ait of iMiniiny in CHina. 

L, Onla3in,,Hisli Pries 

Lhe EE[yp m i Lroops fnia 
' rat m« I m oi a Seno/e 

). Phamacesl-klng of PoT 



184 years. — (Contiimecl.) 



u.„, .,.. 

fefS^^lol^'^ lie 

Mr. Nen.anaLi.yfl.fealAs- 


Plolemy Epiphaiiea, king of 

eicjea Unci, aiul talies in 
one to ihe campHOf Aadtu- 
bal and Sjphaji. 
iia poisoned by MaBiniBsa. 
—End of llw yd Punic War! 

tor W Adiaia^^efealB ths 
Macedoniao \^a? hegl ™" 

aOl. Soipio carries Sypliax in 


Treaty of Catlhafto irilh Ma- 

ainissa, king of Nuoiidia. 
Egypl loaes lier Syrian possea- 

Maiinisaa liaraaacsihc Cartlin- 
giniaiis, aiui mjuiea their 

lans join Uie Romaoa a^insi 

197. Philip ntaofealMalCy- 
nocephslffi by the Romans, 



197- PiamlnluB yiottrioua in 

195, Cato in Spain. 

189, Epitus -leolarsd frso by 

190, War witti Anliochue, of 
Syria, who is lolallydefeat- 
ed hy L. C. Scipio, and 

188. PhilaptEDiBn abrogales 
iJie lawa of Lycurgiis in 

188. Syria ia made a Roman 

133- PhUopffimen doffeated and 
klllod liy Dinoeralcs, khig ol 

183- CalD, the aWer, censor. 
181. Plague at Ronio. 


ISO, Defiili of Scipio Afriev 

ira^Numa'B hooka found in a 
Blone coffin al Rome- 

Howled byGoogIc 

3 world's ritOGHi:SS. 

The Seventh Period.— (The Checian.)— 


Pboqicess of society, bto. 

T«E JE«.S. 


176, Heliodome in Jerusalem. 
175. iaaoa obuiiie itae high 
priesthood by corrupLton. 

'"aii"™" ''°'^°"'*' ^^ "'"^ 

172. Anliocbus IV, (Epipla. 

lemy Pbilomaler. 


IJO. Jerusalem andllielemple 


imo China. 

The comedies of SVence pet- 




Thrj!r-iri Ubr<^y openea =1 

167. Matthias, High Priea. 

Rome, coneieiing of bDofce 

100. Prusias, tingofiiibynia. 

brought from Maiedon. 


165. JtiBiS MiOCiBEUs ex 

Itol^Uie citiMDS pay no 

pela Iho Syrians, and ruii 


Slp^^tie of Nice Uses the 

lallludo Bt F8rfo^ whoa, 

IK fiemelr.«8Soler.kingof 

dian— lays Ibe foundation of 


lei. JuiJaa kllla Nicanor-i^ 

First irealy with the Uo- 

ehiiles to wilhdraw-la mur- 


The eJepsWiH or icater dixk 

dered by Tryphon. 

157. Mithiidotos v., ting nl 
153. Ariararhca YH., king ol 


ffippan;/,™, of Rhodes, 

ISn. Jews take Joppa. 

nozner, — Aiialwchus, at 

Alexandria, giammariati. 


184 years. — (Coatiimecl.) 




Home, i^T.^. 


Caw's embaasy lo Carlhage. 


Phjscun in Egjpt. 

CarmadeB, and Criwlaus lo 

goveminBot of Macedon, ia 
conquered by Mciellus. 

H7, Metell.isfcfeal>lheAch 
14?" Coriniriaten anfl de- 

[hs oame of Acbaia. 



EIGHTH VElilOB.^iTke Roman.)- 



The Jsws. 





^I^ZpVTi ''' ""' 

143. SL™i,,Hi2L Priest, 



intBliu ; Nicia&r. phyBl- 

cim, Ifiigic poet ; ArislaSa. 
his, iliB Jewish petJpKeiic. 

135. EndorUieApocrrpha,— 

137.. Anliochua IV., (SidelesJ 


BsKSJIr/aB onfer, a dislincl 



Sftivid f/ Itaming iQ China. 

130, John Hyrcanus deliyere 
Jiidcafroni the SjTlao joke; 

king of Pomus. 


C^MIor, of SJiodee, chraao- 
lorim; ^nlAsmm, pWloao- 

108. Hyccaoua destroys SamEi- 


106. Alexander Janneue at 
war wllh Egypt— lakes Oa- 

III. MUhrWalefl oonquera 8cy- 
*^ Boephorue, Colclu., 


THE woulb's progress. 
146 years.—FaU of Greece to the Christian Era. 




sole iing of E^pl br™= 

8 Plolamy PhTSCondriTen fiom 

i crrtiagTtebuifL '' 
8 Death of Micipsa, ting of 
Numiflla and the asaassina- 
Ptolemy LalhyruB, ting o( 
i JuguiT^iiM War. 

J AlEiander I., king of Egypt, 

In the Siiat. 
na DALWATIA, a iloman 

136. SeiTvila Wat in Sicily. 

109. Wat of Ihe Teuton! and 

iKniipraBiHte iiy lie dtfiat 


lOa. MariBS vicliJtIOTia 
est 1 he Teuioni and AnAro- 


m Marfus buye'iiis ditti con- 



rfe Eiglah Period.— {The 


PBOO-EiiS OF S. = ™tY, etc. 

THE Jews, 



97, Hi(hridale3 conqueia Cap- 


by RonH. — ArlobarzfmeB 
efecUd king. 

^defe'^rfl'^feS^^ ^"'"" 

93. TLgranes, king of Arme- 




Borne by^jlla. 

36. MithriilaleB takes Bytlii- 
nja and eeieial Roman pro- 


Decti«c of Asrlcaitare tn 
llBly; com supplied ftom 
IbB proyiDcei 


Fmiioniaa calculales the 



JntfoK, Romsn hialMlan; 

The cinry /rw' brouaht Id 
BuropB ftom aria bj Lu- 
cuIIUB. — TerenHM Vam 

75. By the death of Nieome- 
des Byibinia becomes a 

wriUB Ihree books on agri- 


dooie, Seriinia and Gaul; 


70. Hyccanua 11. 


?0- Damaacua posaeased by. 

near a dwelUng of Alilliri- 


69. MLlbrT^a and Tigranes 

defeated by Lucullua.* 


appBiI » Pom 

SB^^Milhridatee defeated bj 

ViWnndiiim, kio-t of Osene, 

lu iSb priestJio 



kink of Cappadoda--An 


64, Dejotarus, kingofGalatia, 


63. PhgiinaoeB,kineofFiintii3. 



146 yean. — (Continited.) 

I rjpper Egypt— 
.■II., king of Bgypl. 

. MetelluaaubdiieaCrct 

KDinan proTloce.— Binh 

Sylla. dafealiog Iha 
Aarai and Felignl, puis an 
sd ID the Social vt^. 

i deleaH MelelLua and 



The Eighth Period. — {The Soman.)— 


PROaREaa os SooiBTV, ETC. 




Scowiw, ui bald SO^^ec- 


OiiMro, BUlasman and onttor ; 
Bicus, of Rhados, paripale- 



%c o?ia<^''£lg."'° ""^ 

53 Patthiin Wir-Tho Rr 



49. Tha tra of Antml'. 


ealfed bstauae liie calendar 
was alKied by SoeigCTiea. 

47. BalUB of Zcia,— Pharnact 


Firal Julian year — Klru- 
iKl ''™'"' ""i™"-- 
Cbmejiu9 ATepm, hiaUrian; 
OMwm Siadas, bi9U>- 

kaJichus poisona AnU. 

44, 4 cornel seen in Chiila. 

Ibe Panluan-lakes Jcriisa- 
made king by ths Romans. 

coi-ua, defeated by Vent 
Maio Anlony. 


THE world's peogeess. 
146 yeofi. — (Continued.) 



Il0Mi.« Bmpihe. 



Ulica,— Plolemy Dionyaiua 

Cleopalia poisnns Lor brather 
laA reigns abno. 

43. Thesealy becomes Ihe seal 
of war,— The Alhenlans de- 

Bal°?5 cf Pioreo/ia.— Pom. 

47. 0«Ear laSes AlBiandria 


6a J=^Vs( 7Hum1..ra(«:- 
Ponipey, Craaaua, and Ju]iu» 

Ishmonl of Ctoro. — Tha 
HalvFtJi defeated by Juliua 

senate.-^yl f,\i ngo f" %in- 
Uhina" defeat \hl Gev- 

1 Caaar co ipielee the con- 
quoat or Goal, which bs- 

^VbltoJ md^m si^tj 


OclaTiu C»9U, Marc Aa- 
loay, lod Lepidiu.-OioBra 
proscribed and mardered. 
42. Th^BamgPMUppil- 
Anlony and Oclavius defeal 


i woeld's 

The Eighth Feriod. — {The Roman.) — 



Til*; jEwa. 


3t. Antony lakes pos5easion 
of Armenia, which becomoa 

a Roman priivince- leads 

an tngiorfcoj eqiedilicn 

against PartJiUu 

GMeit age of Romaii Kfera- 

amounlB lo aDom40 millSnl 

30. Herod kills Mari.imne, 

m« InTtome.— DitMl Irado 
of Ro™ wiih IndiB.— iS/t 

,od Km^ «<a™/n«mM 

in iha empire. 

TempLfl of Janu, at Itome 

doseil-UierB being now a 

29. Bpheaue, neil lo 

general poacB. 

Alsiandris, Hie chiel place 


Treaeuree aC Egypiian an 
brought B Itome.-The Pan- 


HoHACK, ViBam, Tiiidlus, 


duorf on the Roman MagB. 


la The Temple rebuilt by 

ao. Porus, king of India, soli- 








Tlia ((.jT'Of" fllelrlbuled over 

Che provbioM in filed camps, 


-among Uiom were Bonn 


The catmdar corrected bj 




JESUS CHRIST, 4 je=ra be- 

Ibi-e tlje Vulgar Em. 
S. ArehelauG succeeds Herod 

with the litis or Elhnarcli. 


146 {/efflrs,— (Continued.' 








Cyrene and CjpruB, 

35. SexIus I'orapey dcfealod 
ill Sici)y. 

?£L Aniony quarrels wiih Oc- 


Cleepalra and Uacc Aniony 
defiled by Ocuriue, at 

Ihe empire. 

Alesandria laken hy Oclavius 
— Aniuny and Cleopaua de- 


23. Oclav,iaa3day=lrlnniph 
Rome oonlai™^,'l01^17 

27. The li'dea of AneuBlue and 
Emperor eonfeired on Octa- 

aa. Agrippa in Spain. 

ei. Athens CnalLy BubjeclBd 10 
aO^CXClh Olympiad. 

and Asia. 
IB LolUus dBfealed by Ihe 
IS. Canrabria, Austria, RhiE- 

heinj conqneced t7 Dru- 

liile ofpmrtifiuc Ma jimua. * 
12. ^nnonia, conquered by 

a TilieriiHBtRbodos. 

S. a. Vamis ajipDinted gov- 

niS'- overnS of Tde^^'^" 



PAllT II. 



. Eilioclion of Iho Weslern Empitc, ■ 
FLgW of Mahomet, 
Ealllo of Haslings, 

Taking or Conslanlinople, 


Period of the Tm Pereeciiliant of 

■■• Norllam hamalims. 

" Jasiim'on md Bdieariaa. 

" S-orao™ Empire. 

" JtfcK Wisrem Empire 

*^ TAe Crusades. 

" Tamerlane, Wic&iiffe, rrndSast. 

" The S^oTmaiim; DiscmtHet 

" The Engliah CammB^vnaOk 
and Wars of Louis XIV. 

" American and Prench Rev^u- 
" EiiropEan BeiiohitioNSj LilVTO- 


MODERN CHROKOLOGT.— PERIOD lat.— (37i* Ibt Persecutions:)— 


The BIRTH OP CHRIST :-i^ee p. 44. ) 
Herod Antipsa behig al Uiia lime leMaich 

8. Chriat reasons wilh Ihe doolors 

Celims, the phjsfciaii ; Phtedrta, UiB- fa 
li«; FeMi%a PotoTBiMS, Roman hi. 



26! jSiX Bn|«isfb«gin™M3 nUiitary. 
27. Christ bapllsed b; Joha 

a9*Twelre disclplea seal abroad, "two ajia 

PMla, AlBiandrian Jew, fiLaoiple of Plato 

m'TruCIFISIOM of our SAVIOUR, Fri- 
dsy. ApriL 3, al 8 P. M, i . fle^recn™, 
Sunday, April B; Ascension, Thursday, 
Hay 4. 

rokrms Ja-aiimws, historian. 

33. St. J'slsrbaptizaaComeliua. 

34. S!. Piod convened lo Chrisiianilj. 

Aaiiiort, of Alonaiuliia, crammarian, cal 
tfis "'rrurapei of llie WoiM." 

40! The discltdes Aral calRd dirlatima il 

iBsf?)-[Mo«'ui°an Ihree limea Ihe num 

cSu?ne3a,™orn in SpaSh; left Iwo[ye bo 
on husbandEy. 


60. Paulpreachc3inthBAreopagu9,olA&ns 
S3. Council of IhoApoalles at Jerusalsni. 

%'. -plaafls° tafon ¥iim, and appeals 10 


308 years. — Pirnn tits Chnstiati Era to the reign of Constantitu 

'ermaitiaa conquera Cappadocia. 
ermaa^cufi poJrHjned sx Anlioch- 

I Lower Gei'mauj like a Ruiiian pro- 
I. The GBnuBos-uodfir^rffunif £9. defeat and 
Idll VarruB. 

Ooid Is banished In ToniiH. 
I AugQslii9 die9 Bl Nala, aged ;C, and ig 

Ihitomaniii conquered by Dnisua. 
The theatre of fojiipey destroyed by lir 

33, Conqneal of Mauritania. 

. Veapasian. eenefal in Britain. 
. Census of & city, 6,900^. 


59, Nero'B mother, Agiippina, put la dsalh liy 

Howled byGoogIc 



[Morfej-re ; Perwd /.— 300 lyrai^. 




69. Paul is shipwrecked on the Island 
6o"paul im*'rUoned ta Ron» 


Nero's goMenpalacs huLIt ; of gteal eiieiil, 
inciting fieSe, &c TKb buildings in 

Plin</, •ha elder, author of Ihe firM jmlaral 
hislnr^ ; Quinltua Omiiua, hUlorian ; Per- 

6i. TfceJTrai ftrscculion of CAj-/s/i'ons lij 
63 w 66. Paul Yiaits Jerusalem, ana Iravela 

Ji?!" J""' "" "' "■ """" 

TKe^Jewa" al war willi (he Romans, and 
Paul boheaded. 
m. Peier enicifitd. 
67. The Jews masaaored bj Florus.— Josephus, 


J'uespftus, Iho Jewisli hi^loviao. 

^"pd^SL cfe^men'i.— Qamalie'. 
fia Vespasian In.ades Judea, 

70. The deslruaiotiitf Jsraaalsm,!!// T'iui. 
77. PopeSl. Clelii= 


The Cipiiol rcDuiir, 
Circumaayigalinn of Etoilond. 
UestiuclioQ of HerculaaeuDi and Panip«li. 


Verr beantifu! paintings ia tbe Baths ol 
■iilaa; flie group of iSe iaocom. 

loanplier -, P/iib< Bj'J ."me ,■ tomf/as and Pa- 
yioa, iwo of Ihe faihera of tiie chuvoh. 

S3. Pope AnaclotoB. 

jj Bo 1 pe Becution of ilie ChtisUani ■oj 


r-K/flM, hialorian; Jui^eno/, »liriet; Sta 
nns, poei; Xid. GcWfus, I.aiin gramma 
ilan; Mularch, nwtaltm and biographeE , 
i.he younger PfWjr. 

Si Johi writes bis Gospel and Arms. 
97. rimofAi/ siened. 

The (Z^ion IfSrnty; Puilifl mSoo/s tn all 
Ihe provinees; J-urisnnalmee ftnurisiies; 
ilie eity ariorned wiih the Forum: Pillar 
of Trajan, and iolSa; iridgs buiLl OYSt 

93, Chtisliao assemblies prohibited by Tiajan. 

* Tha word Pope is used in acEordancs 
wilh Ihe Roman Catholic usafe.lhough th» 
name was no. adopled by Ihcir Pontfe tJl 
several cemurjea altor 


dicca ; Um tinrn Londnn, Tbe I 
64. Hem sels Eome od Are, and sa 

(S inomhB) defeaicd and InUed by 



). JviiiisJgTieola, conqueiot Dd g n 

Dercebalf leader 
Capttoline aiid se 



-THE world's progress. 

[JV/Wtyft: Pcmd/.-~30Gi/eBi.. 


PB0=»E3a OF S0CI=T1-, EM. 


luo. ^/. J-DAn dies at Epbesus, M. M. 


r/r* JirsI a-'-dil,k Msiorfim mnons 'He 

lOT. Tbitd petsoculion of Ihe Christiaia 


Ths Jfoninn mosojca. 

of Adrian's iierpenml codf. 

and goopopher — ^rrfoB, Appiaa, Maii- 

gemi, rheioiician of Tarsus. 

134. Heresy of Mavcion, wlio acfeiiowlsdgss 

Uiree Gods. 
136. Poignas-paaiAristiilea, Chrisiion father? 

139, Pope Hjsepua, 

142. i'ijpePiual. 

Hereaj of Valentine. 

194. ./usfin Mirf^pulilishea bisapologyfo 


167. PoJ^tiHpaaiiKMfcfs mirlji^cfliailsla 



marlan; Diogenes LaerriM, Oraakliialo- 








Human EKPmE, 



P\my, procovBul in Bilhj^ia, ssmis Trajan his 
accouniol llio ClinBliaiH.— Gieal iiclunos 

Oi; l^%?''v'eJu?i'DS^'"'"^ 


Trajan's eipedllioii againal Ilie Parth 

Seizure of Clesiphno, 
Aimciii^ Major again governed b; 
tiin^ dependent upon Roine. 


J" '""" i7rT«„ # 


Vicomedia and olher tiiles deslioje 

iditan in Aaia Minor for asren yaaa 

by an 

,^: -pzj. Sni™^l;i,d^'thS^ 

Adrian r8buiM> Jerasalflm, iindsr Iha 

Tlie reljelh™ of the iewn oiushod afi 
of live jenrs.— The Jews banish 

name nl 

13S.— Antoninus Pius.M 

(emlneni fnr his vimies and lo»e oi peace.) 
140. LoLUuE Urbicus extenile the Roman do- 

mfi.'Sj£d liKVflvot'iiMinln^'' """ 
145. Annminus defeate Ihe Muois. Oemians, 

anil nao.Lin.. ' 
14lj. — inlroduces Ihe wocshiporSerapieiolo 

162. — auips ihe psraeeuiJcmof llie Chriclians. 



(the stoic phJh«opher.> 
Escape of Ihe ihuniiciiiig lefion. 
158. PJaaoeo™-^he whole tnoSn world 

Wtiv ivitli llio PtiHlUAiis, I.isls S yai 

169, The Marconian,:! !,i war Biih Rome, 

<prailigale and cruel;) niaEes peace 
GOTIIS In Dsda. *™'^' 




[Moilera: Pci-iod l.—iO^ijaii,/^. 


l'«G„.i3B OF mJCilTV, ETC, 



Papmlaii. the giwreal civil lawjor nf anu- 
qilitj — Tiiliiis Afriamiis, thI'Uiloiogec. 

0»inc3lla KroBla the right of RninaD cilissii- 
ship 10 ad Ibo pM?inoea, liiat thoj may bs- 

Din'^CcSair^J'SrLk hismrC.'"' 

Hfirwiian, Greek lilalorian. 
Lungmiis, pliilosoplier and crilic. 

19!. I'ope Zephyiinus. 

317. Pops CBliitU5 I. 


ps, P^pa Ufb»,0 1, 

^XT»"'»d^^SS' a^™S: 

950. P=pe St. n^^li^-^j. ^^^^ ^^^^^^ 
• ClirisHaii Father. 


— Ckrisiiim Era to Caitstanime.] 

S TheSAKACENSdefeatlboRomana, 

^ ; (the dynaaly of lb 
6 Punhia Irihuta 

m dcftaa ths Ferabia under Sapor. 

139. The Capilol o( Roni« liestrayeil by liaht- 
191. Rome neatly dEHrayed by flro. 

empire bougbl by Uidiiia JidiatmB^ who 
la put Vi dealb by ordoi^ of Iha aeimlQ. 

- S e p I i m u^B.^ S.=^v^| t ii s ,#-^ 

— defenta bJB coLDpctilora, Niger and Albl- 

ai7. CaiflC! 

18,— HMioeab = lH,,4 

<a monsler of vica and cruSiy.) 

' (a beneficffM and enlighleoBil prmce.l 
bii» to the Gat^, lo prevent ihein ftam 

10 dsfeau Ihe DscUbs and s1 

ry i they invade Gaul 

Mrsecutea ih9Chrisi™s, ^^^ 


.' Perind. J,— 306 year. 




2S1, Si Cmrian, bishop of Oarlliose.— Mo- 
naaic life originales about lh!3 lime. 

Dispute between Uie churches of Roma 
and Africa about ic^tism. 

369. Pope Dionjalua, 

asa. Poll, bishop of S.-ini03iitia, dci ies Hie 
divmiiy of Jesua nhilBi 



273. NuiihpeiMcuUoii under Aurolisn. 

Rome ™i™undad Willi a ivaU, 
Ijineinus di83. 

274. Pope Eulychianes. 

JtfoJies originate, Ihe Heresy of .he Mani- 

nilesiaiu:e to temporal suvereisna. fix. 

Ponjia/fa, Ihe Greet philosopher and 
Bilcaotdtnary nanal expediUmi of Ih 
Monhem Sana. 


Ihemonarchy tonadei-ed hereditary 

of while marble, ivliils tSe wal) 
adomefl viih pamtirtgs. 


^Paut, Ihe Theban, the firsl herniil. -Reli- 
gious ceremonies malUpIiod.— Pagan riles 

S36. ^i*rBi, chief oflheHieraiinns.-aBaerls 
that iVIelchizedec was Ihe Holy Ghost, and 
denies Ihe resui-roction. 


-Cliriihaib Era tn Ctmstaiitiiic] 



HUNS on Ills C:i?piaii Sea. 

The Peraians viwoHoua In Asia Minor. 
Persia :-^apor'a .Icwry oier Ihe Roman 

The IBinple of Diana al EphsBUB burnt 
Sapor, U.e Persian, lakas iMioch,TaKus and 

Odanatus.kiogof PsJmyra— liB la auccPedBd 

' AusuBla,' and ' Guaeo of the Eaal.' 
Zambia defeaucf al EAeess, b} Aurelian, who 

The Parsiaos isfcaled by Probua. 

361 GalT^4. 

purchasea a pBBce wilfT^e Goiba. 
foileracy of (be Fraiilra bsiween ilie 
ana Elbe. 


" 'Z'z'i ' ' 

SE5-69. Four great piratical ejpBfliiionaorthE 

239. Valerian dafoaied and laten prisoner and 
flayed alive by UiePereiaiia. 

The pBtBiano penelraia to Ravenna 

Claudius 11.^ 

dofeale an army nf SaoJlDcreoihB 
269. -diesaLSrmiuni. 


a?!, -defaala Uie Golha and alenianni 

ancp.ind ta^ea queen Zenobia priaor 
a!4. France, Spain, and Briiain red 

Dada aiven up lo Ihe harbarlans. 
275. Aurelian kiiied near B.vzanliura. 

-■■■--"• -"X 


reigna with wieilom 6 months, 

(a Vfarlike prince.) _^ 
ti^^-The Franks perndlted by Ti 


killed by ligh^ng. 

Carinna and Numetisnu 

(eflbminale and cniel.) 
268. Fingal,kingof Morven,^. 


"ThB Era If Di«ditian," or o 

7yBara. The empireattaekeiibyai 

usurpoil by wrsnta.—JWaximianuB, 
league of tV Emperor. 

f "the 



[Modem: Pei-iod I.—iO^ yi-aTS.- 


P«08BESa OF S™eTV. 7,T0. 




SBB. Jtfonts in Spain and Egypt. 


Gregory and Hci-nMi-eHss, lawyara i Elms, 
Sparrm7ius,!,ad PffjHSeas.hiBioiians! ZV* 

rrain idotoiy. ° ' ' ' '' '^''" 


PERIOD SECOND,-170 j'efljs,— 


The prMartan guard brakon up bj Coiislan- 

306. Perseculion of llie Chfialims slopped liv 
310, Pops Euaebiua, 


lh« splendor of Ihe eoun as gi^al llial 11 
coat more ihan tlie legions. 



of CffiBuea, C F,, and eccleo^nle^ hislo- 
EjAraSm Hnd Sosij, 0, F„ floniiah ia Uu 

Eleventh pei:wcu1ion. — Siints invoked, 


hsvailoui-ished abaui ihia time. ^^ 

341. Chrislianlly pvop^Siiled in Elhiopi.1 by 


Elias Donaivs, biahop of Carlhage.— 
Cyril, biehnp of Jeru9aloni,~Moa9slerres hi 


— C/irisliai H^rn to Cim^itsnline,} 

f Viiin Constimtine to Odoacer. 

tiDople. wnjch was fioletDaiy d&ilic&led 

lUay LLlh, 330. 
Rieat famine and peslilence in Syria. 
Reraltorgarmali^ elaiea, m^ are dis- 

SSh i)f°CoM[an™l| aiid liia accession of 

Constantiua, ConslaiiB, 

Gi-eek »ni Asiaiic ciiiea rjesrioycd by ai 
eroianrtc, king of llie Oalrogolhs, founds ai 


(fitM ChtlaUan empetot.) 

?. MBisnLiuB defealed aod killed. 

\ CoosuiLtiiie fayore and Ulemles <;hna- 

i. —abolishes ibe conibscs of gladiatorsBnd 
331. Conalanlioe orders all the heB,Uien tem- 

310. ConalanUne, Ihe joun^er, deleated and 
lonelans tilled to Spain by Magnenlius. 

361.— Julian, ihB Apostate, ^ 




a Maa-aHus, Piiltonic plillOEi 

I. The second general C 

iacipte of Si 
JrllMi monk 

417. Pope Zozlmua. 











410. Pup 





^-li^oiii ConslaiU-ms to Odoacer.] 




l'«,..P ^ 

3« Vaioncinian . # 

368 The Samns'in^ade bS but ore de- 

IIUNaAKY, O^ncient Pannonia,) invaded by 
Ibe Huns, frr^m whom it is nanisd.-.The 
Ooths MpBlled by Che Huns, ai-e allowsd by 
Valens lo sellLe in Thracs. 

Vaiens defesLed and slain by Ibe Oolbs near 


c4^"lo°lia'ea^rn empire on tlie deaih oi 
Valens; Marimcia is proclaimed empemr. 
— Gratian liilled at Lyons. 

ThepdQBiuBlhe Great,® 

a lealciqs eupporler of Chrisliaiiiiy, 

3J9, The IXtMBARDS Dr« leave Scandina- 
via, and defeat the Vandids. 

383,— Valeattnian 11. @ 





Fiiial division Bf >he empire b« l«een Ite .ioM ol' TliootSsius. 

ircadi,,. * 

e»nori = .^ 


The^odoaiuj, II,# 

403! Alaiic defeated by gtillieho. 

.UK, The Vaniiatii peiToiiled Co settle tn Spahi, 


Regency ufllie einperar's sisrer, Pulclieria. 

414. TheVisigotba l3anl ihemBelvas In Ton- 


Peraim War. 

Armenia divided bclwoco liio Pasians and 

417. Tlie Almi defeated and eiUrpated by 
4ao.°FKANKS: — Pharamond, their 

m. Britain evacuated by the Romsna 
42?. Pannenla recovered from the Htins. 
4as. .ffllitis, llio Roman general, dsfealsd by 

"^F^Slta'-^^dionrking, extends his con- 
queals to the river Somme. 


Fimnonia,Da]iiiaiiaaailNoricuin gained rr°m 
Che weaiern empire. 

433. Attlta,"TliBacoiirgeorGod,"forme 

m. ^e^Wn^m'Sf ^i*" V a n d a U in 
^fS^'^SrS! nSI ly"tbl 

41B. Th» famous smbaaay from Britain, soli- 
ciUngaW against the Pica. 



[Modem: Peried 11.— no yearn 



447. EiayehKS assails tho exialence of on';* 


«fl. Ibu^ bishop or Bdeffla; and Euaebius, 

bishop of Doryleum, Jepoied. 

ZiaimMs and Qlxp<vpiad,ma, Greek liielo- 

ffiO. Blizii^zen and Theodont, ecclealaBUcal 

451. ThefburUiiensralCnunciUtCtialcedon, 

atwhicb Eulycheanieni and Nestorianbiii 

ara solemnly Condemned 

161, Pope Hilariua. 

4M. Pope SimpUcius. 

peraoQ sliall be tritd 6y Ms peers, oi equals. 

Oligarchy of Ihe WshopsofRonie, Con- 

Blaminople, Alsxandrla, Anlioflli, and Jeru- 

LeolsLalion of Ihe Viaiiolhs in Spain— Eric 

salem— al! airivins for Uie suprematy.— 

ffein|ltin3,and founLoflhe &iliie mo- 

The church now begins Co assu™ a poliU- 

Tlie Willing empire of the wesl was finally 
ovsniirown by edoacer-s eacfe of Rome ihe 
greal syeii! whleh praceaw Ihe middle or 
Bdark agta." Tha form of Iha old 

Iha consuls, &e.— but IlalJ, ravaged by a 

slavery, ivaa nearly a feseil. 




MODERN : PERIOD HI,— 146 yi^ari. 

>e Gemma oi Talmuil of R 

Bitfgitadian taws publishe^it bein^ a collet 

if burning glass in walfate at Conalan- 

I. Pope Felix in. 
ixcommunicalea b; Jlcacius, ] 

LThtiaii"^ petKCuicd by Hun 

492, Pope GeJisiua 1, 

iM. Tte Ramiai Ptmliff asserts his si 

4w!'^ialianily inlroJiiced iolo France, 

ThE Christian Era proposed andinti-oducf 

H-acoii by (he Per; 

Sig. Tho o[lli(p(i(p.t bishops i-esloi-ed by luii 

Pope Joliii 11 

Howled byGoogIc 


—Oi(.aaa- to Miikcnaet. [The " Middle or Dmk Ages" bcgiii Am-e.l 


EUBOPS, generally, - 

An earthquake, laadng 40, days, dealtoya ihe 
Zeno makaa Theodoiic general mi consul. 

of the Frcneh'monarcSy, 

The Or^o md^Bloe fac'ti'ona. 


m. Alario a, kingofOie Visigoths in Spain. 
186., France:— Baule of Soisson. 
4^ Brta^J S^s^Sajonsdefeated by Prince 


491. Prance ;-Cloviaa«bdusaThiiringia. 

The empire ravaged onfl Ihe irapcvial army 
destroyed b. CaiHades, king of Persia. 

frSm Ihe liulgarians: 

A ereai insuirecOon in Gonsianiinitpis, 10,000 

499. France :~Clovis concludea a peace with 

Theodoric in Ilaly. 
800. —Burgundy becomea his iriburatj. 

607. — Cl-.vis dcfears Alaric near Poicrlera 

Conataniiijople hesic^cil by ViCallanus, wlmse 
fiDBi is consumed Tjy the bmtng giasx of 

Anastasios killed by lighuiin^ 

516, The Chrislian Era adopteil. 

Si7. GetiB ravages Klyricnm, Itfacadon, *c. 

a peasant of DaSia. 
Qellsailns defealB Iho Peisiana under Chos- 

saa. Spain:-Anialaric, the firalGolliic Sing, 

S.'W. Britain :-!iin5,tom of Esses. 

S3I. SLJatn ;— TheufliB autceeds Amalatfc 

533. Burgundy conquered by Childobert. 

-defeata the Vandals in Africa. 
-EUbdues Sicily, 
-lakes Naples. 

530. Viiijes, ting of Ihe Oslogroilia, Burron- 

-laliea Rome, defeats the OEtrogroita in 
— tS ^uns In Tlmico, mi 

537. fialy conquered bj Delisariiis. 



THE world's progress. 

[Mchrii: P^rwd Ill.—Uf, ijsan 




SIO. ThB AKBioi*rfi7«:, Who actnowlediffij 
bul one will inJeauaOhiisl. 


'^chirf?^SfBZoX "'* ""™''"*^ ^'™ 

SSa The FilUi genetal Council a.t CoosLami 


557. Tlie chutchof Sc. Germain do ITsi). buill 
al Paris, 

rsl'aSrZ'ta^ ,- tliB king's ftulhorily limit 

ThrJirrders; ^^Sie,' Ihe /™, and Ihe 
temile.—rrial, l«j irdei^ 

■ The^IVilAf ISM acknawiedge llireo Ooda, 

and deny Ihsrosmccll™, 


Tha old Roman mnnicinal ayHom in Italy 

673. PopoBenediffll. 

578, Pope Pslagiiisll, 


Tm Latin langnage csases to be apotcn in 



The Romm C«lioUc lUih Milalili=h«l In 

Or^ory V roM-a, Ibe fellior of French his- 

590. Pripe Gre;ory I. called Tho Oreal. 

The docirine or jjMrjdtori/ Hiai laugln— 
Mass uvtiodueed. 


G^^l'hl fim Brilish hislomn. 

™,^. bisloriw of RavMon, tuiot w 

The Sajtona, having conquered England, it 
rslapsei, in a gtest maisnte, inlo Uie slare 
of bStarism, Trom -nhicli il had bem par- 

S98. St. Augustine, firal erchlHahop of Oan- 
lerhury, fnttofluces Cliristianily iuio Brfiain. 

604. Pope Sabiaauii, or Sal.lnian. 

MO, Pope Boniface III, made supreme head 
of Ifie church by Phoeas,— The lills of Dnl- 



—Pi-om Odoacer to Mako-met.] 

i rifOGEESS. 67 




m Italy Wat Ihniina, and pestilence. 

ViligH al Rsvenna. — North iftica. Cot- 

TiiB City ai Milan ravaged by ihe Oollis, 

sicasnd ganlmla, aime>»dlo Uis Easfarn 


Flaana al ConsUmlinople — during Ihiee 
moDibs rraoi S/XX) w l^OOO die daiTi- 

The LomlHrfs'^llle iTpaniionii - The 

Turkish monandiy funded in Asit 


Siege uf PBIHI. 

660. POLAND a dakedom-Lech, ita fii« 
dul<e and leiielalor His bcoiher, Zech, 

first duke of Bohemia 

MiT3«3 defenu and kille Todla. 


lul; goyerneii \>y Greek eiai-chs. 

Spaalth liajt from ihe Sii-ails lo Valencia 

553. France :— C 1 o ( a i r o 1 . W 


A planus eilehiliiij; over Europe and AeIs, 

GOU. 'l^tialn:^lho*Wngdom of NDrlhtnnbria, 

Ihe Saxon tings. 


rcEiored:— ho quells a conspiraev. 

561. mnce:-Charibert I.# 



""""'"'"■'...,.„. 4 

666. Entope ravaged by a pestilence. 

Belieatios dies in prison. 

5G9. Italy conqueied by the Lombards, under 
Alboin. Ha fisea his capital at Pavta. 

Tli9 TURKS flrsl mcnlionol io liialorj.— 
They send embassies 10 Joalin, sod ftrin 

576. « East Anglla formed into a Itina- 

3an\a deleau Cbosroes, king of Persia. 

dom. and called Angle-laud, whenoe Ihe ori- 



gin it the name EtTgland. 

StiLitioe, the Cappad.vcian, ting; under his 

reiiu iho empire exianda lo llie Araios, and 

083. Spain :— tlie Suevi eubJuad by llu! VlEi- 

alraosl to ihe Caspian Sea. 

m. |S;=|i£^di^}fMe;S«nded. 

538. tSb city of Paria'destroyad by Are. 

The AviiB flouiTsh under Daian— invade Ihe 

Eastern empire, and spread over Hunsary, 

691. II ri lain :— lit helberl, king of Kent, gains 

I'oland, and Priiasia. 

ilBly:~tliB Lombards, under Aulharis, 
suMeasful against ihe Greeks and Frnnfea. 
606. Istrla, IJnberaia, and Poland invaded by 

Kir.^Brilam:-Chrle[ianitj bt&aduced-by a. 


600. "£^y ravaged by the Solaronions. 

Howled byGoogIc 

[Modem: I'ei-iod UL— 



TliG arisliKrai:!/ acqulm gi'eal power in 
France, aumewhal restraJaed by lha majors 

Rilai aaiftHpemliliiHui ineraaae in all Europe, 

C06. Pnpa Bonifaco UI. 
007, Pope Boniface IV. 

The Pantheon at Borne dedicflled lo Goil, 

.be Virgin, and lha Sain.3, 
flOR, Tbe Chrislians massacred by Ihe JevfB rf 


Elhelben'pqbli^S'ibe^rs(c"rfe"ViatDs m 

m. Pope Boniftce V, 

MODERN: PERIOD IV.— 178 years. 



iBOdorus, iiiscoiian of Spain, gfarumaiian and 

asa. Pope Ilonoriua 1, He hail a l.iste for 

Islamism, and Ihe power nf tte Oalijilis eaO- 
Miahed in Ihe Eaal, In iha Callpha mere 

Africa and Asia, with Ihe churches of 
Jeru^lem, Alexandria, and Anilochlosi lo 
the Christian world by ihe progreas of Mo- 



Pnues yifCamh dgefa nded. 

61 Pope Theoloma, Ha assumes lbe liUe 
644 Pope MarUn 1. Ha ordains ceb-bac;, of 

051, Popo Eugsnlna. 

KT, Pop Vilalian. Ha ajtabliahad lbe unl- 

Celibacy qf the c(er^y enjoined. 

f,n. Pope Adeodstus. 

Howled byGoogIc 


■"■■ o'~«' " Jfrf—.J 

HE world's niUGltE^.'^- 69 


EASTEUa B.11..1U!. 



HEiacIiua laliea Cffli=lanlJnople, kill himself king, 
iWAEIOMET pubiishea his Koran. 
Syria mvageif by ihe Araija. 
JeniEalem talien by the Psislaos. 

by the 

WlBriIain;-Sl- Paul's Church fl'tinded by 

brio, dafeaia Ihe Briio'nB, and desuoys iha 

6ie, War between Lombatdr and Raienna, 
Iil7. Britain:— St Peler's (now Weatmiostsr 

—From Mahomet to Cliarlemagne. 

[Dark Ages, cmilin«ml.\ 


EiiiiOPE. gencr-Tlly, 

TheHEGIRA; or Maboniet'a Flighl from 
Mecca to Medina. 

He"acliufl dafeals Ihe pirajaijs uraler Chps- 

626. Frauce;-Daaobort I.W H» 

builds the ehurc? of St. Dsny, iSe burfal 
place of ths French kings, 

631. Samo, a merchant of France, makes 

era'Ttoi ■ 'Brcl'"'aS'^'- he emhr^Cfs 

-"--'Sit, .„.k,.i.„ 

by Ihs Saracens 463 years. 
Omar takes Alexandria, and dcelroys 
another 6unous library. 

(ii years of ase.i 


Ths Saracens take Khodes, anil destroy Ihe 

Perela becomes a pan of Ihe empire of Ihe 

63fl. France .-Clovis 1 1 .®6ycara old. 
The kingdom diyided, Sigeliit, (18 years 

6ia. Biltain:— Breivraldvn. 

644. Brllaln:— The University of Cambridge 
founded by Sigeberl, king o^ E. Anglia. 

Consigns goes to Rome, and plunders ihe 
Meawiah^caUpb, makes Damascus his capi- 

660. France^-Chlldeiic 11.^ 

Conslantine 1 V . ^invades Sicily. 
Grand Cairo founded. 

't^je'flS^r^r?rd hSu v.n-f 

CaUiolcus. The caliph compelled lo pur- 
chase a peacs of ihiny years, by paying a 

"wS4i™~SS.'"" "•"• " 



[Mjtisrn : Fariad IV. 178 yi 


P.«.-iaE88 OP SocmTV. k™. 



.«mis iKiMiii^f and j/nss cume into use in 

The abtey or Whilby, and (he monfL5«ry of 

■ The'pop"="'b^ome independent of Iho 

Gllllng founded. 

The Axglo-Sarms ndi-anes in cMHial.U>n 

679. Pope Agalho. 

BJlit poiMT, bj Ui8 inlMiiuclion of Clais- 

630. The aiith general CounciL at Conalanlino- 
ple, called by Ibo emperur Consianibie, who 

6^ Pope Leo II He nsni-ps tJienghtuf iii- 

Iboiigli confinail w Ihe arialoctacy. 

sm. Pope BenoditM 11, 

In Persia, Uio tt^an religion gives way to 

635, " John V, 


Severe paraecution of Ihe Jews in Spain, 

J-iiiimi, (if TolEiIij.l.islcjrLan aiul moralisl, 
Tiie venevalll-: Serf!, Eec, liislodail. 

A king flisl Biecled in Poland. 

AdhcTm, ibe firal BriUali writer in piose and 

701, Pnp»JohnV., 

ScUanmiaa republics in Boljsmia, 

OS, 'f Sl^aimcaidajs), 

Chtistiaolly greally extended among the Get, 
man nations anci other people in tlie ni>rih 

Africa, bj Ihe progte» of^MoKniedaii" 


711. Cuslotn of Idssiiis the Pope's fcol inli* 


711, Pope aregory 11 


The arl<if mailing paper lii-ought from 9a- 
GJaalonbuiy Abhey rebuilt by lua. ° 

Leo (Easlern Enipcroc) miotnpts Lo pro- 


-~Pri)m Mahomet to Ckarlemagiie.] 

Yezid, caiiph of ihs Sm-acens. 

ft AhdHlah Mii"h '*''■ 

" Abdulmelek, calipU. H9 dJlBBiiiUiiUBa 

. Tihfrius. 


wean ihe Black 
Caliph Abdul 


raaed, snd Ihe north 
Bly Bubjugawi. 



France :~F e p i n d ' H e r i s I e 1 .^ 
'Sua Thierrj, and bocoraes king, 
Kl. Ftaiice:-CloYis III.W 

-Leo ril.,(ae 

1 Fiance — Cbacles Martel, doke of Ads- 




[Modem: Fen«d IV.— HZ years. 




Incnasine Darli 
puwor, period 

72S. Imago woiship being forbidden by Uie 

epicilusl of 

727. Pc(s-'s ponce Aral collecicd in England. 

»™^™l "'^^'"^" 

7SS. Leo otdeiB thfl pope lo lio seized. 


730. Gregory flicommupicaleB tha cmpatot. 


Wiiiifrsd, ao Anflo-Sasoa, preMhea ihe goa. 

psf 10 ita Friaoiia. 
The venorabie BeJe dies— a grammarian, phi- 

731, Pope Gregory IIL 


losopher, bislorian, and Kieubgian, 

73S. Tile images Ihronghout Ihe empiw do- 


l^o Abaesldae, caliphs of llie Suacens, en. 

airoyed by order of Uic emperor. 
Monira peraeculed. 

eourage learning. 

741. Pope Zachary. 


Fredegaire, a French hiaorlan. 

for hBlierlng in the sjaalencB of antipodes 

73i. The Pope dethrones Childerio, ting of 

752. Pope glophen III. at war with Ihe 
bardarasaislSl by Pepin, 

7M. —ho journeys to Pepin to iraploro his 

of Pepin, wlio bestows on Stephen the ei- 

757. Pope Paul L 

Juknof BoinMCMs, a founder of Uie acholas- 
[ic pTillusophy. 

ThI sXSia or Bagdad, Oufa, Aloiandria, 

Fez, and Cordova, nmmoled bv the Abaa- 


772. Pope Adrian I., on whom the Ecclealaa- 

Ignorance, profligacy, and misery, characler- 

lical Slate la conferied by Charlemagne. 

iied the age preceding Cliarleinagne. 

770. Impasiliim of TUhrs enforced by Char- 


The Aral ]'ee planled m Spain, 

lemagne, for the support of the clergy, 
churchea, schools, snd llie poor. 

Goldfln period of learnin" in 4rali'a u do the 

caliph Harouoal RaacTild 

87 The seuenth generid Camcil at Nice, vt. 

Pleadlnssin counsof Jusliceflrslprac sed 

Th ch Ihe dectRue of Ihe Iconeclasls .laa 


caihedale, by (iharlemagi e 

c demned. 


The Synod of Prankfon. 

TBI Pope Leo m. sends to Cliailomagco for 

aeorge, the monlt. 




Arab fleet heiiia aluiDSE eniii-ely deali-oyed, 
.aa cenfiBCatfs C^abrla am! SEciIf . 

■he Greet poaaesBions tn I^aiv ore loel in oon 
aegoHKB el" die edict forlucCling image wor 

izor, caliph; builds Sagdad 
6 AsTiMiootravagsdbytheTurlia. 

chid, caiiphQf Bagdad. 

— piupfKW tQ manr OharieEnagD 
The Ssiacena ravage ThriCe. 



740. Spolello taken hy Ihc N 



753. Frances-End of Ite Me 
of French kings. 

Pepin lo Bre 

firat of Ibe CarloYingian line 
763, Pepin le Bref aida Ibe Po 

raiingian Ibie 

,* - 


builds OviedOi aJld makes it tlie Hsat of his 
S8. Franc*:— OHfl.Rl.EM4GNE,orChatlea 

h 'n q fi arie.Saidlaia, 

i a I BJiine and llie 

; ID -p, rded nvasion of llie 

es :— The Sea Kings and Vtknigs. 

794, Cliarlemagne exlitpatea the Huns. 
Sweden conquered by Isa viaiamo. 


PERIOD. Y.— Tke Middle Ages.— 2m Jjeai 

conrascd by Cbarle- 
; baSi flourish in 

Fine Arabimi breed of korses 

Bel^ forms scliaols at Touts 
— patrojiiaed bj Cliarle' 

'I'snaicDt reriial of lesmiag 

under Ohailenagne. 
^ginltard, lilsloriaj], pecje- 

Lary Lo Cbarremagne. 
■he reign of Mamun (caliph) 

is regarded as ibe Augusijne 

800. ITAe PopesepanUes 
"■" Easlem Entire, ana 
nes atipfemB Siahop qf 

CluTlemagnB it 

B16, Pape Swplicn V. 

Tba College qf Cardinals 

St, KmKs Cliu«h al Venice 


disowned liy Iha Engbab 

geaa, tlieologlans holding 

WEST foooded by Chart 

n Harouo al Eas- 

— Lolhairs.®— 




le lo Winiam the Conqo^ 




The Womji, elsewhere 

«, d™.™ ..™. . 

Iimsdoiii under Gatttcu! 


-»,.. p. .,„.#- 





813. Egbert, liingof Wessel, 

defealalii^ Brians. 


Euilhquakcs, fiiniim,Bre,&c. 


Sia A! Mainnii (oaUph) a pa- 


itynasty of [lis Talierilea 

founded at Khorassan. 

i-i^^s^aiie "itie -^61^"^^^ 



of Crele,aadnamB il Cm- 




SndeV tils^ame =r enq; 

83a MolasEim, caliph. He 

LAN1>, 01 the Land of Ibe 

builds Saiimora, whicli be 


makes tJie Bsal of govern- 

Egbert, W 





s. wefllt prince. 

ScollnaA :— Keuiuilh, king 

of the ScoQ, defeats ai^^ 
lirpalBS the Picu, and be- 

mrest ihe"e™mry iamo- 
lealefl, and bum the cJiy of 

Howled byGoogIc 

76 THE world's 

[Psfiad F.— (a. d. 800-10G6.)-2(J6 'sears 

PE0=I.Ea3 W SoqiETV, 



11401 order in Ihe male, 
ite king. Gi-adual inlro- 

rirat indosare of lands al 
Spal^ifig, where Kichard tie 

ClockH btoughl lo Cooalanli- 
nopleftom Venice. 

ThB Faroe Isles, and Iceland 
discovered in ihiacentuiy. 

814. Pope Seisins UL (Bmm 

Igualius, patiiarch of 

Persecuifiin of the Chris- 

by AuEchstius in Deiimaik 
and Bwsdeu. 
855. Pope Benedict III. 

(t5S. Pope Nicholas L 

BB9. Eulo^iiK, amhblBhop oi 

Cocdoya, matiyred. 
800. The schism of the Grselts 


linnpLe,— Pholins, palrisrcb 
873. Pope JahnVIH, 

855. Lothario retiree 10 a or> 
pira aTMcreaL" " ' '"" 

pcrial digniiy. 

ase.^Fmnce invaded by Loula 
compelled 10 rslire. 




liie Fatfaii usurp" 
SSS. Paiis herieged by I'.B 

pmfal^Siloily lianaferred' 


— Cliaiieiiiagae lo WiMiam 7,] THE WORLD' 



EASfaiiH EllP.BE, 


The Would. eLtewlierB, 



Uie Ss™ena. 
Ci«le and the Sicilies [ece- 


S43, Alfred .118 Creal Lo.n 

SliJ. Tli9 DaneeBinquorNor- 
S73, Alfhep tub Gbe.i^ 

879. Alfred abandoned hj hia 
subjsca, reiEras 10 Ibe file of 

logo^tor hi friraidB and cod- 
qaerB Ibe Banes. 

HinibHi|i and peneii'ala JDW 

leiel^jQ a™™wi. Sega 
8)3 —delcdied bj Ihe Pope's 


«;S Tbe coasts of Holland 
pliiudred tyctisNormana. 

ed Cm Mln.l u'ollea Jul- 

Eaa. RUSSIA :~Ruric, flret 

863. Eeypl Ihrows off iB de- 
pendence on lbs calipha, un- 

E?4"ctla?d, a republic, found- 

3-5. Norway:— Harold 

Hailmge, first ting. 

SSC. The ScylhiansBBlje Cro- 

839. HungaiT: — Arnsd leys 
ilie ftiindaiion of the king- 


78 THE world's 

[Peiiod F.-(;a.i).800-10SS,)-2G6 ?/. 

phiioaophicai wnlar. 

IS.Fr.:— Chitlealll.^ 

-^'^ """•'■ . 

S99. Ger,:— Louia lU-W 

>' 905, " Sci^Lus 

a Nm-mans in Fian 

» in'N^mom'iy'. 


(the Sltaiiael). 


-Ckd/rUmagiie to WiUiam I. 

THE world's 

picooaESM. 79 




The Worlb, elcewhsre. 


'^s'S.'S..""" •""• 

Iholauet lakeiha ialnDct ol 


that Uiero ato firs emperoiB. 


KomanuB, genarsl of Iho fleet, 
urarps ibe empire, will, his 
three sooa,Chiis[optet,Ste- 


Komaiius crnlaa n nsTal ciclury 
over the RuasiEias, wlio, led 
hy Igor, enter the Bl=rk 
Sea wilh 10,000 ships or ca- 

Naples nnnesed 10 Ills empire. 


nenbiiveli. he hecomsa king 

000, SwUand^-ConslanliM 


910. Spain :— Kingdom of Leon 

the irealeat Arab prince of 

ai palace f Z hra. 

^ -Orfl^ ^TI k^g 

S ot 

a/3 D e '1., 

.1," ' "'' 



TfIB world's TROGRESS. [Perwd F.-(a 

D. 800-1066.J-2C6^C(ir!. 




France, Oehmabv, &c. 

The mercnntile characlev 


thrae''vOT^ea Dve" Ihe'high 
eeas niiii a shjp and cai^Q 
of his own, ahould enjoy ihe 

' rank and pcirUegBa of s. 
^i^nlo I^«top8 by the 


91S. PupeAgapemsII, 

Silver ralnea in Uie Hatlz 


mSis tn fJoiidf rs, which 


Ml.Fr.:-Lothaiie I.® 

935. Bapiisinof01ga,antlcon- 

— confere Ibe dukedoms oi 

vcWn of Russule Ch™- 

Bnrsundy and Anoiiaine on 

HngTi Ihe erau. 

ora wapectlng iovcstimre. 

ma. St. Dunman, archbishop 

of Canlerlmri, attampts lo 

reform Ihe charch— eolbi-c- 

'"Vhr'SilnenSr^of the 


B&osmI' Arabian phjriclnn. 

963, Pope 1*0 vra. eleoled by 

354. Benedicl V. elected b; a 

9S4. Italy united to the empire 

Tlie SamnJUet, consisting of 

Poland receivea ChriaUonily 


C?2. PopeUenwIiclVI. 


973. Bonifaos VIL : deposed 
and banished tor liie crimes. 


»"— — ■ 


Jtefranfus, Arabian geogta- 


Oresn'and fliacorernd b; ihe 

993.-Olbn III,,@— 

3y re a- 

Jimoin, htaorisn. 


lmae,alsnmanj places on 

'^^EL^ -&5 i.^ 

^ pa n M of Frcacl. 


— ChurUmag'tebj WiUiam I. 




EAsTEr.1. EMi-m^!. 


ThuWokld, elsewhere. 

of GlaamnSutj. 

95!. Scotland; — MakulmL, 

dflleon.' ■' ^ 

ConsBnline^I, TBti 


966. Seol!ana:-lnaulf, 

9S5. Spain :—Sancho L, king 


— Komanus I 




frida, afl^r Ihe violeol dealh 

of Aihelwold, hot lover. 

Eaglend enil Wales, In con- 



961. Candii Kco.eiaJ mm 


.cDp orns 

sequence of B reward belni 
of.rsd for Iho pu^-poso by 
Ibe king. 

Violent dispurea belweeii 

903. PolMd^'^Miecislos esHi- 



ana An- 



— is murclered bj 


Galicia, bui are defcalsd and 

973. Hungaij: — St Stephen, 



ecill iniLiUler- — The people 

976. Spain :—Hiieia, caliph 
Altnansor, regent, obtains 


e empire. 

^Taf.°^-?V^^- districted 

95B- Danish tnraMon, under 
^"Xwng purchases Ihcir 

of Denniart, invadea Eoe- 



[Pei-iod F.— (i. D. 800-1006,)— 26S years. 


FiiANiiiE, GeaiaiNT, &^ 

m.Fir« ™™,z=;™ 



^ Pop.Gr.soj^^y. 

-^liie WtM,l ^aucMBiy HIS 
faibei' Hugh. 

B39, Pope Sylvteict 11, 

Ihe pom fo( matijlns hi^ 
couem Berths. 

KoSS'ar.h.'''' " 


-,duke of Bavaria). 

Italy ;-Aidon,margrsv8 
of li-via, elected ^ing. 

Fuper made of collon rags. 

1003. Pope JdiLiXVIil. 



1009. Pope Sorgiua, 


Tho JVencftliw*!io*efitalbB. 

Tlw atBT^Dilj revi™ in llaly 
— piuQllngs iQ fteaco aa.l 



1015. eermsny :— The empe- 
tot rsdeives an animal Irl- 

Ltteratiirej tbo arB Md eci^ 

nmS, ^'llvuulid by Guido 

jBlcmm^ 8 fiimoiB Arabian 
tl.EiHi.t. aiitl physician . 

Oampums, of NavaiTO, astio 

Hermannna Clrm(™ftia,nionk 



uSiUtrollly.' ° 

lOag. War with IhoPol^ 
1031. Pr.:-HBt.ry I.®- 

1033. Pope BenediW IX. 
lishedbyle bishops. 


«S..».-is*— «" 



^ m«Jam 7 

1 THE world' 





EsGi-ANU, &t. 

TllH WOELE, clscviVicre. 

JitJiV,. „,■.«,.,« 

SDi. Konv.ijr-Ol^fl. 

Wilis r inn jiy inlraduced. 


m'spalnr-Divijion of Ihe 



la Eiilgiiviaos 

1000. SaochoiII.,<tha Gi-eal,) 
king ol' Navarre, ta^es ihe 

low. Sayoy-^Qd^penrtenl un- 
dei' B«rvald, iu first coiml. 

(Hie Llna-liearled). 

large armamanl, and 'ariaiB 


Iha counlry. 



1012. Spain :^iilelmaii, ca- 


10 13. Tho Danes, uiidei"5weyn) 

bea.memeBierxil' England. 

1016. Denmark :.~Canule II,, 

(Irookde^ Igtils cixSaules 

wiili Oanuw. feing of Den. 

nmrlt, wiili wliomTia flnallj 

divides liie kinsdedi. 

1016.— -Caniile^: 



_^e,lnr,d lo a 

lOlH. Nonvaj- conq,i«-ed by 




[023 IrdnndT- Brian Bora, 


-Bipels Ihe 

SaiMens from 

SooUand-euMues Malcolm. 
IW2. — pstfonnB a pUgriniagi 


--Mi = liae 


1034. Scoil'd:— Duncan, ting. 

1035, Spaiii:-IUmiraI.,Sing 

of Arragoii. 
1037. FerSnandl.jOfOaaliK 

S ffi fmS^m"^^ 

1036. Denmark : — Hatflita- 


103?, Norway ^-Magnus L, 

(Ihe Good), 


[Pei-iod V. -(A.D.800-106S.)— 

M6. France ;-Diapqte I 

°"* ExKimmunicaUon oflhE 


1C6B. Pope Tlolot n. 

limaofLmlS. Thodim-ch 
improvins in plBly anl dia- 

lOET. Pope aicplien IK. 


'" SSSS:.„„-„„ 


IOjH ftiiartel between Ihe 

litres and noinloaioi"» Ui'e 
1061 Pope AKutanddc H. 

1062 Berer^f. a Mleijmtecl 
French ecciBsiasUc. 

I06S Aloianflev deooaes Ba- 

si„r £■■&.!.? 



—Ckarlemagni: to WiUiam I._ 

THU world's 

PiiOGRESS. 85 


Easiecn Ehpibb, 

ENHL*Hb, &C 

The Woulu, elEtwhere. 


■SSSi? — ■' 

™ „.,«,.„.„.*- 


-„.».., V *_ 

il-rs DuQCKii, ami usurps ihe 



The Saxon lins reslowd 


ujprospeiemitei- 1113 mild 

Firjl^Wslofl rf Ihe SBljuk 

TKb ItuKiana ionide Thrace 
wiib 100^ men, anil are 

. Tim Pisana and GEnoese 

063 Da ed 

E O ea 


— «.;.o,^«— 



iK^ek eh« be a 

.■e oTiho°Sph^. '"^ 


_Ml.h..l , *_ 

(Sua iolichus). 



1059, Sweden:— IdOBldua or 

Ingo 1., tJie firffl ChiiHian 


Notman, is created by Iha 

pope, duke of Apulia. 


_c.......... x,„# 


101.. ^-H.r.ld 11 #- 

IDOrrclTitlB and Leon:— Al- 


dufcTof Normandj', styled 

^^E^n^dlif^the Anglo. 

"'Ed^i iat^lug'tloe to 

Howled byGoogIc 

PiatlOD. YI.~Tiie Muldie Ag-fii.— (Continued.)- 





mandy, clainw Ihe crown of 
England, and makes vas 

Feudal SvBlem iiHtoduced in 
Bnglani by •Xk Normiioa. 

I'apeis oJ (/M ;i««/(I 
oy its power, claiming 

parol ajid spltilual, over 



Ihe English ooliiliiy, 

Ii}gulplms, hisHiviao. secre- 
ury'lo. William Ihe C™- 

(Uildebrend,) who atlempla 

quarcelawiih the emperor. 

lOTJ. Henty IV. of Germany, 
an mnioned before "js E^Pe. 
biBliopa. ' Treats ihe man. 

Gregary VII. 

Mariosma Scalzia. 

London Bi-idga and Weslmln- 

Ih c'^p «9 d" ''™'" 

municswd bytiejory Goes 
humhle BUbuusaion, and kiesee 

quealhod to the Holy See by 

1076 Spain —The Cid 


order oT Willlani liio Coii- 

gra O f hie in 

dolph, of Baiana, as anU 
enjpeiov Rudolph diee in 
lOgT^Ger -H=nty IV de 
tiigueBagainBthim anrtmak.J 


WHHamiif Spires, maihema,- 

sf^'insUluteilb/BrTno. " 


BnjIamL—The cnr/ein. 
Ihe Gshools, Mid mifla use ol 

Basl by Melafe Shah. 

BodrlgLi. Ihe Cid, assisted by 
Raymond, count of Ton- 

Bi^landj "Robert, 'dnke^o! 


10S6-1299.~ IVUliam tie Omque'ror to Otlmim I. 

Easthhm Empiks. 

-EHdLAND & Sootlahu, 

- -E.,..,.,* 


lbe'Jvor^™'liM°''' - 

(Blugeaes.) Ha' CTaoliy 

bill vainly opposes he 

106rt Edsar AU.eiing, hair of 

takfii prisoner tyipAia 

he S.X01 line, lakes lelu^e 


Ian, Emir ulOn ah 

n So and. Ilia sisier, 



'"la^ti hTSa^uir A"i 

10JO.Norway;-Bfrgen built. 

A;.drani™i§5 — 

p a«ii mhe haliiia of tJo'r- 

— ^~ 

Ma olm III, of Scotland, 

n? Fence lielweenlhe Nor- 
n ana and iLie Soola 

1074. SJ'™--f'j^?^'^^^^|;' 

bj Mclck Sliaii. 


loKS^rkf-naralil IV. 

Paleallne invaded and 

JcruEalam laken. 


. Jiiceplioms, @ ■ 

ion'. H™Ba.y:-l.a<lialasI. 




^Id aeihS.n^d"""'""'"'*^ 

Alexius al Duraiso. 

U^. BoSeMIA erecUdinlo 
Henry IV. 

After .ha eaplure of to«s»- 

lua?. Willi am invades Fiance, 

robhefl and oppreaaeii, Vfbich 

and is killed al Mantes. 

-^reat Miog^le belweeo 

1090. Sicily conquered by 

Roger ^e Norman, after a 





Tin.: WORLD'S F,« 







1M3. Conrad, son of Il« em 
peror, rebels. 

popes continue lo su-gsglo againal the empire. 

|i094.Spain:-Pod™l., k. 
—of Navarre and Arragon. 


"i£:sS-~' "• 

The Com 

reaches againal [lie Tnchs in all the couDtrles of 




;,Veri.^\^o?l'.^ rs'^iv^r,Ts's "* 

«^ ,„«,.,, ,..,,., 

4. Roberlof Plaailera. 
;. Stephen of Chatli-cs. 

■'. iloS^mnnd" " ""^ 
a. T a n c r e d . 

600,000 warriorB,100,0QB 


1099, Pep 

e Paschal 11. 

WiUiam^ Poilou, fitsl UOLi- 

urn. Spain :— AlfoiHO l.,king 


-I* Gros. AbM Sugar, 

1109. Germanj:— Heiirr en. 


IIH. Henrj V. mamas Ma- 
liliia, of England. 


Tfc! X"'ii^/((s Tempfars. 

HIS. Poj, 


1113. Spaitii-AJfciuo Leap- 

Tograi, Sdiri, aofl Abitdluh 
Shiafaddi^ Arabian poels. 

Schalaalic PMlasophy altaina 
ils highest pwnl by the 
writiMB of P*Jer A6fii<ird. 

112,9. Fire 

Liieran, or ninth 

1120. Ri.alvy betwaon Eng- 
land and Francs com- 


«- & TX. ™, 

THE WOULD, rts6«hero. 

^ ear ^eby 

DM Sc Dm Bane, 
^V .un ag invades 

lOW. Hungary :—CoIoman. 



W ivltli 
BO Can- 

lOoa. Scollanil:— Edgar puis 
out Donald's eyes and de- 

1097. Baldwin founde Uw 
principality of Edsasa. 

cruMtlera, under OodfL-ey 
who IS elected king. 

r.rSM^ts'Sira^h JUiiiUi- 

1100. William 11. accidentallY 
ebot by Sit Walter Tyi-e). 


Maud, a Sflion, Uius uniting 
the Norman and Sajoiiin- 



IlOl'^iwiberl, duke of Nor- 
mandy, invftdea England. 


1106. Henry inradBeNovmao- 

auVe biBIa of TincTT-braL 
Scnlland ^-Alexander I. 

1107. Henry quarrels with An- 

1106. Italy:— Venice, Genoa, 
and PJsi greatly BOlicllcd 


Tripolis taken 'jj ci-usaJera. 

1109. Notway:-Sesmd's el- 


Bcrylus and Sidon taken by the 

nus)* nohie ptince ; reforma 
Ihe mannsra of bis people. 


1119, Wat betVfeen Pisa and 

"iS'Si?" " '• 

Zensi, governot of Mo- 


90 THE world's rROGRESS. [Period VI.— Tite Miildle Age. 

7iiHaiii nf Maiittsburyj Bug- 

Bmj'amin ^ T^tTa, s J 

The magneliG needie 1 
SJen fliro, of°Toledo,'jewisl 

Amoidf of Bracia, coodemit 
iumer ami Dtonyeiua Pe 
nj 0/ VtBire eaialiliehad 

Londna c^lains 40,000 ia 

of the CM. 

list. A prelenJeJ M 


la. Spain: — Alfoiizo VI.., 

1134. Spain :-GaroiaIV. , king 
Lollialre In liajy— cnp- 
rf Annlfi. 

liar. Fr.:-Lnuis vn.% 






r. Rome fciksn by FiedEiis 
3, Callstue III., midpnpe. 



THE world's 


• D 

EAaTEITU E^i.ii:b. 


Kelso, Meh-ose, md IIul; 

1 130, Sweden :—Baswal(tI. 
1133, ■■ Masnnsl. 

1135-— ^atephen^ 

'" DiividTkiigofScollanfi 

"S"of'u?e's?=^*ei!d!"°' ''■'"' 

kiogdou., under Alfonso J,M 
Sweden:— Suovchac 11. 


-Manuel ComawnM,^— 

IIU. Stephen macle ptieone 

Gdegra being reukea H^ tlie 
Turtei, gfveg rise w the 
secDnd ci-ueade. 

Civil mar: Siephen and 

1W7. Huaala:— the ritv of 
Moscow founded. '^ 


The Nonnans, under Rneet, 
atrl™ befnte Conslantinn- 

vadea England^"'""™ 


USD. Denmsifc:— Tlie OMEU 
^ )nfe|sd ji^ pualM 


11,a Gmet.!., reduce Apulia 



IIST. Denmark: Waldemarl. 

11B8- T/maaa a Bmiel inlto- 


1162. ^made ai-chblsbop nl 
Canterbury — opposea rtie 

Ilea. Sweam:- Oliarlea Vll. 

nf Clarendon — flies u 

llli™sStland ■ Willmin 

Suber'iiM^ ■" P"™™ 




OUESS. [Penod VI.— Tie Middle Ages.^ 







order of SoaUago. 

1174. Frederick's fiiurlhejpe 
dltioo iQIo Ilaly. 


ssSss '••'-■'• 

IIJS. /nmcenl III.. HQlipope, 

of Saiony, deposed, nnd 
Saxon J divided,' ' 

Tho Waldenaea spread OFOt thB valley of Pialiiionl They 
circulaied the Sacred Scrip lurta, Tbey wb™ the fore- 

ralCouncH, snd Mi-erely per SBHu.ed. 

ifc)*sM TToM, firal Ftenel. 
Joha TVlcs, Greek gramma- 


1183. The Pemxnf Oonstancs 



Rainulpk de Glsnvllle mabea 

1137. Pope Greyly VIII. 



MLig o^f°Leoir ""'^ " " 


1190. Third UruBade 
Frame, and Ricliard, of Eng 

1191, Pop* Cetohis III. 



pal bimkers of Lhe world, 
Onler of ihe Holy Trinily in- 

HUB, PopelmoccLum. 

1I9B. Richard ClBiir de T,n.„ 

n^' Philip, of SuBbio, find 
Olho, of Saxony, dispone Iho 

^rJId'h; tho "chibelLiea, 


iJSi()-i299.— Coiitinuod,] 



BWdLAND & S00rt.BD. 

The Would, riseivhets. 

1L70. Beeftet tBIams lo Ene- 
mago "Hhe Bhrine of BecHol. 

1171. EejplI-SALJDIS, Bill 

. ■— IleeHencfe Wa cloml- 

im. PoluncI :— Uiecislaus HI. 

IL75. PoHugal— a fief of vhe 
Holy See. 



Mosul "^ 



■■# — 

IIRB Portugal -Stncll ■ 1 
effoils against the cruaadeva 

Tha enp 

"" 1 1" la 

lein, nhKh'leei ID '™^ 



en ty T eict i 

(Cffliir ie'^e en- 

llSl, Kingdom at Cyprus 



11B3. Bichanl defeats Salafltn 
abandoned by hie aaaodatea, 

in Ihe batlls of Aso^sn ; bnt, 
concludes a mice of aius 

1193. Saladin dies. 




lillESS. [Periwl! 

VI.—T/is Middle Ages.- 


Pnoossss OK So^.i^Tv, «t^. 

Ecci.BS,»IiTI^AI., FRASCT,0..i.5i.Ny&SfAW, 


mo — Romo ini^liBSS of ihe wraki, aiiJ kings her vatsala 


The Uni-'er^'S^ "f B"'"?'^ 
ritfe HordMiin, historian. 

1200. Th-s piipe exeonimiinica (cs Phiiip of Ftanee. 

laa Tlio founh ctueade by llie Fi-eiieb, Gctmsos, a-j 

laai. The liiriiiisilian in Fran 

Knrinandy reuuileS 10 


Uiiiec-sily of Fin is (mjiiJed. 


Th« atiei of Franciscm fri 

ar= iuEliluteJ. 

of l>arl=. 


laiO Garmaijy ;—0 the placed 
unJe e ban of the pope. 

1012— rredorioltll.® 

Period of IharratSaioiB-s n 
rti^ers in Oermanr 

Thcd«[ru9 0f 1U.UI 


U16 S^ur hL^ an a 1 

iai6 Popoh™ u hi 

121s Oh e^tllolHiaeo/ 

I2ir. The flftil crusade bv 
Andrew 11., liing of Hun- 

iai7. Spall!'— Ferdinand, king 


Stephen Larvglon, a.dibishop 

The Scriplvres forbid- 
den la oil iajm™. 

Crusade against [he At 
iS25.Fr,:T,ou.5 IX. @ 

l^r'^r^n.. Crusada of 
Iha ainperar after being 01- 

lJS""g^;Sri-Ca..i|e. io. 



106(!-1299.— Continued. J 

K»STi:i.N E«,..1;b. 


Tub World, olsewlierB. 

Itichsnl, relumuie home 
in di=gu«e;«gg Bei 
insny, is inifneoaed Is 
ranBoniedbyhissubiecIa for 

ISO?. The kingdom laid uiidor 
1SU3. Jolinexcmuiannicita]. 
to olm i™o wTCdiaSor' 


1891, Henry's piwincc of 
Poilou Kued ly the king of 

lEK), Firslcxpeilillonofneniy 

PolanC ; ~ LeMO, (the 

3-,-....,.— .< 

conquer Uie Fiusaiaiie, 

aii'bilLiEs'lhliiurJmr Cllioa! 


1213, Russia ^-Jutjell. 

1314, Frederick cedes to Ken- 

the lim-desofGenghl™Khan. 
IS17. Norway :-HacoV. 

1535,, Two Greek kingcloms m 

Ihe naUonal litoerly. 

imialr^-Waroflho Lom- 
bard ciiieawJlh Frederick or 




«EEas. [iJeriDiZ 

VI.— The Middle %ts.- 


l-noniiEss o^SodliETV.elc. 


Franoe, GEKKJiSI & Spaih. 


again eicomntuniciued. 

Bflsliai writer in rAjme. 

■ cZliiiuT^wsieswnn 
[he emperor Frederic. 

Sect of the Flu^ellaMs. 

Vm. The Tlansealir 
league-lliediicf imv.t 

wkk,"nlbanSr' ""^ 
iai6. Henry of Tliuringia bb 
up for emperor bj ^le pope, 


First war fleet In Spitn al Ibe 
conouwtof Seville, 

Sl Edmund, of CnnlBrbury, 
Tlie'tJ-niM™;^ 0/ saiamaa- 

1254. PopeAlejsniierlV. 

IW. William, of Holland, 
1MB. Prance i^Loi^ia em 


king of CaHlle and Lewi. 

Tlie Jeivs evei7 whcri, 

Silk monafiBforji to i!Keo; 

F^,'sf_ Aa>im>, aetrolnger, 


Prlvale war anfl judicial com- 

1!S1. Pope Urban ly. 

alie popea claim the 

laei. Prance r-Buigundy lall 


^araameB/ in England. 

The nioimsfic ordsTB, hy Iheir 

minion of JlaVj, a^uiT^tacS 
of Naples. 

1365. Pope Clement IV.. 

1266. Heniy of Castile, a 

hia Ion- strugsle for the do 

1371. PcpeGi-egoryX. 

out on the eighlh and' laal 
crusaile, and dies before 
Tan.=^^n™ed6d bj- ' 





PMCiaESS. 97 



Ebgla«d & Smtland. 

1240. Rlchani, eul of O.m- 

lE4a Seoonfl expedition inio 
Frnnce-defealed and com- 

— UepvilBCB Haco, king 

ia^"Bgyp™-'^he Mama. 
1 u ti e a rule— »ke Danas- 
ciw and Aleppo. 

IS55, NiMt-TheodoreLasca- 

1996. Hulaku enlera Persia, 

tod™i!d pSta ');i^'"J'rd"t^o 




12B8. FaniDHS pwllamm fil 
1239, Feacewilh Francs. 

laOS. IlfliA-^reiSfnt 'naval 

1259, ciiina:— EuMai Khan 
buililt Pekio, and laakeo it 

1931, Norway;— leeland sub- 

Italy :-CharkB I. 


The Moil 


made prisonor al Lawes-ii 
toleased, and ^ns Ibe bat- 



d. l^te A„U«^1,. 

-— SIcplienV©— 



THE world's PROGUESS, [P 

I — Tie VdieA^ - 






Firal palsiu of nMHly granl- 
sd u> hia goldsinilli by Itie 
king of France. This was 
desfened as an altacli upon 
tha feudal tamos, and all 


ia.T —""•"•■■■• 

Uiiiyiu-siij of Lisljoii founded. 

Soger Ba^Gn, of Osfori, tlic 
moat learned man of tJie 
middle agea. 

I'toTenfal puel. 

1276. Popelnnocem V.,*mos. 

I2?7. Nicholas IB., enriching 
bis family at Ihs expense of 
Ihe church— he inlroduoes 

and rellgiQus liloraluie, and 

3» ..a.,,4 

makes his WD,'Iiherl, du^ 

liing of Anssoii. 




r,ASH!,!K UMPlliB. 


Thi! Worlc, el^owhere. 

ia72.-Ea«ard J.#- 


Latin ciiurclL. 

— -Vladialaa YI.#— 



he Greeks. 

1379. China :-Kublia Khan 
subilueG Ihe Bouihem king- 
dom, and bscomul [ha Oreal 

larg. Polmd ;-Le«o a W- 
1S?3. PotiueaJ :— Donnfa,® 

im Norway .-Eric U,W- 


iW Caniiliea 
Asia Minor. 


1^3, Eawurd hes a am bom 

12^ Denmait i-Parlbmeni 

Jolin Balliol coniemJ lof Uie 

ISSe, Denmark ;-BricVI,# 

1230. Last payment of liitate 

iseg. The Monjola invode 

Hungary and Pcland. 
imHungaiT: -Andrew nr, 


limg of Bohemia, itkoB Oi-a- 

I.'i'Ssr'p'o]^?""" "'"' " 

Howled byGoogIc 

i PROGRESS. [Pet-iod VL—7'A.e Middle A^<:5.~ 

John Holyasod, of Hiiglaiul i: 

Aintrlf di iiapOfIhe faLlle 

The Influence of I 

12«, Pope Boiiif 

J lae, SlrufSles wilh Fi 

.. •-----. ...-,-.- = . owTr%fp^p'aAome, 

5. Spain : — Ferdiu&nd H 

deposed b^ a Diet, 


1066-1299.— Contmucd.] 



ENOLiKQ & s™rL*«i., 

T,iB WOI.I.I., Bl=e«lii,™, 


Capture Of Acre Ijy the Ma- 

TlM MongMs ilfivo (he laai 
sulian oriconium fwm his 

The Genoese elilntn Ihe Irade 
nf tlisBlauliSea.andriaelo 

Oihinan invadee Nicnmeilia, 

Iwcen Engl anil aiid'Franco. 
—Philip gets paaaeasion of 

1296. Ball 1 defialed; sub. 
mlLs to Edward. 

1297. ScMInnd :— S i r W i 1 . 

olher chisfa head a rebollion 
against the EngUah. 

im ^lhe7 are deftaled at 
FalHirlt by king Edivaiii 1. 

lasa Huiigaryi-The pope 
aats up Charles Marlal, 
cmwn prince 01 Naples, as 

1S34. China :-Tfmut Khan. 


EMPIRE in B/lhinla, UQ- 



PERIOD VIL— Tftc Miiidle Ages.—VZ'Jd tc 







nntveraily it Lyons founded 
—Rapid advances in civiJi 
zalion,— ReylFal of aiicien 

pcogresB of Ubetiy. 
Iialtan poatty, lluurishes. 

'Sir s"'Suii 

IiaJr becomes Ihe cradle of 

Univergily at Coimlim. 

Sh.gkl S !m nt 

En. an anrt Ed- 
ward IL nnan o 


1303. Pope Boniface VIII. 

Pope Benedicl XI. 
Vacancy in ibe papal 
chair nearly eleven monrliH. 

*>,7'-'' "-"-"■■ 

13D3. Pope Cienienl V, 

S = atof ihepopes 

1311. General OeundlMVien- 

1316. Pope jL.I,n XXII. 

the 'i^nl'rtMoTEiiraps,"" 
enrich (he lieastiry oY 'Ac 

law. Fii-31 convocation of the 
^^^^Guienne reared wEng. 

German/:— The Swiss 
IDwns rise into iinporlsncs 
— oppreaaed by Ihe House ol 

ir^an^sf erred to Avig. 

im Piraeculionoftojewa 
ill Franc*. 

130a. Germany ;^—H e n r y 

"'' Gfr^M^l^iJoo in 
im'sp'alnl- Ferdinand IV, 

1311. LyoBB uaital lo France. 

1312. Spain ^-^Alfona., XI. 

r™,™n[Mi™ftr'l'iie crown* 
(HieLons) lleauooe^by 



15-1 years.— Olkman, to the Fell of Me Bmlerii Empire. 


EASTBan EufuvK. 

Enguamd & Scotland. 

The WoHin, clsowtiorc. 



Wm of tha Caialana, under 
i-al life, aud foilifleB lonns 

^^'eSafd pBCOvets Gui- 

of Arpad. 

— Wencealas UI. of Bo- 

im. —01(0 V„ of BaTa- 

1306 SciUJind'-Rnb^M 

Kliflo of Tatluty. 

jid»a«l ayifig'I'i^umsE hi 


Scot.:— Bruce Btt6n|(IT. 

BOBliimaeir by repealed ad- 

Tsalagoe and prudent con. 

ISO!-. Swiiisrland: 

1308. Hui^avy :— CMObert, ol 


HiB Eniehla of Si. Jobn of 
'^^la-^iim, BEtubliBhcd at 

1309. Poland united Inlo ona 
rooQRtchy uodar YtedMas 

1310. Hal/:— The Council of 
Ton oslaliliahcd a! Veoico. 


1313. llalyi-MalleoVisconU. 
L3M. Tunia made lributai7 to 


lorof Roroe.and ' 
the ollgarehy at Vonlci 



THE world's paOGltESS. [Period 

m.^Thji MiddU Ages.- - 

PnoaiiEss OP Society, etc. 







1101*3 of diabrshi leiigth"iSt( 
m Halo— and lbs method of 

Romance poeiry of Ihe middle 

Liatia, a monk, and aslrouo- 
met of Oxford, conairuca a 

Thomasjof Bradwardino, arch- 
bisbDp of Canwrtury. 

Oiollo, a ahephard boy, ihe 

been auuuratcly desctibed. 

LipJiMemSii^eS™, FlD- 
i™iina painter. 

First ion* at Genoa. 

Democracy at Ronje, uiidor 

B^lMid. ~ (T^SS-ee in. 
bJST and BoMiK, cele- 

J&riMo aheep mlroduced into 
Spabi, by Peler IV. of ira- 

SirJWm Ma-demilk's Tra- 
vels, Che im English booli 

13at. Corneal of the popes 

IKa Cr uaada pi-eathed againal 
Louis, who eets up Nioholas 

U31. Popi! ileiierticl XII. 

133g. Sifuggiea in Roma be- 

1343. Pope Olemenl VI. 
Ricnui. 11,9 lert of .he Tr.- 

1353. PapelnnocanlVI. 
I3M, Rienii killed.— Albeiiioi, 
papal dot^io^i!."* 

AuairL dSlad and^Siai 
mk. Gatinany: — Louie es- 
— appeals 10 a geooral conn- 

English agalnatFraiKe. 

overruQ by Edward, vitih 
liis son, the Black Princa.- 

IV., lung of Bohemia. 

Ed>^';dl!i"''whoS'' '" 

1365. Germany : — Proninlgtt- 
Iionof,he?=M=«e„U, " 


1360. FraQco :— John reeahia 
bis Uheity-oedcs mn^ at 
rllory lu England. 


B-l!l&3— l&i yeaf.'.—CoiilAaaed.] 

i raotiitEss. 106 


B*STB=« EM^.as. 

E«=^A«D & SCCTL.ND. 

Thb WontD, elaewhere. 


Diapiitee and civil war be 
Oiklian, Btiltan of tlio Tuita, 

^mura.1. 1., SoUan of (be 

ISa?, Peace between S oUand 
and England— J h« inde 

Enowkdled. ^" "^ 

iajgTscotl^ .^Daviii iT ~ 
1333. Edward jnvadea ScDt- 
lami.— Ballid ctovfned, but 

im'sa'iSs of Halidnn Hlil. 
— Balliol resiored-deee ho- 

I33B. SlruiEle for t)ie French 
crown,w¥ich lasia 120^ ears, 

^ SlHy^a-^?™%"ril B™6 
Engttsh navy, 

Ua-id, of Scotland, in- 

into two chamlien, lords 
epirilual and lemporal. 

1368!^Salninvadea France, 

I3sa RuEsiii:— The grand 
duchy of Wladiinir c^fer- 

1^ Vilv :^Invad8d^y'Loui3, 
emperoi' of Getmany. 

'",.r*-°~" "■ 

era,doga of Genoa. 
340. Denmark : — Waldemac 

1343. llBly : Commercial 

.«a.y between Venice and 
Ae^ultan of Egjpl and 

a" Ruoie. 

1360. Italy t— Naval war ba- 
iwean Venice and Genoa. 

tomana to Europe. 
1354. Italy :—Itienii killed— 
papal power leaiored. 

135fi, First wathetvfeeoHua- 



TJiB would's p 


riod rn.~ The Middle Ages.- 


Pdoshess op Sou.etv, Stt, 




Pelranh ami Boccacio. 
t^™ iM and mS^hff at 

object^of worship. 

(Ihe Wise.) 



I3GG. WatwiANayiito-lial- 

137(1. I'ope Grosoiy I^ 
and EngFand.'" ' 

1373. Gemii.ij:-W€n=e3- 
las, (kins of nohemia), 

— ^l^hie Man'ia'c). ° 


a!js(ep-(cs pl=.yei iH Fiance. 



"S?f" '""•""''"" 

138a, Battle of Boabecq-lhe 


Um^MTSity tf ITeidetberg 
PnHetart's Chronicles. 
John Van Ei/ck, iiiTeoled oil 
^Wj^'-^fouDder or U.8 

cffi'r'a Aalrokbe wtillen. 

1391. The Ensliah cle 


tEnipt'Lo"invade Bn|l«nd. 
13»^ —Charles seized wilb 


1394, Oennsnj :— The eniper 
or impiisoned hy the peop'^ 

H(«Ger -Robert 4^ 

(Coiml Palatine). ' 


7o?.n Coujfr, Enjlisli poet. 

Howled byGoogIc 

ri.)0-l i5S.--16i years. —Carttinae±] 

I p,il Fhrei,^. 

i. Ueaih of file 
■.— Bichatd II, ' 

37S. Icaly;-Sll™ierils Me- 
dici, gonfaltmiere of Flo- 

aughlsrof CliaiiesIV. ' 


. The Scoa, afflJBCed fiy 
anoa, invaiJe England, 


Taroerlane: lapahao lakon. 

138ti, BaKle°of"&nipadi:— 
1^7? DenjoS & Noiway ;— 

iiOT^iu^y'-wS' fills nnder 

in of llle VisconLl. 

1396, Tamarlana 

moiid, of Huagary, difeB-tGd 


NSi«ay inlo 


m. Henrj 

of Luiwslet, 
eof Liiicaa- 

Sweden, and 
a euigle' mo- 

of Iiiato Uy 

403. of'llie 

Percys, wlio are 
It Ihe baWfl q 



THE world's PROGKESS. [PeilM VIl.— TlicMi<UUcA^n.- 






Rodriga, qf Zaiinn-a, Spanish 

Univsrsily of Lslpsirt foand- 

1409. The councilof Piaa de- 
poses Gregory and Bena- 
Sia, and electa Alexander 
V.;— neither will yield, eo 
lliat there are Ihrse popes at 

1407. France: — Murifcr 01 
Louis. Duke of Oilesn?. 
Spain;-John 11., king 

Jerome, of Pragm. 

1410. Pope .Mm XXUl. 

of AiraEon, -Yufiel'lll., 
ting orStaiwda. 

the iMtliea'o'f Orleans and 

"lierniany: — Dealli of 

1411. IVglsmund, (king 


wis'' Prance : — Tii6 French 
defeated by Henry V., of 
England, at Agini^our!. 

1414. Co!^!Kil of CmstoMi. 


Ihe ccHslof Afvtai, Mt^t- 

or Fra"ue, blii-ni by the 
Councirot Gonslance. 
1417. PopeMarliiiV. 

1416. Spain :— Alfonzo V., ting 
of Arntgon and Sicily. 


George of PcuiAmJi, a,^in>i)n- 
matai Vienna. 

Waa. France :-Y)eal!'- 
les VI — Ilenrj; VI. pro. 

FrTM''and'En|laiid^'"^ "' 


Peter d'AiUij, llieologian. 


1429. Pops Cletneat VlIT, at 

1437. Otieans besieged by the 

^"harlee crowned at 
Ithsiine ; makes a vain at, 



Michael Walhgemulh Gei- 

amaicii Sf Bosle. 

viahs Italy, and is crowned 
emperor by Pope Eugenins. 


1439.' Peace of Arras, between 
France and Burgundy. 


lie's of'^Frencnhuith," 

1436, Fi-ance ^— KscoTery of 


i299-14 63 :— 154 years,— Con Mnm^d.] 



The WoBLn, elsewheie. 

Ta:S. ■' 

The emperor visiB Italy lo 
rttain help . agaiiisl the 
Turta-aubmtla lo the pope. 

„„-„.„, V A- 

1420. Treaty f Troyes.-Henry 
inavriea Catharine, daughter 

^SKli'r »'tte"'F«^ 


-Henry VI.#- 

im. The Duke of Bedloitl 

1439. The siege laiaei) by the 
Maid of Orleans. 

and huriil, 

Kirf"!'!! ule^E^glis^ p'^ 

Calali^ ""''' ^'^"^^ 
1436, War with Scotlanl 

1 sri "v"r.?"s 

HIS. Contjuoe. of Ceuta, a, 

1®, Bohemia >Deaihof John 
ZiBka, the Huisiie leader, 

Italy :-WaroriheDnkB 
of Milan agaiqat Florence, 

431. Italy :-Second war of 
1434. Poland ;-VladialasUL 

1417 Pomisal — Eipeliijon 
14»j Portugal -Alfonso V , 

Howled byGoogIc 


THE WOltLD's rj 

a<;KESS, [ 

°c)-iflr; F/7.— rfe Middle Agcs.- 

r«o«i,E.» 0,- S^.I,<T,, el=. 


l-n-«ai.,Gi!u«*NV<t SPAIN. 

14K, Gemanj- -House 

of Auairi'a: 


4 Id,,, 

^^. " - 

m dauphin, 

Lo A. be s— bm is 



iconarJo da Vinei, aculplor, 
ardiiiect, and paJnur— dis- 

44 m nt of Ihe 

ea rchers, the 




Pel. Peruglm, founder of UiB 

446 G m WarwM 


¥0 ijg prince, 


Library of ibe Viilican, fountl- 

1447. I'ope Niobolaa 



1448. Concoiilatofaschaffen- 

.^Inm Cliarlica, French poet 

Df So Oerinan ch 



Flourishing penod af Flm- 
dtrs' waV-All European 

IQ !!oi,re. 
1463. Aualria made an hcndl- 

Howled byGoogIc 

X299-1453.— 151 i/c^rs.— Coctinued,] the wor7.d'; 



THB WoflLC, etowhet^. 

InEUTi-ectLoo of ScandebotB— 
Balile of Vama— Viadlslft!, 

Conaliintine X!I. W^— 

(Palsologua,) Ihe lasi of [he 

Iteo^on-dieB suddenly . 

1450. lasarreclioR gf Jto* 
Oorfc-callinj himaelf Mot- 

IMO. lliingary; — VladiEliia 


1441, lalyi-PeaceofSfcttl- 
SicilTca. °^"'"''° 

1446. Tartary: — Klugh Beg, 

of OdcaiDurg.^ 

1450. Italy ^-Francesco Sfor- 

uawoed al DioDdieim.W 

iarees Ihe kingduni, 
145,1, Poland:— Confirmation 
of tlienationaniherlyinlhs 

Howled byGoogIc 









PhUip ds Cumins^, Frenoh 


im Spain:- 


Fcmat dies at Paris, i^kUher 



of Armeon, 
Willi l«»bel. 


PrinHngin EnsUmd-Cai^ 

I4S9. Warwick 


Primed aiaisatnol^. 
Hungaty :— Mathlaa paltonf- 

LatgB Itbniry al Ofen— 300 




mk^^ and noiidemlt, greal 
Peralm hialoriaoa. 




hia ttol 




ZadyJuliima Bamsrs, one al 
Uie earliesl female n-riiers 
of Englaoa. 



Hiaa SMein, psiolti. 
FniDctuno Gafurld, leacher in 



14S1. Potl, :- 
1484. Mtsl ™- 





OtMmn to the Edict of Nantes. 







The emperor bssiesed m his 



146S. The 
French rule 

1463. War of 
Venice wiili 

1464, Pietrode 


lio, hruiher 
de Sa, 

Vm,, pope. 


Ihe Turks, 
of Burgun 


14Ea Hungarf: Malhias 

Corrin,^ ,'aake» hia 

=Sr—"- '• '" 

.«.-„-,;„ if- 

1466. Peace of Thorn,- East 
PruaBia a lief of Poland.— 

1463, UsuQ Hasan, niaffler of 

14ra, — forma an alliance wilh 

dj against the Turks— con- 

14^ Kuoaia:— Ivan matrJes 
Sophia, niece of Ihe O^ek 

14™'',!S!'BkeBnffIhe Tartar 
yok^ and oap^ee NOV. 



ELLD's pkoghes 

{Pmoi vin.— 








burg,) puWisftee'a inap of 

Fitat ptioluii press at Copen- 

TAe eeamd voyaga of Oolum 
*«3.-A ^5b ^colony at 

Ths disooverl'ji qf John and 
Sebatlian Cabal. 

Third voyage of ColunOua. 

Mariliine stOerpriaes gienay 
eilended. '^ * / 

Amerip Veapnclua'a voyage 

tSaa, Comgio, painiera. 
St. Psto'a, and other masni. 

Rapliacl 1— Canoona woven 

Melaoctboo, andmliei 

It^er Asohaia, tutor of qneeii 

Hana S^H rounder of Ger- 

WielTursgalemoflhe Um- 
lierse-hia great wotlt, De 


1493. Perkin War- 

mehca*"" '" 
Warwick, laat 

join? 'he League 

and cbier Scots 

visits England.— 
Meeting of Henry 

doctrines opposed 



ItOl, Bi-etag. 

tlie ""crown 
bj the king's 






Counci* or 
Toms, to 

the Holy 

— invac^"" 

and^, laUan 

dat withThe 

So SniSion. 

1498. VsBco 





THE world's rnoGRESS, 






HS3. Mia:-&fandMLoi]i. 


-Maximilian !.#- 


14H3. Wars 

1493. Soanifili colony at Hia 

Hi* Esjpl, 





,.S ^?'''- , 

M99. Voyage of AiueKgoyea. 

pLiciUB.— Sou 111 Aniorioan 


™y^^ "> 





1S03. Peace 


Secrelary oi 



y Wi .5iii™t„, 




ISia Sellm I., 

#— (Ihe Great.) 

ajBinn Ve- 

ctuwned by Lhe pope. 
-jci™ ll,a League of Cani- 

-Jl^ .he empire io.«n 

Uuiraea and 

3 years old. 
16IIJ America: — Seulemenl 


expel" Ihe " 


at Darien. 

1511. America :-Culi a- con- 


IB^^Amertca: — Florida 


1613 ^jd""" 



L E 0° X . 

laHen by 

<de Hedici,) 




palron 0/ li- 

malufee do- 
uraed 10 Ibe 

-„:3-" " 

die. of Augsburg, 



leir. India:— Ibraliim Lodi, 

1617. America:— PiVai/H/Bii 
for immrling Negroes— 

IsS. Conairs in Algiere. 

ries AuvLe« eisler of Luuis — 

^^z Sidiir^ 

IKL Belgrade 

holds rule ia 


1S19. MEXICO conquered br 

Bohemia and Hungarj lo 

.U,e apaniarda, ii£ler Coi- 



Diel^ Won-H. 







[J-OT-iod F//7.— 







^?ndk, "'"^"^ •^''"^"^""J ■" 

jlf-iOato, Ilalion poel. 

d^Vraiod and 


J»er( i>i«-«-. 

132,, s„j„„j 

F.m wort on miliEary ai-chi- 


1659, Trfaly of 


jaraeno Inycnls ihs apiiuiiiis 

rtiop 01 ' Canter- 

wk«J for spinning fc 
RiibiMs, Frsiicli hiimoiiM, 


— The Lou- 





Ignutius Loyola faands the 

1B35 Bishop Fieher 
munlcaiei by Ihe 


IsiS — 


lS3a. Truce of 

IB»6. Acquiai- 
Um of Ml- 



ally of Geneva.' 



Atlempl 10 

1540. Ponu- 

Fins Snl used Hj ruharins 

HoWaiH, queeo ol England. 
John SJnax, SMUilah Rolot 





A commercid Irealy belwseo 
PorlugBl and Jayan. 


1642- - 

I'A-' Pourih 
Frond! Wat, 


1614'"j^u[ih Ami 

Ea.i of 




Uie Isle of Wish!. 





Somerael invades 

IS«. Henrj 


Scotond -defMls 

iho Scols al Pm- 



Orange trees knrailucad mio 









isai, Sweden :-Revok under 

Denmark and Norway: 

&K J 

H es 


'™ F 


6K. Tlnlon of Norwaj and 

1533. Conjueei of p„. 

IG34. Paul III,, 

nV^. The 

nus5ia :-lvan IV., (ihe 

1536. Cortsa discovers Califor- 


king of France. 

e, Md Ite 


IMl, Dsetruc- 



1 England 


1543. First aanding amy in 

M6. Somh America :-Mmea 
of Poiosi diBcoTswd. 

IM7. The, 
tpahan. "" 

W (AugUSEUS). 


[Period VIU. 







Scaligc; PhiiologiM. 

16«), The En^fisi 

Mtmiaigae, Fi-encli GssajisL 

Lady Jane Oiey, 

Caiholicism re. 

1664. CdTT 
Plillip II. <* 

la; and Lady Jaoe 


1557, The 

I55J. PoriQ 





in Europe. 





SIS^ "^ 



Schools. SM, fim al Co. 
Imbrs, in Poriugal. 





Only iwo cattiages tn Paris— 

begin mri^™' 

lioraes and llueis geoerally 







Id— ihe 




ed 10 L Ba 



1367 Duke 


luppoiBd by 
"FaaSaJ al 




Cn^,.™, Portuguese pOBl. 

166S, —Mary, queen 
fuse io England— 


defoaltl" a 
St Denjs 

rto^IW,, English mu- 

and is iniprieoned. 




S^Jrll^'""'' '" 

rl^gepu ' 


Turns— ^f^ 



THE world's 

Uie Ma! lea 
knishia, , 


f Venice wilh 

1270 P6a( 

« or Sledn.bel»e 

khan o 












Centantes, aulhor of Don 
Titian, oriii Paolo Feioiiisc, 

Sir Francis Urate's wyage 
rouad Ihe aortd. 

Sir Phiiip Ssdney'a Arcadia. 


Toiac^ lim hroogM lo Eu- 
Firsi newspaper In England. 

Tehs^opes invented by Jan- 

Tatso, Ilalian poet. 

The Oarracci, celebrated pain- 

£flp= de Pis«, dramas and 

K^er, n/cho Brake, amo- 

1583. Levant Com- 
pany ohanerad. 

isgi. Salei^h's co- 
lony in Vii-ginia. 

'^ai?'"' "'* 

1587. i'he Queen of 

1533, The Spanish 

»2r - " 

gioua conformity. 
ISn, Sir John Hau;- 

1W6.^ Cadiz taSa^ 
fleet bum^Erite 
SirRabert Cecil, 


1673, Massacre 
15?'l. —Hen- 


ligious wu. 

—Kb n It s 


1596. War with 

Si -"■ 

1593. Peace of 
Minisfry of 


1578. Pott. .-- 

faila upS.? 
SpaniaU .^ 

under Drake 
and Nonis, 







ss. 121 






Tub Would, elsewhere. 

the Potle ; 










"LA*r"""" "■■ 

kijiij or Boi 


S*met™' "'' ""' ""'"" 

tlie Drusca 

dulfo or Sa- 

in Syria. 

William, Frtnce 

1583. First 

ttaile wi* 


1584. North America: 
— First English colon; fnund- 
eH In Virginia, bj Sir W. 

1635. Peiaia acquires power 


wage war 

cn re«lie- 

OningB,madihol(ler, ' 
of Sir Philip Sidney." 



w.^_ ■" 

IBM. Urban 



1694 Th? ' 



1595. Moham- 





alan(8 al Huil- 

Clemen 1 
VIII., pops. 


ISSS.'Tbo Cutch firsl'i'ri India. 

1692. TfieRi- 


Sweden;— The reganlaa- 

azza^di San 

sumea indepondenl aulho- 

clioel; dc- 


at Veatce. 


-;,i— begin. . new 

Si^sniund lands in Swo 



SrJr?.S"* — 

Howled byGoogIc 


PERIOD IX.— IMiyearj.- 






LBOL E.,1-1 cf B^Eei: be- 


English Easl liidia Ooinpa- 
ny fouudsJ. 


Eiparaiion of Ei^Jsh wool 


Ionized hy <he 

Ooorersnce atFtamploD Court. 

New l-r^mlalionqf the Bi- 


Dr. GilGenaiscoTerstha pow- 
er of eleclricit;, and olcon- 
duccors and noD-conducIors 

1606. — Disooyery 

(Ut penaanenl 

160a — auebec 
160^ —Je u D 9 


Tetescopes mvenled by Goit- 

10 10. AfBOEd- 

1012. Enslisii faoloricB al 


Coffoo at Venice. 
Tobacco in Vitginia. 

16IB.-Tho Tobac- 
co pJanlinLrodu- 
ced inlo Virgi- 

IGW, MiniatryofVilHers, 
duhe or Ituctii^bain. 


Bacon's 7n*«(ii>f PMmc- 


J617. Sir i^-DMOis Bncon, 

aembly of.lhe 


fliOTCi/ diacovera UiB cij-cirfo- 

1618. Sir Wal^'eji Ra- 


rAermoTiiefs!'* Invenlod by 

leao.— Nwro 

voyage lo America- 

leis!' The king 


elares Sral ini- 

h« i9 beheaded on Lie 

biigo Jones, celebi-aled arohi- 

poned to Vitgi- 



Mattln Opilz, German poeL 


l6Et, -John Car- 


Peter Pavl Rubena, painler. 

le^New Am- 

l(?J5-Charleal ^ 

1624. Mintrtrj 

Idaasinger, Ibe drnmaliu. 

at = rd«m mt- 




Biiokluglioni, prime 

P'iVu'! " 


Ths Pariaai marblss brought 

1639. Woutor Van 

ISa?. Wav wiLb mnce, 

lEducS 'bj 

Gnuelles Sisal publialicd in 

'^ev^n s'eara'^"""" "^"^ 


ma. Peace niUi Ftance. 




1598-1718.— E^ici 0} Nantes to Ute death of C/iarks XII., ofSaiedm. 






Tilt! WC«LD, BlMWl,.,'.. 


1605. Leo SI., 


1603. Ldia^^Jdianslr, ^l- 

pallia o! 




^ ^j. 


fmS mB^ifiLi. cfi' 



Le .m 



DeDmai-lc— Calmst and Itis- 

La Tide. 


16ir. — Musla- 

manbir, c^. 



plia l.^~ 



1618.— Osman 

ambaa^ldM ftom™m« l! 

■" ^: 

of England. 



Iha oorlh. 

1618. TOf Sh^ «Lf°"~ 

S aln 



Folsod, sod 



1621, Dutch Weal India Com- 


7 ^ ^ 


of PoJaoa. 


S D ma 

a Th fa- 

IK3. MH«a 

frara tha PoriugueBe bj Iha 


" lii ?S 


help of Iha Eiieliah. 
1625. NeUisrlanas: — Heory 

Frailaric-Breda, laten by 


Sptnola. ^ 

cs S 

1527. Pewia :— Sliah Soofi L 



1623. Peaoa of Lnlicct, 



,„..... 0, ...„„„, 





^, . - g 


163a ir™ftn«-« eail 

lioned. ^ 

Smabrd, mini^or. 


CetfcD fim imporied iaio Eng- 

Laad, arclibishap of 

1632. Jtfoiyianii 

.wiib 8«ii- 



Scotlanil-is crowoed 


ces agaiiM 

IbBS Cormeelie-l 

KJ? ^d mI) 

agalnsi Siiain, 

..,„,, b, ,be 

Uiton of^ihB 

Edioaril Caie, llie great ju- 



1637, TrciWes tn Scoi. 

with Sweden 

Flourtahlng period of ,ft™a- 

land, t^auaad b^ cS'. 


lea's plan lo OTMlbrpw 

laga folded. 

chiireb, uDd eulorcB 

O=«ony by 

B™s™,d(, R<nJ>y4e.pain- 

lf^."v^?^ll, Soottad. 
1640. Pailiaraent iseera- 
bled~d)a,olved Willi- 

rlalisia, Sbo 


Th J^ -( r dd 11 

11^: Invasion 

Janaenlua, Dieiiop of Ypi'ee. 



1639. P^Vs* jn-M- 
rTca, at Cam- 


1«0. Turin ta- 
Frendf *° 


brW^, bj Sam, 
IMO^wiiola num. 


SUTO."^ " ''^' 

IMl. Straflbrd beheaded. 
—CoqtIsofSiar Cham- 
ber and High Oommis- 


and Cavidieys, boih ol 


gal , agaii^ 
Spain.— Ca- 
lalooia a,iu 

TOlh and 8Ub^ 


Thou be- ° 


EBi generals of llieaae. 

IM3. tWafaro- 
(fm ^ (lb co/o. 

al bsrlssi-ane— derEB.ted 



al Newlmry.-Suleiau 
league aii[l onvsaanl be- 

Euglislt |Mi-Jianmia" 

KoBcroi orer 
I ho Span, 

mnh. Of 



u r -uas a 

16^" w^ :— OionstieiE, 
Smdenako. -KBSsi™l™y 



THE world's 


[i^enurf JX- 

120 years.— 





Des CiUtes, French pliilom- 

tM&, BalUoDfNasety. 



jlio!/;i™j,p reach. 

I6i6. The king eeets re- 
fuge in Ihe Scolli^i 


d.lpvfi-ecked. ' 




Engraving IB fliejsof/jrfo, im. 

164S. Cambridge 

164a CromweU route Ihe 

1643, Fac.ioi.8 

pravei by Prince Uuperu 

platform silupl- 

Scotch, under .Uamil- 


parliamenl, which rs- 




1649. J, Winihn^ 

or' the king. 

Siege ol Pa. 




T-hS""""" '""^'^ 



1661. Giilsrs England— i? 


•'i;^^En=^r&/.i"- ^'"■ 


Hoi Land' ^o'LTe, 

l'enn"1englis'h' atl 




loSpuin. '" 

"jf„w e,""s=- 

well,— "Barobona'spur- 




iidi^"""''""'' ™"' 


Ahonl this time flourish M». 

1655. Wat Willi Spain.- 
J^aica conquei-ed by 

Kcre, is Fonlaine, Cor- 

died. ■ ""™ 

««Us. Mailamc ds Stvig. 



Felaaquei and Jliarfflo, Span 


iBh painlsre. 



i598-in8,] THE \ 






The World, BlseivhoiB. 

1S44. iDYBsion of 

Cnnilia, Ihe 

Swedes over Ibe Danisli 



IliB ptesonl dyiiasc; of IMag, 



feot by the 

IC.W. Uefeal and death of 






eiEns.-Oherloa X,. 1.. o( 

. Poland ;-W»ri.l[l.lfi:^. 

the Sweciffi, n-lw nv,„ai,i 

16^! De^orlt-— Nnvalvio 


!28 THE world's pkogilbss. 






1659 It 


»„ * 




'^A "a 

~"*" aii^ 


Logwuod lirst cul in Lha bay 

of lloiKlinm 

1663, CanEidainide 

U Hr »P " 

E In 

Salvalar Boan- landBCKce 

1663, iruiolij /«. 
dfan B(6iB ptiii. 

.«w ,J, 


leetNBwYo k 

Lo*^ " ■^^ 

"s ^ Lu 

Dcoupied by U 8 


CAoi« sJW inyenlBd by De 


isse^ i„ 


ades B 


Ai "'c 


Gobelin lopeslTg manufaclorj 

lSS7,-ce<]^d io 

lbS7 Peace of Breda,— 


Ihem by he 

Xew Y k ceded to 

1073, French 

peace oI'b eda 





ISJO, CendiMionof 



islry,— Secret traaly 



wiib France, 


SpSin, ™ 




1673. War Willi Holland 

1673, MioislryofDanby. 






Vhrislopher TO™, nrchllect, 

cnmmniicee St. Paul's. 

iwll/irii 7'f i»p(c, hlsiortan. 


sculplor, of Franco, 

chased by Masa- 

1678. The Popish Plot 












Peace ol 

S „ 



IGK The Tyrol utii- 
73 War A 

Peace wilh 

HI., g™ 
duUe ofTuj- 

3d st 

Id™ by 


lar^. Tiie sui- 


I67S, Peace of 
wilh Pofand, 

i-e91o™itornholin,Bnd Dnui- 

SweJen:— Charlea SI,^ 

Prussia ooknnwIedsBdio- 

of Harstial Jnlin 80- 

IG67. Uullanci ;-Peaca orilro- 
da: loss of New NeMior- 

IS^FAM emboeeiee from 
RiuEia Id France and Spain. 
Indlai-Riseof .hfl^ 


Den. ;-Wmiamiir.# 
1674, Poland i^olin SoOlot 





[Ferfci /Jt- 

-120 years.- 






Mu™um' fui- Naluraf Hiauiry 

Riae of Ibe oamea o 

France, the . 


Swe povfer 

J^iKd^'piimlBS, u Paris. 

Fenny post esmbliahed la Liui. 

1683, "Ilj8h™B6Ptot." 

Eiecuii™ or Lord 

"sli 'ncEJ- 

SfflncftM'K Imiieis in Jmimt. 

Ruaasl ffliU Algernon 

Jahn B,m^aii, "Pilgiim's 


-BmnDay ceded to 


Willi SiJain. 


HfbeHion of Mon- 

1689. U°Dlrcal .le- 
>lr»7«l b; lii8 

AiwylB, in SsoHand, 


Tefe^ar^is InventeJ. 
NOBton'B Fiindpia, publish- 

PL.e nalioDs. 

"TvKl'ga JcffriH. 


Ooun o( Hish Oom- 

»?. Bait, iitfly, fiom Fla- 



A^^ir'mt [bawd t 

0^1688."— ThB-.VIiigs 

BOd Tories unlm in ap- 



W^ii/e jxijifr Sist mMB to 

Port JlojaL No- 

plytna; lo iho Ptlpce nl 
Biigl^ Willi IsVS 

i-iSlI™' r..rn,™ phil.^ 


raen-Uie king OeeB lo 

ced by Sir WU- 

Ftan^ , , , . 


Alices alHerlLn. "' '^ 

[ittm Piiipps.— 

iaS9,— William III. 


daiiads, UMUC 

War will, Fran™ 

e<l by Wil- 

Bnli* «)■ EnMaMT °™' 



Telesmpes, JirsC reeling 
DBS uCmIe on iha pHndplS 


James IL Isnds in 
Ireland-beeieges Loa- 
1690. Wilflam tn Imland. 

Sa Ea^' 




Viclorj or 

8K NwHm 


Jo/«i £m S^ iuk 

ehin p has 

Wiio inB gland 

A "^ 


Boi-Irau F eto ao B 

im nakenbydie 

burg iei 


Bm, n ta 

"^ D ™aM BiS^ 

al Bieonkltt, 

1693, -al Na- 

ary egs 

B England in- 

Inaliimion m 
ihe order ol 
Si. Louu. 

M mnCB, Eog' 

Fr^ce and 


09 F 

6^1?" Peler tho 

Ibe aUiea. 


od king of ihB Ro- 
of AugBbun. 

Ilje?. Reiolu- 
lion in Con- 

IbS. Ohio la- 

a SB'ecIeii:-DieHifSloi!t 

tet,W Hifir 8i=ler, S 

-PItBi irsda 
India:— Height of Ih. 

ideil:— TTie Mng it 


eric IF.# 

Charles XU. of Sweden, 



THE would' 


[Pffliorf 7.S.- 

120 years.- 




GHEAT JtniTilH, 



and Denmaid """ 

Fenelm, Boaaucl, Musilioa, 
111 Fr«iM 

nadoHBi dsil in ihis 

AWionoi BsA' of England 

iroi Tizte Qjlleee 

ira'^WaroflheSpamah aq..i;6s,i<in. 

i;m l-tae Frsi]<,ti luiadc U<>lh<ii<I, uii 

1702. ^ce tnlro 

delBoulflera—nipubtBd by M a r-I - 

CMfr^y Kntlla; English 

dyced uuo Oaio 


lin. from Mada 

■ —Anna gf 170a.BeyokoI 

nm fliissmii ncH^papcr- 

1703. MeUiuea™oaly of iba Uugue- 

Si IV^i-huislilonil-d 

Msina ravag9d 

Si"" -' 

17M. Marlborough enlen Oefniany. 


^Grtialiat latteu bj 1 

Floukisliii)? period of Ftetich 

l7Uf. Treaty of union 

hU!ral«r%.-Qiwl 9pIendoi 

Boafon Ifcwi 

I.^l^.Jirai Amt 

BuUb 01 Rainilliea, ViUeroi da- 




IJO! Viowryof AlmaOM over Lhe Eng- 

yaded by ihe 


Tha fIralBnUed 


Parliamani ol 

IT"- Itiille^rnuleiinrdc, -Fisnch ile. 


""'"' 111 r c.pp'iiredbj 

jto/am' 1 

BnUsU iJdti iSiJiu OiBii- 


J^S a^,d ai^coYMod by 

■|,l" ■■ - 

1 1 ,, LudUivioosi. 



^ at O 


of Fi-rate and Spun— liaglftaii ao- 


The fiiQiDiis Ji<M " IT-rt,^™ 

17ia 'Queen 

Uudam 3 Biy, elm Mi noica anil Qi. 


hoiwosn Gormany and Franca. 


Kuis"!!} coinmeics in Auglrln , 


I71i FacMDS at couu- 

1714, Peaca of 



im's 4-1)1* ii! Pmis. 

— lot^rr^aip'oi*,;: 



ThsnionMlBrrofMift 'the 





cutiilea— EaLILas ol ^le- 

F«lifh "' "" 

EonL — p 

Eoia, niinu 


The aifee tree htoughl from 

EiiipeiDt, Enaiand, Oo Uand, nni 

Fi-aijOB againal ihe desi 

gns of SpoiiL 




d's mOGRE 

ss. 133 




1700 Russia- Peter IhaGrssl 




re™ "'' "'^ ^''"''"" 


170 1 1 


1701. PRUESliarecieiiinlou 




ofV =j ^p 

h union 

_„....,. ,.*- 


'Zvi" "^ 

ff> elory 

IJ03 AlimeJ 

anjs M 

by I F ^ 

\ "If 






.,».,_,..-.„.,, .ro,. 


Sp^sil PIM- 

cm^a'uie Uniepev, unil la 



iron Cliaiiai 

1109. ilBfBBloil E.1 Pulmwa. 


1710. Tresij of tli9 


Xll lak^ 

.sr*" ■"■""""•■ 

ilot;us batwQcn 


l-ulaml :— FiBdetic Aogue- 



•>.«h HiiJ=fa 




i.y U81- 

ladl B[|<I Qadan 

1716. Corinih laken by lie 
Tui-ka — the Bmperu juiiB 

trealy ol Anlwerp with Au* 

Sweden — Retntn of Chat- 




1718 Clarlea JCIL tnTa^B 

Bi^o^ h&ieric'lialt 
Sweden :-Ukioi Eleo- 

ma Quadvu. 


between ilie Purio, Vsnice 


and Mujiga 



PERIOD X.— 97 ycwrs.— 

,„...„ 8...„.,. 



Co((m Malier, " Magmilia," 
Mfl Imveaae Mhl&i; Hlsi. 

1719. First Philadellihia neivs- 


^"The SQUtk Sea Sdhome," 
1720, "Burning of ilw SjuJi 
Saa bubble." 

Inocnialion imrocluMd bj 

■ /nCj^OM Mallir, died. 

L72I, Sir ilolMvt Walpolo'9 



"i!„ss.r"'— '■ 

-".."„. „.*^ 

Beliving'3 Sirainliaoovereil. 

mines iaBiW. 

im I-fi.;s of Paido ivilr. 


1!29. The Cainlinna Eaparalcd. 

ra. I,.., „ S.v,ll., .. 

MEngland: ibtFraacm 

1733. SaraoDoh fouudccL 


FilBl LodgB of JVEwnnsores ia 

Ameriw, at Sos/m. 


Irish Htmi mimufiKiories, 
end EnglisU a(eci and cKteiy 

I., ffofifig-, Danlsli (Jiaim- 

Iiulima ipd SpanlmdB— ™- 

o^iure of Uie" iKlla pi- 



^ISlo.—D^al/i aj Charles XII. to BaiUc of WcderUo. 





Thb Wo«r,D, elsewhere. 


1719. Iialj:-Sldly invaded by ihe 
L7frCM or Bwclrholn..-Tranqumi.y 
"'"s^dco^-The'qnean abJicaiea iD 

- *^.„. 

Iffendi, am- 


Via Medici), 

[ysma Enskoi, 

im. :- . 


^- -silii 




-36 an Willi Anetria. 

p nUng preaa 

!v by 


„- *-,., 


-30 — C XU pupa. 

FiTiJiue, alia UiA- 

Auslri^ RussJa, 




compellBd by the ItqaBian aimy w elaot 


War of ilio Polish 


ca'pes IQ Konbmberg. . , ' 
1734. Turkey :— TutSs drfvaa ftnro Pai^ 


174l''Tii9 French, 

1737. luily:— Franoio, of Lotiaiiie, sraiul 

,A"'K ?5S1,.. w «... s^. 

who tiiliu and plunrieu DelbL 
173S. Turfcay :— Turti defealal neat 

174a lisly :'— Banedicl XIV., pops. 

TiirSeys-ThaTutka iiy'aife Pmhe 


isje and BIO£lio^ 


Saiona, and Ba.a- 


1 ^*'a -^ 

— aie repulsed by Aalivaf. 


defeated by Ihe 
allies al Beuln- 

Ihe Asi- 


-peace or Bilsrade. 







[Period X.—'^7 ■>JMI-S.- 


,..„...„ s....„.... 



Endigo fltai pruduced in Caro- 

JlfcsA«.n, eeclealaattcal bUu.- 

1745. Louiaburg and Capo 

Beajaaim Coleiiiaii, died. 

1740. English BEiil^iiicnt in 

ITBa, HMliimM balwaan Eog 

TSfi! Oa«"«o"una Fi.''airal>y 
isken by ihe P.encb, 

1767. Fori Wm, Henry cap- 

1768. ItepnlMorAbercromDia 

"'po'^Du^u^aie iailen. 

deLib'of Wolfe— a^eto^ 

ciaplura of Niagara, 
Ctown Polnl, and Tjcunile- 


763. Endort[ia"OidFtsnch 
1766. "'American Slamp Act " 

Frencraud Spuii^b''ne«a ia 
VH^ aiwch rsbtdHon— Char 

I7dli! hs i9 defeatiid a[ Gul- 
1747. Viclorlei OTer Ilia Trench 


Allan Sam. 

France, by ■! 



pianlad in 


Pruwia, ^ 
1737.' VioloryVf'piassoy, in 

%uniL in India,' [aken 

1762. WHt with Spain. 

Ti'inidail^ and Manilla. 
IT6B, Bengal ceded W the Eial 



Til], WO.ID'S 

mocmiss. 137 







agalii.'ii England 

w/rwhh Holland. 



damede Pompa 

Fmich off. Cane 


niily Cnmpacl. 
Siege and caplure 
of Beiloiale, by 

Spain ond JSng- 




ly gainers by the 

War "I™ AuS 

and PrasBia. 

anTBrjeleii. ' 

ITSa andalHindan, 

on oUr'Sio Pru» 
Biana—Dteodan re- 
al Torgan, by.Fre- 

17^ Peace 'of Hu- 

i,£'r.%h ,1. 


1741. Svfeflen :— War nilh RusBia. 

Kuasia :-BUzab«h,M 

1743. Turkey :— War with PerBia. 

174?.' Kil';:- Savoy accilpiea by Ftencli 

^11,1 ftiiailiaula, who like 

17(6,— FroncliandSpanlardadrifenlVoQi 

)?1G, Denmark :-I'refleris V.^ 

1747. NeihBrlBOdB:-Williara W. 
Persia :~Revolulion: Nadir. 

"^'^ D?^^ I-mSJ? of c™m°Bei^ 
Sweden:— House of Hotalein Gov 


roYoUegoillBl Genoa. 
17H. Tur&y :— Oihman HI 
17B0. FlfBl Prussian embaasy to ConHan- 

1^6. India.;— Galcmia taken by the Na- 

I7B7. Turkey:— iauKlapha in. 

1757. Prus-ii :-EuaBlan InvBMon. 

1758. — Tiotory of Londorf. 

1^ "p™^ '-Thl' Iting" §X:Ued at 

l7Ba — Baiilo of LieEnits.-BerlinlBtsn. 

by tbe Engliah. 

Kingdom of Myanre founded by 

1769, Husaa: Peter 111,® (^j 


1785. Italy :— Peier Leopold, grand duka 


Honied byGoogIc 




ss. [Peiwd X— 07 lyeai-j,— 


— "'>"-.'.•»■ 


U»i. American SQn.p 



FiTsl ipinning machim in England. 

'irydcf All in Sry- 




Brme disoovera Ihe Eoutcs of Uio Nila. 

Roval Academy of Ans tn EnglMd ; Joshua 



L76S.Dmi5i Bowie es- 


Wbilafleld diea at NowburypotL 

plures Eauachj. 


maHancock a. 

fsSo!" " ""*' ^"' 

pra^te iLa^Aufi.; 

'4!i "'""''^ " 


I7?4. Coiiiinenlal Cqq- 

1774. ThB B031O0 Poit 

The SpiNMiwaJENNT. inycmod by JfoJij-; 




K™' ^™'"'" °' 


■^tj'cK" ^™"" '^'"'"''' ""^ '^'^' 

April Ifl, Skirmlah at 


Jane iSlils of Ban- 

ked kiU 






Ger MoBh- 

Wontgpmery linea SI. Jolina acl 
Mnnlteal.aadlalLaal auBbec. 




Moullrie da 

" d'co l a k a - 

feau 'iha EngltBh al 
Tha Bi'llish army 

eoniB TookB, 



Km Kherss- 


lakes possession of 
Boirice in America. 





Kl£m.uQee ' 



Capturo of Ticoii 

iloioga by llio Briiish, 





Slioistry of Due il'Al^uiUrai. 

Madame du Barri rules the 
Mautapaa, prima nmiibtet. 

Prussia, dis. 

Und, 'cUvKl 
ins 11 he 

17ti?. SiJaint—.Tesuila expelled. 

India:— Hyder Alt leaiata Iha Eng- 

n^. War between Russia and the Ottoman 

"ing "CXiub's^'St'T^^iS'^GlS 
^^e aemen. abolishea the order of 

177r'ln'dia -Warren HaBllnga, firat British 
^"'Kla^ -lieiolt of the Oossaefc Pugat 

1776. Biiswrasarrendensllo Iho Persians, 
vieial, Imprlaooeil hj hie own' council. 



•nm WORLL 


[Pa-wd X.— 97 years.— 

......... o.«.c,..,... 



Hcrschel'a diacnyery of Che 
Georgium Sidus. 

Air balleon of Monlgolftor. 

Firai, flraarican y858sl in 

7™K;S™ ftr Oa deqf and 

SuHdnj'mAoofH esraWLghad Jo 
Slawgrapliy, by Taylor. 

11a. BalUe of Gerlitin 



Paul Jonea'a Victory ofT 
17B1. BalUeiifCoivpen5,g=in- 

178!, Trealy with Holland, by 
l7e!."l'EAt,'E OF VERSA 

tnowleOaod by Gmat Uii- 

1781. New-Yorh Chamber of 
Gominecoe rooniled. 

1795. John A rta m a , lai 
StaieaoiAmcrici to Orcai 

L71iS. Sbay'a in^uci-cciioo in 

PtiilaiMphia. ""^'^ '"" 

178i aniaa plaEiiai in Gaor- 

1791. Piral United States Bank, 

Aug, IB; BrindywLie, Sapl, 
1778. Capture of PondlchEcrJ, 

^'"wai withllydcrAliln 

riiwallia ai York- 
1781. Vicloty oirtlie D.>s?sf 



178,1. Pitt, the jonn;8r, 
Peace with Ti]ipoo Siib. 

17Sii.Pin'3 Sinking Fund. 

1^3. Tliekingiii.'uuie, -Beam 
of Charl<^ ^dwanl, ttie last 

Trial or Warren n/- 

l?9a. ProjiaionfMLiiogiadLia 





Scheme ID h<v^^ Eogland 

Lu jperause's vo^a^eiif disco- 

Financial difficulliea— New 

m^Necket, mlidslerfl^Mc; 

b^ns.— Baelile taken and 
r-»3d, July U-Lafaj- 

national euarda.— Mira 

Flisht of the king lo Varen- 
nca.— Lalayelle reaigna. 

War Willi Germany: — The 

^ Tbe'pJpe Yisiifl Ihe em- 
peror, lo i^aauade liim fr-a in 

IioaUliiieaaf aliisl Iha cburcli. 

1733. S/Xn relLSloue iMUses 

to control Ihe^Univeraiiiei 

1790.Leopold Il,#- 

scorch [:lainied by Btiiam. 

dcaineV* ™™""" °' 

1736. Ptussia—FrcdBrie Wii- 

1789. Ottoman Empire:— Se- 

1790, Tqacany :- — Fordinsnd 

1792. Sweden :—G iisiivus IV. 





[Pc; ;d^ A-.-1I7 J^Mrs.- 



U S ... 


'^r^lrd w 

1733. Pital coalidon ugainsE 
L'rmM, fliresiM by Ji..s- 
!«n,l— all Europe, oicapi 

Tm Plane 
liatp (a. 


-^sYrl ■ 

LJ95, Wat VFich Hollaiul. 

UK. WasliingUn resigns. 

17W.J^hn Adani^, 2d 


Mtt^ Park's irasela in 

WuBluiijtun ctlnllna!l^e[-ir^ 

Pran«— IiS rebel ufn — 

"^'wiiberforee's motion. 

Iron railivay? in England 
First bsnlr-fair m ./^ew- Ymk. 

Itanslsrrad lo WasliLigion, 

Tanra'n"." iVei^aSS! 


ISOLTlloraaB Jef/er- 
il has TG,CI0U inhabiTancs. 



phla, talicn by UiB TripoU- 



Ihe PlnUdelp" L'^""'' ^'™ 

laCl. Pill again premier. 


laW, N E 1 5 I, [lefenw thE 
off Tiafa"ear. 

Howled byGoogIc 







Tbe WoniB, elsewlicre. 



Keign of Terror. 
^.lotteCc.rday.^_ ^ 

Uu°be spier e guillotined. 


BoiiapBile'3 expediiion to 
Esm is defeated bj Nelson 
aiAbouHr, Aui;. 1. 

Jourdan.— lUium ofBojia. 

Battle of Marengo, 

Bonaparte elected pteBidenl of 
ibe Itsiian tepnwlo. 

War with England, 
Oant of Fiance, 

OiikeD'Enihien allot, 


Napoleon Protcclor of"tliB 

and J u t d a n —the allies 

braledpasaageDflbe Rhine, 
France. " ' ™ ^" 

— Moreau^B Ticlorj of 

ISM, Tlie empoTor of Ger- 
er^peror of AUSTRIA, 

land by'llus?!n a'nd PriiBsia,' 
ilayti inilepenJentre- 

of ilie kingdom. 
Batayian Republic :-Shi- 


warrow, defeaudnear 

!S(M). Arrond neutrality of the 

"°'pdpe Piiia VII, 
Ionian Republic founded. 

1801. Russia: Ateander,^ 

ISOa IiaJian Republic-Boo^ 
parte preEidenl, 

1803, India [-Great Mahtalta 

Howled byGoogIc 

[Peiiod X— 5)7 yems.— 

by Napoleon, to euperiiite 

vtissionsra for Fareign Mis 
aims, founded. 

^/sam earrif^ea In England. 
'^iaa uaed lor IJa;liLtng Lh 
sLreou of LondoD. 

Sloftfti !omp invBOifld by Si 

Iq Bnglanl: 
^.K'. (TOile, Bildai-djk, 

ad. ^ia Stael, 

WaLcherea expedlUriL. 

.1 GBOrae, Prince of Wiiles, 
[■rinco Kegeat, <iJia king lio- 

(Fii'aE check of Britiah Lord LirBtpDol, 

The " Uoilefl Slales," Coplain Dccatnc, caplurea tha 
aBh ftigalB Jaia, 

Baule of ihe Thamea: 
TecutUKeti killed. 
18M. Ciij or WaBlUnawn 

Canfljnna AJmotae 




Thb World, eleowhere. 

BaWo"of FileXna—P e ac o 

the Piuasion*. 

I8I)S. Hollai,d:-L™ia Napo- 
"pmiiTal war with Fi-aiioe 

Invacion of Ponu- 


mm. Spain:— Ferdinand VU. 

" Joseph Napiileon. 

Naples :-iylu™i. 

Denmark :— FredertoVL 

Ottoman Eaipito:-Mab- 

'•""■• — 


1609. Sweden :— Charles XIII. 


Napoleon marries Maria Lou- 

cept with Spain. 
Bitlfi ^ Ihe^empsror's eon; 

b; the BogS'al AlbuSa. 

1810 South AmBTicB — VC 
NCZUEL*. decloied inde- 


MoMowenlereaby Kapolenn's 
Btmj.-and bun rf by liie 

1312, Austria in alliance with 
Fianc* againsl Russia. 


by Nap le i -BURNING 

ea.i»: the Poles tleolarod a 
nation by Napoleon. 

ile'n, CTMlbe'aJliesy ^ ^ " 

I3ia Wat of German inde- 
'' Austria joins ths CoaU- 

i^s'rem^Car ^ ^'"' 

Ho^Te '"of" Bo'Brbon 

BnoapanerBlurna fi-otn Blbn. 

B A?Sb Op"w'a™RlS'^: 
Tiis allies enler Paris. 

Bonaparle d risen to the 
Rlune, loses his whole army. 

^"rntoo"o[^S^' •i' nd 
Norw^ as tw M gl 


THE world's 

TERIOD XI.-35 ./raj-s.- 



U»,xK„ ST^x... 

The family of RoHiBohilda 

Abolition of the slave trade by 
(he coii°ies9 of Visjms. 


chfLrlered for 20 years, capi- 
islS35,0UO,im ' ^ "^ 

'nS !"!!"■ 

make psacB and abollali 


fieJidni peaelrales the second 


13^T.To'd EiniDuih's eipe- 
ditiun lo Aisiei-s. 


Abolition Df predial /muTtige 
in Bavaria and Witlembeig, 



Fire! passage of I/ic Allantie 

iy sicam, b» the Savannah- 

ISK). Maine adniluecl. 




IKl. Monroe re-elected 

Mic90ui-i admiiied. 
Slavery comprooitEe. 


Huakisson'g/ree (radssysleni 
Firal SBana/bitforH fn Egypt, 



.En'e CBnai opened. 

' E^iS'caaJJ^ieH. 
Protective larff. 

GmetBl financial panic in 
Vast incteMe of p«-™i;cal 

'^Jden^ *■"""'' "" 



Alexandei' Vojla diee, aiaco. 

iSar. Treaty of London in 
lera, Wellin^Lon minisUr'- 


i world's rEOGRESS. 



.„.w.„., .,.„„„. 

1316. PoitugaJ ^oboVI.^ 

TIni™^of Naples and 

1317?' Republic of the lontaa 

Be ar 


ce joina Die " Hoiji 


-^ J. : 
6 ' V" "- 


Napoicon ai SI. JU- 

Iffii: Congreaa of mooavcns 

1351. Hayu;-Boyer, em- 


'^ South America ;-PGRU 

— AlsKan^ei' Ypatlantt del 

and GUATEMALA inds- 

I^,''bRAZII, fleelarefl inde. 
'""Mexico :-Ilurbide, em- 
''""Gccok RoYOln- 
^^ DK^Wlidn or lodepen. 

fttoflaci-e of Solo. 

laken by Ihe Turks. 

anii the Pone raspecling 
'™rMCe;— Banle of 
I'oiiugal :-Maria de GIo- 


Don Misu'l ™'^n^ ^^ 





[Psriod AV.-35 j/ear.i.- 











Livenpa mu 

i)e ToegueviJ. 

GaU, ^ 



!S "msloiij of 

shed in Ihc 

n, of London, 
lOOJWO 10 ibe 

flss m^' di^ 

1331 Tbekingof Ihe Nothar 
Norlb L jstern Boundai;, be 

itou'roval fV 'ills D=p.i 
siles of Ibe Uniced Slaus 

bJtheSBoXl™ redioiiDg 
the DepoatWB. 

UniledSiales beinz paid, Ihi 
surplus revenue t/ilivided 
among Lbe Slates. 

TroaV wilh Morocco. 

Texas acknowledged, 

Martin Van Buren 

1E9. The Wellington minis- 
try.— DlBluthances in :«■ 

l'!39. Catholic emancipation. 

maicuiai with China, ' 

sol's S^orm BiHinuo- 

Cholera flrsl appears in 

lands makes his award on Ihe 
is£! lleform Diirp™d. 

Premier, — Diaeultioa i: 
1837, — Vi = loiii.#^ 


THE world's 







nch fled sent to ilgiars. 




VENEZUELA imiepEndenl, GooeteX 




isao. BELGIUM i-evolis fif-in HolloniJ, and 
19 derlaiofl imlependenl in Auguau 

a ! 11 y ,' VJiM NuvemUar 19. 

EruU:— Rer(i1uUon;DoiiPBdr°IL^ 

1831. Bf.|^um:-L8opol<l I.® 

TheThJies yielorioua al Ptayo. 

tjofMarsliai Sou It, 
of Lnfiiyctle. 


l833.*Ths kingdom of GBEEC3S fonndod: 


" MeScii ;-^inta Anna, Preaiilcijl. 
1834. QuBdmple alliance-England, France, 

Spain, and Portugal, against Dun Miguel 

a£l Don Carlos. 
1836. The Plague m Egypt. 



. Napol=™ at 


1836. Spain :— The Quean Ilegenl aJopie Die 

Tewa;-B9ltle of Sea Jacinto, Santa 
Aijna taken priaoner. 





Period XL— 36 years.- 



TJ^tt™ Bt.™«. 



18^. The Biiiloring Espedl- 

ma. OialfrhanMa or, the 

18S9 The British take pOEse* 

'■liisputed icrriiovy," be- 
tween Maine and New- 

Sallys, inMaj!" 


ImproraniEi'l or Ui6 condidon 
of the Jbwb to BuKia. 

.^^niaroifOCOiKdisudiECO vcral by the United SlaleE 

ISiO. The uniform ream 
Fiisl«ge ayeiem eala-jlishoJ 

Esplorins Espediinm. 


'=■"'- "■"-"""■■■ 

- Saie Cobourg. 

PeKKUliun of Ihe Jews at 

WarwilhOhiio. w«,. 


force^^ opiumlrade. ^^^^ 

TTOflristo^'s J^ifrfrfc Tefe. 

Austria and Turliey. Lon) 

grapit palEDled in England, 


ended : Sl>/Kia,000 i-eceiyod 

John Tyler, ™c 


Congress meets in extra 

™'s™i-T?ituty AM ra- 

"'"BMkmpl^Act passed, 

A«g"« la- 

The Oroton Agiieduei in New- 

in Rbodalslarid."™"™ ™ 

Troaly of peace wilh 


"^«/.-.™i;i™' n-uachedtn 


Ihe United Suile™ 

tence reversed by the House 

Yotk.'^ '™' "'"' '" '" 

of liords. 


A great defaolinn from Ilie Ro- 

13% Ti-ealT with China. 

miah church, niider the 

James K Polk, 

pteacliing of i(on^e, in Ger- 

11th FKuidenl. 

io™ «M«'. TWsmpe, 

l346.War Wilh Mail- 

Oul/oPeretein use. 


5\lnMi. March 25. 


The P(ani( Nenuaie, pre 
dieted by La Veraer.'dLs 

Mays. ^^^^ 

coyeren 'bj- l>r. QalLe, o 

Palma, MajS. 

Berlin, Sspt ^ 




D'S rEOGRBSS, 151« 




The Would, clacwkere. 


Talleyrand dl«. 


IB39, Peace between France and MeitcD. 

land, Julj 3. 

Chum:-The OpiuDi trade forUdden. 

EH 6^" 

Turkey at war Willi Egvol. 

India ^-Ghuzne takeabylLe BriUell. 


Pi-iMe Lnuis Mapolson at- 

Uie cossD of France, neai 
BoolpgnBT-is laken niiamiEr, 
■nd imprisoned at Sam. 

imiX China:— Canton blockaded by the Eng- 
lish, to compel the i-enewal of the opium 

Guiiint, miaialer for fo- 
rel^n aflatcs. 


The reniafna of N:ipnleon 
reinaveit fiom gl. Helena, 
and deposited willi greai 

paid in one weelt, as a ranagm for llie city. 



fmm'^lSTirri^S?! *'"''"" 

1S43. Temporary surrender of the Sandwtch 
laliralB to Oreal Urilain, compeLLod by Lord 


poLnied R^enl, in llie eveni 

Greece:— King OUio cpmpslled lo ae- 

of lli9 king's death. 

The SodeLy lelande eeizsd by a. French 

'''mi«.m^x.'""^^^ '"""' 

IS4I>. Poland :— A powerful, but unBucceraful 

Howled byGoogIc 





{Period X/.— 3a years.— 





131B. The Oregon Trea 

" ^New Tariff bill pasgad 

"""Balrte-"' =- 


IW. BaW= 

Aptfl 18. 


d e r B , Sepl. 14, 
IS13, Troaiy of Peaos with 

unilary, signed al Londun, 

1848. Civil Bat m Ireland. 

Thii culli 



lion, Hay 86. '' 

ea. iha UniUid Sulsa an^ 
Great Urilaiii. 


1 Bridge at Nia- 


pEiidEd in Iteldnil, July H5. 

"itoJmd. '"""^ ™ ^™'' 

Smith O'Brien arrests] 
and condamnad, Aug. li. 





S l-LIOCItESS. 153" 



....... *e. 

THE W0..0, elsewhere. 


RBfurra Boriqucls in Slras- 

1847. PruaalB :-Ftederic William Etaola a 


HayU i-Soulouque, Presldeni, Match 3. 

Michelel'a Leolurw InlertupL 

Abfl-el'Kailer captured, Dec. 

Defaale m Ihe Refonii Bill, 

IMS. SMdlnia :- Charles Albert 'proleaM 

Feb. 8. 

BBaioal Ihe 

''^cf^.T^r^x '"'^' 

"■'¥apiel^;?le™dliDnai Palermo, Jan, !2. 

Sardinia :-Cliarlea Albeit ptoclaimBa 



".■i'ss--"— "• 

Lelif M™"i-,?e khig^lrftcaws iTavSt of 

Provi^Qnid goverometil eaia. 

(laximilian 11. W~ M»rch 22. 

pSs^lerm Feb'. M. ' 

enleis Milan, March 33. 

^^^,Dan™rt:-Revolt of Sehleswig-Hol. 

aembiy, Hay 4. 

BolIandrecelTesacuneuLulion. April 17. 

flleody Insuvreciloo In Paris, 

Poland ;—Uni!ucteserul tevoli U Cta- 


""Slel^l^^he Bake of Genoa elected 
king, July W, 

India :~Inearrection In Ceylm, Auc. 16. 

c.,*-.. -» -.»., 

Paris in a aste of siege. 

'^Noi'.t"'-"'™"™ =*'P'*^^ 


India:-The Briliah make an i>n=iic- 



ceaaful aiiempt <m Moullan. 

Sicily i—bewina bambai-ded sod taken. 

naparte, elected Pre- 
Bjdtiil, Deo. lO. 



Hun_gitry;-KcBBUth appointed Pro- 
aidenlolllie Defence Cummiiiee, and Dicla- 




miise of Vi- 


UiB Impem 



[Peiivd XI, — 35 ysars.- 

w pfanet dlscovereil by 
aparis, al Naples. 

Magnsdc Telegraph liriea ]u 
Tuiiilar Bridge \a Anslesu, 
elic CUck, mvsnul by 

a. nrouiun. Li India, labui, 

The Suluii of Turkey, grai 
□eiinisl^a to the Jewe 

A UntTBratly fonndled al SyO- 
ney, NewSouihWale- 

de^, Slay.™'"^ 

Death of Gen. Tujior 


i world's mOGREBS. 

£ i Q j ' ff proclamarton, 

ha PopE'a prime- 
BBr Ramnugsur, 

Ron.8 i-ltepablic pioclDinwa, V«h. 9. 

Sicily :-A am OonnUluuon ooncedea 


"Sga?s5i».,„— « 

lUiJBKky, MMCh 21-again IMBily d=fi.™d 


at Norarra, March 38, he abAlcatEs ibe 
Uirane in favnr of hia aon, 

Vktar Emanuel.^ 

India :-Th8 P,inia«b tSSbxed Ki the 
Brillali Empire, March 89. 

lialy :— Idsurrscll™ in Geiwa, April 1. 

uffiia comes 

10 ihe aid of Austria againsl Hungary, April 

Borne :-The French army arriTes en- 

tier xhe walls of Homo, April ». 

Uynaii lakes 

command of thfl Auslrian ^^} In Hungwj, 

Borne surrendera lo Iha French, JulJ a 

Roms :-TUe geveri'ment placed in Ihe 

Komilh escapes Inm Turkey. 

1350, Home >-TliB Pope relumB, April. 

Greece dlnpules Ihe claiiTiB of Gi'eal 
Britain for leraes of British subjecia: ia 

China :— The Emperor Tau-Kwang, 




ABBEYS AND MONASTERIES, were flrst founded in the tliivd century, near 
thi) close of which the sieter of St. Anthony is etud to have retired to one. 
An abbey was fouftded by St. Anthony at Phaim, in Upper Egypt, a. d. 305. 
The fliat founded in Finance was at Poitiers, in 360. The first m Ireland waa 
in the fifth eentary; see Clogher, Blphin, Down. The first in ScoUand was 
in the sixth century : see Mss. And the first in Britain was In 660 : see 
Baii^oT. die abbey of Mount Caseino, near Naples, foijuded by St. Benet 
in 529, waa esteemed the richest in the world, and famished many thousands 
of salnta to the churct. 110 monasteries and prioriea were suppressed in 
England by order in couneil, 2 Henry V. 1414. — Sslmim. The rcTenues of 
103 abbeys which were dissolved at Uie Reformation amounted to £2,653,000. 
These foundations were totally suppressed throughout file realm, 81 Hemy 
Vni. 1539 See Maaasterk-^ 

ABDICATION op KINGS They are numerous in ancient history Those m 

later times of most remaikable eliaiaoter and gieatest political importanee, 

and to wluolire&iencemaymoie fiLLiiLiiith bi nudi, uc the following — 

of Henrj IV 01 QorxnoDy, H ' | i i n fiMir ouhe Bo 

OfBlephailL ofHiingary,GumoideiI ■• Spam Mayi, 

)f AaEttofSimirLy, 

Of LMtusV or Poland, 
Of TJIadiilnui m olPdanil, 


Of Charles ol ^^pl-'. 

J I IIjdJ, Ocl 8,1B40 

1 , I ' I " ''■'™^ Oci^" 1810 

empemr of Aualna onij, Aug II, 1S« Dee 2, IMS 

Of CSMlea IV" ol Spam, in ft'or ofiila Of ChailoB Alben^ ting of Sawllnia, 

mn, Miiichie,ia(Bl Aug 1849 

(iBELAIiD AND HELOISE. Tlieir amour, so celebrated for its passion and 
misfortunes, commenced at I'aris, a. e. 1118, when HoloKBe (a canon's daugh- 
ter) was under 17 years of age. Abelard, after suffering an ignordhiious in- 
jury, became a monk of the abbey of St. Denis, and died at St. Marcel, of 
grief wMoh never left his heart, in 1142. Helolae begged his body, and had 


146 THE world's progress. [aca 

it baried io tl\e Paraclete, of wMet she wbb abliess, with the view of reposing 
in death bj liis side. She was llimons for her Latin letters, as well as Iqye, 
and died in 116S. Tlio ashes of both were carried to the Museum of French 
Monnroente in 1800; and the museum haying been subsequently broken np,, 
they were finally remoyed to tha bniying-ground of Pfere La Chaise, in 1617. 
ABORIGINES, tha original inhabitants of IWy: or, as others haye it, the nation' 
conducted by Saturn into Lateum, founded by janus, 1460 b. c.—Umv. Ris- 
iorij. Their posterity was called Latiiii, IKtm Latjnus, one of their kings ; 
and Rome was bnilt in their country. They wore called Aborigines, being 
aisgne erigine, the primitive planters here after the flood.— Si. Jerome. Tlio 
word signifies leiihaat origm, or whose ori^tt, is noi hiimm, and is generally 
applied to an; oiiginal inhabitanla. 
ABOUKIE, the ancient Oanopus, the point of debarkation of the British eipa- 
dition to Egypt under general Abercromby. Aboukir sm'rendered to the 
British, after an obstinate and sanguinaryconflictwilh the French, March 18, 
1801. The bay is femous Ibr the defeat of the French fleet by Nelson, .Au- 
gust 1, 1T98. See Nik. 

ABRAHAM, Ere* OP. Used by Eusebiug; it began October 1, 2016 b. o. To, 
rednce this era to the Christian, subtract 2016 years and three months. 

ABSTINENCE. St. Anthony Jived to tha age of 105, on twelve ounces of bread, 
and water. James tha Hermit lived in the same maitnev to the age of 104. 
St. Epiphaniua Hveii thus to 115. Simeon, the Stylite, to 112 ; and Kenti- 
gem, commonly called St. Mungo, lived by similar means to 185 yeaiB of 
age.—SpaUisiiigad. A man may live seven, or even oleyen, days ivithout 
meat or drink.— PKny Hist. Nat. lib. ii. Dranociltns subsisted flir forty days 
by smelling honey and hot broad, 323 B. o. — Dias. Laert. A woman of Nor 
mandy lived for 18 years vrithout food.— PefcTiS as AHami. Gilbert Jackso 
of C arse-grange, Scotland, lived three years without sustenance of any kin , 
1719. A religious finatie, who determined upon ihsUng fljrl^y days, died on 
the sixteenth, 1769.-— PAiUips. A country girl, of Osnabmck, abstained four 
years from aE fbod and drink, 1790.- — HiManffs PracUad Jtmraal. Ann 
Moora, the fasting woman of Tvitbury, Stafordahire, supposed to have been 
an impostor, was said to have lived twenty months without food, Nov. 1808. 
At Newry, in Ireland, a man named Covanagh was reported to have lived 
two years without meat or drink ; Aug. 1840 ; his imposture was afterwards 
discovered in Enaland, where he was imprisoned as a cheat, Nov. 1841. Se 
instances in BaUer's EleiMnfis Phjsiologia ; Comoro; Pricker's Sarg^' 
IMrary, &c. ; and in this volume, see Fasting. 

ABSTINENT8, The abstinents were a sect that wholly abstained ftom wine, 
flesh, and marriage ; and were a community of bai'mless and mild ascetics 
They appeared in France and Spain in the third century; and soma authc 
rities mention such a sect as having been numerous elsewhere in a. d. 170.— 

ABYSSINIAN ERA. This era is reckoned from the period of the Creation, 
whicli they place in the 5493d year before our era, on the 23th August, old 
style ; and their dates consequently exceed ours by 6401 years and 126 dkys. 
To reduce Abyssinian time to the Julian year, subtract 5132 years and 
125 days, 

iVCADEMTES, or sodotias of learned man to promote literature, seiences, and 
the arts, are of early date. Academia was a shady grove without tha walla 
of Athens (bequeathed to Hocademiia for gymnastic eserciscsj, where Plato 
fii-st taught philosophy, and his followers tooli the title of Academics 378 
B. c. — SlarU^. Ptolemy Soter Is said to liave founded an academy at Alex- 
andria, about 814 b. c. Theodo^us the Younger and C - ' — ' 



Ital h b D celebrated ibr its academies; and Jarckiua 

h h re lie city of Milan. The flret philosophical 

w IS et by P6rB Mersenne, in 1186. Academies 

to r g d B yle and Hobbes ; and the Rojal Society 

TO 660 The foUoivicg ai* among tin principw 

luM: BllgliBh, IJfiS. 
ipaio,liQsS,ln3l Militorj.lTSl. 
ilwidioln ^ Science, 17il belki-Latrea, 

176B Aencultbre, IJBl 
roulon, M liiaij 16ffi 
Pn ■\n Sciences, 1759 Pine Arid, 1778 

EInT Til m aiiunscriiitfi aie wi tten without accents and 

li n a y paia u w rds nor was it until after the ninth century 

h b pyi e p cob bctVi'een the worda MichaeliB after 

tatem b h insert accents to Euthalma hiahop of SuloB in 

an was follow ed up and improved upon by 

B languages. 

ACHAIA. This conntry was governed by a race of kings, but even theirnames 
are all forgotten. The capital, Achaift, was founded by Acbaua. tie son of 
XutliuH, 1080 B. c. The kbgdom was united with Sicyon or subject to the 
^tolians until about 281 b. o. ITie Acheei wei'e descendants of Achsens, 
and origimdly inhabited the neighborhood of Argoa ; but when the Hern^ 
Lhd'B (fiove them thence, they retired among fJie lonians, expelled the na- 
(ivc! ind seized their thirteen cities, viz. Peleni, .ffigira, .^geum, Bura, Tri- 
t T v*\\\Ta EliypiB, Ceraunia, Olenos, Helioe. Patiffi, Dymie, and Pharaa. 
M wilh the RomanB, . B. e, 201 

. , . — ^ibi9,inana- 

, IM 

I liliHii 




Sparra juinod to Ihe leosaG, 
llie AchceiinB eremia HeeBen 

Tfie lUimans eurer AcJmia, 



The constjtation of the Unifea States of America bears some analogy fo that 
of the Achieac leaguo ; and the Swiss cantons also had a great reBemblanc, 
to it in their conffedeiacy, 

ACOtlSTICS. The doctrine of the different BOimils of Tibvating strings, and 
the oommunieation of sounda to the ear by the vibration of the atmosphere, 
■was probably first explained by Pythagoras, abont 5iX) n. c. Mentioned by 
Aristotle, 330 b. 6. The apealdiw-trumpet ie said to have been nsed by 
Alesander the Great, 335 b. c. The discoveries of Galileo were made about 
i.p. 1600. The Telocity of sound was inveatigafed by Newton beibre 1700. 
GWileo'B theorem, of the harmonic curve wm demonstrated by Dr. Brook 
Taylor, in, 1714 ; and fiirther perfected by D'Alembert, Euler, Bernoulli, toA 
La Grange, at various periods of the eig-hteenth century- See Smnd. 

ACRE, St, Je*.n d'. Taken by Richard L and other crusaders in 1192, after a 
siege of two years, with the loss of 8 archbishops, 12 bishops, 40 earis, 50r 
barons, and 300 000 soldiers. Relalteu by the Saracens, when 50,000 Chris- 
tians perished, 1291. This capture was rendered memorable by the nLurder 
of the nuns, who had mangled their f^oes to repress the lust of the Infidels. 
Acre was attacked by Bonaparte in July 1798 ; and was relieved by Sir Syd- 
ney Smith, who gallantly resisted twelve attempts duiing- the memorah' 
siege by the French, between March 6 and May 27, 1799, when, baffled by 
the British squadron on the water and the Turks on shore, Bonaparte relin- 
quished hia object and retreated. St. Jean d'Acre is a pachahc subject to 
the Porte ; seized nnon by Ibrahim Pacha, who had revolted, Jnly 2, 1882. 
It became a point of the Syrian war in 1840, Stormed by the British €eei 
nndor Sir Robert Stopford, and taken after a bombardment of a few honra, 
the Egyptians losing upwards of 2,000 in killed and wounded, and 8,00f 
prisoners, while the British had but 12 killed and 42 wounded, Nov, 3, 18' 
See Syria and Tttrftey. 

ACROPOLIS OF ATHENS. The citadel of Athens was btiilt on a rock, am. 
accessible only on one side : Minerva had a temple at the bottom.— /"iMts. i 
Attic. The roof of this vast pile, which had stood 2,000 years, was destroye 
in the Venetian aege, a.d. 1687. — Aspin. The Acropolis of Mycente ws. 
marked by teiTScea, and defimded by ponderous walls, on which were higl 
towers, each au the distance of fifty feet. — E!v/n^ides. 

A CTIUM, Battle op, between the fleets of Octavianus Ctesar on the one sid . 
and of Marc Antony and Cleopatra on the other, and which decided the & 
of Antony, 800 of his galleys going over to Cssar; fought Sept. 2, 81 
This battle made Angfistus (£e title afterwards confen'Sd by the senat 
upon Ciesar) master of the world, and the commencement of the Roma' 
empire is commonly dated from this year. In honor of his victory, the eon 
queror built the city of Nloopolis, and instituted the Aelian games.^Bto, 

ACTRESSES. Women in the drama appear to have been unknown to the ar 
cienfs ; men or eunucha performing the fbmale pai'ti. Charles IL is Siud t 
have drat encouraged the public appearance of women on the stage in Enp 
land, in 1662 ; but the queon of James I. had previously performed in a t\> 
atve at conrt— 2Tierti. Biog. 

ACTS OP PARLIAMENT. The first promulgated, 16 John, 121B. See Pai 
liameid. For a great period of years the number of acta passed has bee 
annually large, although varying considerably in every session. Betwee 
the 4th and 10th of George JV. 1126 acts were wholly repealed, and 4A 
repealed in part, chiefly arising out of the consolidation of the lawa by M 
Peel (afterwards Sir Robert) ; of these acts, 1844 related to the kingdom . 
large and 225 to Ii'eland solely. 
ADAMITES, a sect that imitated Adam's nakedness befbre the iiill, aros^ . 



or I 


« naked in their places of woraUp, a^erUng that 
, lere would have been no marriages. Their chief 
was named Pi'odicus ; tliey deified the elements, rejected prayer, and said it 
was not necessary to confess Cluist. — Eusebisis. TIlis sect, with an addition 
of many blasphemies, and teadiing from the test " increase and multiply," 
was i-enewed at Antwerp in the thirteenth century, under a chief named 
Tandeme, who, being followed by 3,000 soldiers, violated females of every 
ago, calling their crimes by Bpiritual names, A Flandrian, named Picard, 
again reWvod tliis sect in Bohemia, in the flfieentli century, whence they 
spread into Poland and existed some tune. — Bayle ; Pardon. 
iDMINISTR 4TI0NS SiiccnssiTe administntion? of the Unit d States, since 
tlie formation of the goven ment — 

BoorgB Wadungum 


d 1 MBPreaideo 

Edmunii Raodolpii 

%,p J. iJ-nj 




r b 3 1 Tiuasuiy 

OUvei WqIujU, 


f^ "1'=^"^ 

rr;; r(^„.-., 


k'" "j 'liposlMaBoraC 

r°b as, 71 \ 

EdinuDd SanJnlph 

Sept as 78Dj 

Waunm Bradford 

Jan. S7 TSljAIIomBysGeu 

Cbarles Lee 


Dec 10, Ttoi 


rtedenckA Slublenlj 



MfM.^, jm 

3d do. iTia 

JoBaihm Diflfn, 

4Hl do. 1795. 

llioBiBa J^ison, 

!—>— . 

•"-•■'S WSia. 

TImolhy pBketing 

-"/fs B— .« 

iolin Mai-ahai:, 

May 13 1800 

Oliver WoImU, 

^inqSioe.) SeoreBiieaor 

Dec 31,1800 Treasury 

IBOfflM.) . 

Samuel Devtcr, 

mSy 13,1300 Sewetaneaof 


Feb. 3,1801 

Geor-e Cabot,- 
Benliimm Sioddarl, 

MaStamir^ '' 

May 3,1798 Secretaries of 
May ai;i7ie Navy. 

»ojBff.> ' Poat-Masler 

Viiginin, (mnitnaed 

B o^te.) Auomey fien 

Speakers qf Ihe House j/" Etpi-esetaatiT^ee. 

5th Congress, TOT. 

Theodore Sedgm.*, 

6th do. 1799. 

M.Tjtli 4, laOl Pmsidenl. 

■ Mr. aJmC dedinc 

TEie J/offi/ Hepai-lmEpi wi 

Howled byGoogIc 

Hanry Bearbom, 
Benjamin SlocJilarl, 

[issur A, Kailusj, 

Nalhamsl Macon, 
Iwsph B Varnum, 

fosepliB Vamiim, 

Kil. (cantinu 




Elbrulgs Gerry, 

Msrch 4, 1809 Preadent. 

k, ie09, (died April 30, L819) J ^,^.. p_^j 

1B13, (died JVio. 23, 1814) S '"'^ '^'^"'^" 

George W Campboll, 

Teiraesiiee,, ' 

Alo.<SndBi J. IMka, 

Oel. 6. 1814 S 



Mul-ch 7,imi 

Jan. B|^{^ 



William H Crawftird, 


Kl ^liw 

l-ennsjlvania, ' 

Jaj^. lallSJI 

ConnBclieul, Co 

mHnued in ^Se^.) f 

Cs^A R^j-, 


March 17, 1814 ( 

Delaware, (wn 



liSe. ll,18U 


Feb. 10,1814 

se qf EepresmlaUvss. 

Joseph B Vamum, 

Heor) Cla), 






John a Adams, 
WilhamH Crawibrd, 
Isaac Shelbj;t 

Morch 6, 1B17 6 
March K 1817 E 
March 6,1817 I, 
Boc. 16, 1817 * 

ia, tcvniiitued in office.) ( , , 
Dec 16, ISl? i *' 


A.DmKTSTRATIONS (United States) cmtiimed. 
Spea/tL^s of the Souse qf EepriiBf 

MectJ Clay, 

John Ct. Ai3<tni9, 
JphE O. Calioun, 

Henry Clay, 
Itichaid Rush, 

Pelsr B. FortH'^ 
SainiBl L. Southard, 
John McLean, 
WiUiim Win, 

Kcnlucty, ; 
Npw.Yoii, ! 

161U Consress, 1817, 


Now Jeisey, (amiinued ia oJSm.) Sec'y o! lliB TJa 

Ohio, (MnKttiisd in 0(BC5,> Post JtoslsF Ge 

Virgioift, (connnufd in o^m.) AUoroBy asner 

^teakeis qf the House of li^reeentaiivsa. 

"ewYork, laili CongresB, lEST. 

1835 5 '" ncral. 

1831 J Attorneys GeoeraL 
1834 i 

81 Congress, 1399, 

Kenlucl^, Cfontijiued in offlcs.) 
Now York, (.amthaied in qffice:^ 



miBTBlTIOH ;— ISil 10 

William n. HfUTiwn, 

Ohio, . 

Died one mouih^Iler 



6imu6l L. Soutisid, 




Daniel Weboler, 


Absl P. Vp^ia, 










ChTrlffl aJ V^c^liffe, 

K^l'ilLir.kj, ' 


JohnJ. CiiUeuden, 


Hugh S. I^garc, ' 


Jobn Nelson, 



S lyiAc HilMf qfEcpV 

JohnWI a 

Kenu hy 

JohQW Jones, 

V ^na 



Jc." ~l 


James BucMnen 


Zaohary Taylo 

Geo gs W Orowfo d 
Thoiiiaa Cwing 
Jacob Co lorae 
"RevGi&y Johnson 

ofto-s If (*e Souae irf H8presni(a(fnt3, 
ElevEBTH AniDK STRITIOM — 1W9 10 1863 f 

nofHemyVIII Tlit folio „ 
oMefe of administrations, in the respective reigns, 


Bishop Fisher and Ei 

Lori Aufliej, cAonMHor; 

JVote The do 



And lord CromweU (oatl of Eaaei) . 151 
Lord ^iDil ffllB^ oa 1 o/Hsr fc d 1& 

Qf Marllmroiigii and Newcai 

Lord Cowper, duire of Shrewe 

ford, duko of MarJljorough, 
Townshend. &c. 
Itobert Wftlpole, eatf. . 

Roben Walpole, esq. af/a-wan 
Uobcrt Biid earl of Orford . 

EBriofPotUmd7BKhlji8hnpLiud . 1658 
JrdftiBhog Laud, earl of SirsCord, 
lord Goltiogum . . . U 

Lord via, Faltlanfl, lotfl Digbj '. 1«1 

[TliB ctvil wot commmcS, and all 

Earle of Sunderlajid and Tyrcormel 

ffl Geo fieivw if as 688 

B la6w"^rd ru del "" Mi 
dl lo 15 F eelo 


viUe, Ur. Dojidaa, &^ 
Mt. Pill, *ar\ of Weal , 

.orciialhara,lnriJOKaiTi!le,&o. . 17 
Bkhl iion. Henrj Addingtm, duke of 

f Mflmd, lord Hawtosburr, lord IIo- 

liaHjlordElSon, *o. . Mar. 17, 13 



Mr. Pertatal, eerl 
qusBB Wellesle;, 
loD, Ur. R^der, < 

t. lion, deorgE Cajjniiis, li 
Oodorlchi lord Lyiulhun 
u™uD™Go^rIcli, dulTB i 


rej, viauiiuua AlthorpQ, Mol- 

Goderich and Falmer^o 
€93 LbdbA woo, rd Q 

traliOB, May B. 
Thie cammdnd !b wilhdrai 


_ .1, Barl of Dudley, viscoiml J 

villa, earl of Aberdeen, Mr. Goul- , 

ImrD, Mr, Hemes, Mr. Gram, Ac ton,ea[lafIlipon,lDrdSiantey, 

JanuarySS, 1?^ #n_...i. — «,_ a^ 

Duks of Wellii^on, earl nf Aberdeen, 
sir George Murraj, lorfl L0Kiher,8ir 

ADMIRAL. Tlie first so called in Eaglaod waa Richard de Lucj, appointad 
by Henry HL 1223. Alfred, Athelslan, Edgar, Harold, and other kings, had 
Tdbbh previously the coiatoanderH of thair own fleets. The first was appointed 
in France, in 1284. The rank of admiral of tlje English seas was one of 
great dislinotion, and was first given to Willittm de Leyhouino by Edward I. 
ill 129T. — Speiman ; Rpaer. 

ADMIKAL LORD HIGH, op ENGLAMJ. The flrat officer of this rank was 
created by Richard IT. in December 1S35 ; tliere had been previously high 
admirals of dish'icis — the north, wast, and south. See Navij. 

■A\-a couvt 

ADRIANOPLE, BjTTLE op, which got Conatantine the empire, waa fonght July 

Bultana, and the .one who took Conetantinople, was bom here In 1430.— 



P}-iesUn. Adrlanople was taken lijthe Enssians, Aug. 20, 1829; but was 
restored to the saltan at the close of wis war, Sept. 14, same year. See 1\irk&/. 

ADRIATIC,. The ceremony of the doge of Teniee wedding the Adriatic Sea 
was institatedinA.D, 1173. Anuuallf, upon Ascension-day, ttie doge inarriod 
the AdaiaHcwm, Mare, by dropping a ring into it fcom his bncentaur, or state 
barge, and nes attended on Uiese occasions by all the uobDity of the state, 
and foreign amliassadore, in gondolnf. This ceremony was intennitl«d, fof 
the first time for centuries, in 1797. 

ADULTERY, iNciEwr laws aoaihst it. Punished by the law of Moses with 
the death of both the gnilty man and woman. — Leviticus xx. 10. This Jaw 
Wis repelled first, because the crime had become common; and secondly, 
because God's name should not be liable to be too often erased by the ordeal 
i>ftlir w itri'iiiibiitc'rness Leo, of Modena, Bays that thehnsbandwaaobliged 
1 I ' I J ULi whether hewillfld itornot.—Cutoirf. Lycurgas 

I I I ' 1 he did a parricide, and the Locrians and Spartans 

II I f s TliP Romans had nQ formal law against adnlteiy ; 
I I I 11 as the first to inti'octuce a positive law to paniah it, 

] I I III ] I rum, to see it executed in the persona of his own ehU- 
diLti— Li II I ' &oiiites relates that women who were guilty of adultery 
weieptmished by the horrible sentence of pnbhcconstnpration. In England 
the legal redress against the male offender has been refined into a civil 
aution fbr a money compensation —Lord MunsfieU. 
AllULTEKT ENaMSHLiWS:iQA:HSTiT. The early Saxons burnt the adulteress, 
and erected a gibbet over hei ashes, whereon they hanged the adulterer. — 
Pardon. King Edmnnd punished the crime as homicide. It was punished 
by entting off the hair, shipping the female ofifender naked, and whipping 
her through the streets, if the husband so demanded it to be done, without 
distinction of rant, during the Saxon Heptarchy, a,d. 457 to 828. — SUrae. 
The ears and noaewere cut off under Canute, 1031. Ordained to be punished 
capitally, together with incest, under CromwcU, May 14, I6B0 ; but there is 
no record of this law taking effect. In New England a law was ordained 
whereby adultery was made capital to both parties, even though the man 
were unmarried^ and several suffered under it, 1662.— Hiij'diV. At present 
this offence is more thvorably viewed; to divorce and Stiip the adulteress 
of her dower, is all her punishment among uB ; but in Romish connfries they 
usually shut up the adulteress in a nunnery.— jlsie. 
ADVENT. In the calendar it signifies, properly, the approach of the fiaist of 
the Nativity; it inolndes four Sundays, the first of whidi is always the nearest 
Sunday to Saint Andrew (the 30th November), beibre or afler. Advent was 
instituted by the coundl of Tours, in the siith century. 
ADVENTURERS, MERCHANT, a celebrated and enterprising compMiy of 
merchants, was originally foi-med for the discovery of territories, extension 
of conimerce and promotion of trade, by John duke of Brabant, in 1296. 
This ancient company was afterwards translated into England, in the reign 
of Edward HI., and queen Elizabeth formed it into an iSiglish corporation 
in 1564. — Aiidersan. 
ADVEKTISEMENTS :k NEWSPAPERS, In England, as now published, they 
were not general until the be^nniug of the eighteenth century. A penally 
of 501. was inflicted on persons advertisisg a reward witli " No qurations to 
be asked" for the return of things stolen, and on the printer, 25 Geo. 11, 175*. 
—StaHtes. Tlie advertisement duty was tbrmerly charged according to the 
number of lines ; it was afterwards fixed, in England at 8s. 6d., and inlreland 
at 2s. 6d. each advertieement. The duty was farther reduced, in England 
to Is. Qd., and in Ireland to Is. each, by statute 3 and 4 Will. IV. 1833. 


156 THE wobld's raoGR'.ss. [ aff 

JEDDJES, magistrates of Rome, first created 492 b.c. There were iJiree degrees 
of these offlcers, and the fonetione of the piincipal were similar to our justices 
of the peace. The pleteian. Bediles presided over the more minute ailiiirs of 
the state, good order, und tlie leparatioQ of the streets. They prooured all 
the provisions of the city, and aseouted the decrees of the peopie. — Vairo. 

^^ENIGMA. The origin of the ronigma is doubtfal ; GJale thinks that the Jews 
borrowed ..their tenigtnatioaE forms of speech from the Egyptians. The 
philosophy of the Dmids was altogether tenigmatical. In Nero's time tlie 
Romans wei'e often obliged to have recourse lo this method of concealing 
truth under obscure language. The following epitaph on Fiur Rosamond is 
an elegant specimen of the tenigma ; — 

Jiit, jacef in lombfi, ItooQ muDdl^ non ICoea mimda ; 

jEOUAN harp. The invention of this instrument is ascribed to Kircher. 1658 ; 
but Richardson proves it to have been known at an earlier period tiiau lii? 
time.^ — DissertaMon m the Ovstams of the East. There is a Rabbinical story 
of the aerial harmony of the harp of David, which, when hung np at night, 
was played upon by the north wind. — Barttch. 
AERONAUTICS. To lord Bacon, the prophet of art, aa Walpole calls hun, has 
been at;tribuled iihe fii'St suggesUon of the tme theory of balloons. The 
ancient speculations about artificial wings, whereby a man might fiy as well 
as a bird, refuted by Bordli, 1G70. Mr. Henry Cavendish asceilained that 
hydrygen air Is at least twelve times lighter than common air, 1717. The 
tme doctrine of aeronautics announced in France by the two brothers Mont- 
golfier, 1782.— See BaSmm. 
MfXtF'S FABLES. Written by the celebrated ftibulist, the supposed inventor 
of this species of entei-tainment and instruction, about 665 b.c. .^aop's 
Fables are, no doubt, a compilation of all the ft,bles and apologues of wit« 
both before and afWr his own time, conjointly with his oviD,-~Piatarch. 
iETOLIA. This country was named after ^tolus of Elis, who, having acci- 
dentally killed a son of Phoroneua, king of Argoa. left the Peloponnesus, 
and settled here. The inbabltouts were veryMttle known to the rest of 
Greece, till after the ruin of Athens and Sparta, when they assumed a con- 
sequence in the country as the opposers and rivals of the Acbieans, to whom 
tboy made themselves Ibrmidablo as the allies of Rome, and as its enemies. 

They were conifaered by the Romans under Fulvius. 

The .Kloliaos begin to rayage the rsio- 

onia, Gypliam, fijid ol 

•Mb, SpmiB, and Deme' 


■FFINli i , Dd- hff'. lip MaiTiage within certain degrees of Idndred was 
prohibited by the laws ol almost all nations, and in almost every a^e. 
Several degieea were OTohibited m scriptural law, aa may be seen in LemtU 
Cits, iJiap svin In England, a table restricting marriage within certain 
near decrees was set forth by authority, a.d. 1663. Prohibited marriages 
were amudged to be incestuous and unlawful by the ninety-ninth Canon, in 
1003. All marriages celebrated within the forbidden degiees of kindred ai* 
declared to be absolutely void by statute 5 and 6 Will. IV. 1835. 


AGitJ mc-rioiJAH.Y of dates. 157 

AFFIRMATION op the QUAKERS. This was fltst legallr accepted aa an oatb 
in England j.d. 16D6. Tlie affii'mation was altered ia 1702, and again altered 
and modified Decemliei- 1721. 

AFGHANISTAN. Insun-ection of tliB Afgiana against tlie Britiali power in 
India, Jannary 5, 1842.— Siia India. 

AFRICA, called Ijiiya bj the Greets, one of tlie tliree parts of the aniaent 
world, and ttie greatest peninsula of the uolverae, flrat peopled by Ham. It 
«-as conquered by Bolisarlua in a.d. 553 el seg. In the seventt century, about 
637, the Mahometan Arabs subdued the north of Atiica ; and their descend- 
ant, under the name of Moore, constitute a great port of the present popu-. 
lation. Seethe several countries of Afnca through the Tolime Among 
the late distinguished travellers to this quarter of the vorld may be mon- 
■tioned Bmce, who commenced his travels 17'*"^ P I o made 

hia first voyage to Africa, May 22, 1795 , a y SO, 

180i, bnt fVom which he never returned del 

of shot-wounds (which he had received w n) at 

Fernando Po, Jan. 31, I83t The Aft can e an nt 

voted 61,00M.,ooDsisUne of tlie Jiieri Wl J p% 

sailed m the summer of 1841. The veaseh con 1 t of the 

Niger, Aug. 20 ; bnt whan iiisy reached Iddah fever broke out among- tl e 
cvewB, and they were successively obliged to ratnrn, the Aliei 6 hav n^ 
ascended the river to Bgga, 320 miles flom the sea Sept 28 The exped - 
tion was, in the end, whSly relinquLshed ow ng to dlaaabe beat ind hard- 
ships, Oct. 17. 

AFRICAN COMPANT, a aooiety of merchants trading to Afriea, An associ- 
ation in Eseter, which mas formed in 1688, gave rise to this (rorapany. A 
charter was granted to a joint stoefe company in 1S18: a third company was 
created m 1681 ; a fourth corporation in 1662 ; and another foiinod by let- 
ters patent in 1872, and remodelled m 1595. The rights vested in the pie- 
sent company, 23 Geo. n. 1749. See Slatie Trade. 

AGE : GoiiDEN Aqk, Middle Aoe, &o. Among the aooiont poets, an age was 
the apace of thirty years, in which aenseage amonnta to much the saiue aa 
generation. The interval since the first foiination of man has been divided 
Sito fbui' agea, diatinguished as the golden, silver, brazen, and iron ages ; but 
a late author, re&ecCing on the barbarism of the flrst ages, will liave the 
oMer assigned by the poets inverted — the first, being a tune of ignorance, 
would he more properly denominated an iron, rather than a, golden age. 
Various divisions of the dui'aUon of the world have been made by historians ; 
by some the apace of time commencing from Conatantlne, and ending with 
the taking of Conslantinople by theTnrka, in the flfteeotb. century, ia called 
the middle age ; the middle is also styled the barbarous age. The ages of 
the world may be reduced to three grand epocha, viz., the age of the law of 
nature, ftom Adam to Moses ; the age of the Jewish Jaw, from Moses to 
Christ; and the age of grace, from Christ to the present year. 

AGlNCOtUtT, BjttIxB op, between the French and English ai'mies, gained by 
Henry V. Of the French, there were 10,000 MUed, and 14,000 wew taken 
piiaonera, the English losing only 100 men. Among the prisoners were the 
dukes of Orleans and BouiTion, and 7000 barons, knights, and gentlemen, 
and men more numerous than the British themselves. Among the alain 
were the dukes of Alengon, Brabant, and Bar, the archbishop of Sens, one 
marshal, thirteen earls, ninety-two barons, and 1500 knighta, Oct. 26, 1415. 
— Golds^ni^. 

AGRA, FoBTHEss np, teiiuod the key of Hindcratan, surrendered, in tlie war 
wia the Mahrattas, to the Briljsh fin'ces, Oct. 17, 1808. This was once the 


158 'nir woni.u's pb.oqress. | alb 

most splendid of all the Indian cities, and now extibite the most magnJBeent 
ruins. In the 17th century the gi-eat mogul ftequently redded here ; his 
palaces, and thoae of the Omnihs, were veiynumerous; Agra then con- 
tained ahove 60 caravansaries, 800 baths, and 700 mosguea. See Muw- 

AGRARIAN LAW, A^mia Lex. This was an equal division among the Ro- 
raan people of »J1 the lands which they acquired by conquest, limiting the 

— : ^jei 

the favor of the cj , _ . . . 

rius Gracchns, 182 B.C. ; hut this law at last proved &tal to the freedom of 
Rome under Julius CjBsar. — Lav^; Vessiits. 

AGRICULTURE. The science of agriculture may be traced to the ^riod im- 
mediately succeeding flie D^nge- In China and the eastern countries it visa, 
perhaps, coeval with their early plantation and government. Of the agri- 
culture of the ancients littia is known. The Athenians pretended tliat it 
was among them the art of sowing com began ; and the CretaBS, Sicihans, 
and Egyptians lay claim, the last wifli most probability, to the honor. 
Brought into England by the Romans, as a, science, about a.d. 27. 

AGYWNIANS. This sect arose about a.d. 694, and alleged that Gao forbade 
the eatuig of flesh, assuming the first chapter of Genesis to be the authority 
upon which the doctrine was fomided. A revival of this andent sect now 
flourishes at Manchester and other towns in Englnnd, and has been public 
there since 1814. 

AIR. Anasimenes of Miletus declared air to be a self-esiEfent deity, and the 
first cause of every thuig created, 680 B.C. The pressure of air was discov- 
ered by Toiricelli, i.n. 16i5. It was found to vary with the height by Paa- 
cal, in 1647. Halley, Newtoo, and others, up to the present time, have 
illustrated the agency and influences of this great power by variona experi- 
ments, and numerous inventions have foOowed from them; among others, 
the air-gun by Outer of Nurembui^ in 1656 ; the air-pump, invented by 
Otho Gnerioke at Magdeburg in 1650, and improved by the illustrious Boyla 
in 1657; and the air-pipe, invented by Mr. Sutton, a brewer of London, 
about 1T56. See Ballatm. 

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, Peace of. The flrat treaty of peace signefl here wa^ 
between Franco and Spain, when France yielded Franche-ComtS, but 
retained her conquests in the Netherlands, May 2, 1668. The second, or 
celebrated treaty, was between Great Britain, Fi'ance, Holland, Hungary, 
Spain, and Genoa. By this memorable peace the ti'catiea of Westphaha in 
1648, of Nimeguen in 1678 and 1579, of Hyswick in 1607, of Uti'ccht in 1718, 
of Baden in 1714, of the Triple Alliance 1717, of the Quadruple Alliance in 
1718. andof Yienna in 1788, were renewed and confirmed. Signed on the 
part of England by John Earl of Sandwich, and Sir Thomas Robinson, Oct. 
7, 1748. A congress of the sovereigns of Austria, Enaaia, and Prussia, 
assisted by ministei's from England and France, was held at Aix-la-Cha- 
nelle, and a convention aignod, October 0. 1818. The sum then due from 
Ih-oDce to the allies was settled at 265,000,000 francs. 
ALABAMA. One of the United States ; most of ila temtory was included in 
ttie original patent of Georgia: It was made a part of the Mississippi ter- 
ritory in 1817 ; admitted into the Union as a State in 1820. Population in 
1810 was less than 10.000; in 1816, 29,683; in 1820, 127,001; in 1830, 
S08.997; in 1840, 590,766, including 253,633 slaves. Exports of the State in 
1840 amounted to ^12,854,694 ; imports, to $574,651 
ALBA. Founded by Asoaiiins, 1153 e.g., and called Lon^a, because the city 
extended along the hill ASiamis. Tliis kingdom lasted 487 years, and was 


■;.i.bJ moTJONAKY or dates. 159 

goYcraed \iy a race of kinga, the doscendants of JEneas. "Wlien Amnlios 
dethroned bis brother, he condenmed Hiti, the d(nigiii«r of Numitor, to a, 
life of celibacy, by obliging her l« lalte the yows and office of a vestal, 
thereby to assure bis Baifc^ in tie nBiirpation, His object was, however, 
fruatrafed; violence ■naa offaied to Uia, and she hocame the mother of 
tirins, for wMcli Amnliaa ordered her to be buried alive, and her offspring; to 
lie thrown into the Tiber, 770 B.C. But the litHe bark in wUcli the infants 
were sent Bijrift stopped iiEai Mount Aventtne, and was brought ashore by 
Faustulns, Uie king a chief shepherd, who reared the children as his own, and 
called them Romums and Remus. His wife, Accar-Laurentia, was sumamed 
I/itpa; whence arose the tiible that Romulus and his brother were aitetled 
by a ate-.woK At sixteen years of age, Romnlua avenged the ivrongs of 
Ilia and Numitor, 754 b.o., and the nest year founded Rome. — Varra, 
VLBAN'S, ST. The name of this towij was anciently Verulam ; it was once 
the capital of Britain, and prerioualy to the iavasion of Julias Ccesar waa 
the residence of British princes. It takes its present name ftom St. A!bau, 
who was bom here, and who la said to bare been the first person who suf- 
fered martyrdom fbr Christianity in Britain. He is hence commonly styled 
tiio proto-mac^ of this country, and was decapitated during the perse- 
cution raised by Diocletian, Jane 23, a.d. 236. A staidly monastery was 
civected here to hia memory by Offa, feiug of Mercia, in 793. St. AJhan'a 
was incoi'porated by Edward VI. 1552. 
ALBAK'S, ST., Baitlbs op. The first, between the houses of York and Lan- 
caster, in which Richard duke of York obtained a Tictory ovei' Henry VI., 
(if whose airay 5000 were slain, while that of the duke of York auffored 
no material loss, fought May 22, 1466. The second, between the Yorltisls 
under the earl of Warwick, and the Lancastrians, commanded by queen 
Margaret of Anjou, who oonqnered: in this battle 2500 of the deiteated army 
perishedj fought on Shrove Tuesday, Febrcary 2, 1461. 
ALBANY, city, capital of the State of New- York, founded by the Dutch in 
1628, and by them named Boaverwyck ; capitulated to the English in 1664, 
and then received its present name in honor of the Dnke of York and. 
Albany, its proprietor, tooorpoi'ated in 1686. Population in 1810, 9,856: 
in 1830, 24,288; in 1840, 88,721. 
ALEIGENSES. This sect had its origin about a.d. 1160, at Albigeoia, in Lan- 
jruedoc, and at Toulouse ; they oppoBcd the distdplea of the Chuiuh of 
Rome, and profcsaed a hatred of all the corruptions of that religion. Simon 
dc Montfort comnaanded against them, and at Beeiferes he and tbo pope's 
Icffiitc put friends and fijBs to the sword. At Minerba, he hnmt 150 of the 
AlliigcHsses alive ; and at La Vaur, he lianged the governor, and beheaded 
till? chief people, drowning the governor's ivilfe, and murdering other 
women. They next defeated the count of Tonlouse, with the loss of 17,000 
men, Simon de Montfort afterwards came to England. See Waldenses. 
ALBION. The island of Great Britain is said to have been first so called by 
Julius Ciesar, on account of the chalky clifl^ upon its eoast, on. his invasion 
of the countiy, 61 b.c. The Romans conquered it, and held possession about 
400 years. On their quitting it, it was successively invaded by the Scots, 
Piots, and S^ouB, who drove the original inhabitanta from the plam oonn- 
try, to aeefc; refijge In the steeps and wilds of Cornwall and WaJes ; the 
Danes and Normans also settled at yarions times In England ; and from b 
mixture of theao nations the present race of Englishmen is derived. See 
Bi-Uain.Sevi Albion, disti'ict of California, ivas taken possession of by sir 
Francis Dinte, and so named by him, in 1578 ; explored by Vancouver in 
ALBUERA, Battle op, between the French, commanded by marshal Soult, 


160 TUB WOELD's PaOGIiES*. [ ALii 

and the British and Aiiglo-Sponish army, commandeii Ijy marelial, now lord 
BiiiesnjL'd, May IS, 1811. After an obstinate and sangninary eng-agoment, 
tlic allies obtained Uie TioWry, jnatly esteemed one of the most brilliani 
acliit:\Kin(:utB of the Peninsular war. The Frenoh, loss exceeded 9000 men 
pi'iivioasly to their reti'eat. 

ALCHEMY. This was a pretended branch of chamisti'y;, which affected the 
transmutation of motnfe into gold, lui allcaheat, or universal menatmum, ft 
nnivereal ferment, and other things equally ridiculous. If regard may be 
bad to legend and tradition, alchemy must be as old as the Flood: yat 
tliw pliiloBopherB, poelfl, or phyaidans, from Homer till 400 years after 
Christ, mention any such thing. Fliny says the emporof Caligula was tlie 
first who prepared natural arsenia, in order to mate gold of it, hut left it 
offbecauae the charge eiceeded the profit Others say the Egyptians had 
thisiaystoiT; ivhiohif true, howconlii it have been loatl The Arabians 
are said to have invented this mysterous art, wherein they were fbllowefl by 
Eamond Lullius. Paracelsus, and others, who never ibuud any thing else 
but ashefl in tbeir fumacea. Another author on the subject is Zosimua, 
aboat A. D. 410. — Pah. Bib. Gras. A license for practising alchemy with all 
kinds of metals and minerals granted to one Richard Carter, l'i1&.-—RymeT'i 
Fad. Doctor Price, of Gniidford, published an account of liis experiments 
ia this way, and pretended to sucoeaa : ha brought his specimens of gold to 
the king, affirming' that they were made by means of a red-and white pow- 
der j but being a Fellow of the Royai Society, he vras reqnured, upon pain 
of expulsion, to repeat hia esncrimente before Messrs. Kirwan and Woiilfa ; 
but after some equivocation, he took poison and died, Angnat 178B. 

ALCORAN. Tlia hook which contains the revelation and eredenda of Mahomet: 
it is confessedly the standard of the Arabic tongue, and 3s the Mahometans 
balieve, inimitable by any human pen ; hence they assume its divine origin. 
It is the common opinion of writers, that Mahomet was assisted by BatiroD, 
a Jacobin, Sergius, a Nestorian monk, and by a learned Jew, in composing 
this book, most of whose principles are the same with those of Arius, Nea- 
tonus, SabelliuB, and other hereslarchs. The Mahometans say, that God 
sent it to their prophet hy the Angel Gabriel; it was written about t.s, 010. 
—See Bbraii Mt^uimeHsm Mecca &a. 

ALDERMEN The word is derived fl'om the Sason Bt^dormaa, a senior, and 

among the Saxons the rank was oonfbrred upon elderly and sage, as well as 

di3fm"m^hcrt prr'stmo nn account of the experience theu- age had given 

fl r> t *' f f tl " Heptarchy, aldermen were the governors of prii- 

11 so mentioned up to j. n. 882. Afier the Danes 

tl e title was changed to that of mrl, and the Nor- 

m( which though difiereut in its original signifi- 

1 a thing Henry HI. may be said to have given 

]t I I Ld h (. U ai iiiUion In modern British polity, and also in the 

Uniti^d states an aldeiman is a niagistial« next in dignity to the mayor. 

AT E AMD WINE They are said to have been invented by Bacchus ; the fbr- 
mer where tjie BOil owing to its qnaJily, would not grow grapes,— Tlmfe'! 
Pmt&eon Ale was known as a beverage at least 4C8 B.C. Herodotus as- 
ci ibes the first discoveiy of the art of brewing barley-wine to Isis, the witfe 
of Asyns The Romans aod Germans very early learned the process of prc- 
parmg a llqnor tVom com by means of fermentation, from the Egyptians.— 
Taati ' AlehonseE are made mention of in the laws of Ina, king of Vfe^ 
sex. Bootlis weie set up m England a.n. 728, when laws were passed for 
their regulation. Alehouses were licensed 1621 ; and excise duty on ale 
and beer was impcaed on a system nearly similar to tlie present, 13 Charles 
II., 1660. See Beer, Wiitn. 


ALEMAWNI, oa All Men, (i. e. men of all nations,) a. body of Suevi, defeated 
Ijy Caraealla, a. d. 214. On one occasion 300,000 of this warlike people are 
said to have been vanquished, in a battle neai' Milan, by Gallienus, at the 
head of 10,000 Romans, Their battles were mimeroTis with the Bomans and 
Gauls. They nltimately submitted to the Fi'anlts. — fSihion, 

ALEXAMDEK, EKi op, dated fi'om tlie death of Alexander the Great, NoTem- 
bor 12, 323 b. o. In the computation of this era, the period of the creation 
was considered to be 5502 years before the birli of Christ, and, in conse- 
([iienoe, the year 1 j. d. mas equal to 5503. This computation continued to 
the year 2&1 a. d., which was called 5786, In the next year (286 a. d.), 
which shonld haya been 6787, ten yeai's were discarded, and the date he- 
came 5777. This is still used in the Abyssinian era, vMA see. The date ia 
rednoed to the Christian era by snbtracting 6602 until the year B786, and 
after that time by subtracting 6492. 

ALEXANDRIA, in Egypt, the walls whereof were tds miles incircmt, huiltby 
Alexander the Great, 332 e. a. ; taken by Ciesar, 47 b. c, and the library of 
the Ptolemies, containing 400,000 valuable works in MS., burnt. Conquered 
by the Saracens, wb*n the second library, consisting of 700,000 volumes was 
totally destroyed by the victors, who heated the water fbr their baths Ibr 
sis montha by burning hooks instead of wood, by command of the caliph 
Omar, a. d. 642. This was formerly a place of great trade, bU the treasaree 
of the East being deposited here befoi-e the discovery of the route by the 
Cape of Good Hope. Talcan by the French under Bonaparte, when a mas- 
sacre ensued, July 6, 1798; and fi'om them by the British in the memorablo 
battle mentioned in next ai'ticle, in 1801. Alosandria was aggia taken by 
the Bfitish, under General Frazer, March 21, 1807 ; but was evacuated by 
them, Sept. 23, same year. For late events, see Syria and Turkey. 

ALEXANDRIA, Battle op, between the French, nnder Menou, who made the at- 
tiiclc, and the British army, under Sir Ralph Abercrombie, omonntine to about 
15.000 men, which had but recently debarked, fought March 21, 1801. The 
British were victorious, but Sir Ralph Abercrombie was mortally wounded. 

ALEXA&TDltlKE VEEISE. Terse of twelve ftet, or syllables, fli^i ivritten by 
Alexander of Paris, and since called, afl«r him, Alesa,ndrinea, about a 
1164. — NojiV, Did, Pope, in his Es^p an, Criikism,, has the follo' ' 
known couplet, in which an Alexandrine ia happily exemplified :- 

Tha' like a woupd-ed «iake, diasa IB slow leuglh a-Iong." 
ALGEBRA. Where algebra was first used, and by whom, is not precisely 
known, Diopbantas first wrote upon it, probably about a. n. 170 ; he is said 
to be the inventor. Brougbt into Spain by the Saracens, about 900 ; and 
into Italy by Leonardo of Pisa, in 1202, ITie first writer who used algebra- 
ical signs was StifeliuB of Nnremberg, in 1644. The introduction of sym- 
bols for quanUties was by Francis Vieta, in 1690, when algebra came into 
general nse. — MoreH. The binomial theorem of Newton, the basis of the 
doctrine of fluxions, and the new analysis. 1808. 
Ar.GIERS. The ancient kingdom of Numidia, reduced to a Roman prorhica, 
44 B. c. It afterwards became independent, till, dreading the power of the 
Spaniards, the nation Invited Barharossa, the pirate, to assist it, and he 
seized the government, i. n, 1616 ; but it afterwards ftll to the lot of Tm'- 
key. — Pries/ley. The Algerinea for ages braved the resentment of the moat 
powerful states in Christendom, and fiie emperor Charles T. lost a fine fleet 
ajid anny in an unsuccessfid expedition against them. In 1541, Algiers was 
reduced by Admiral Blake, in 1853, and terrified into pacific measu"- 
with Englmid ; but it repulsed the vigorous attacks of other Enropean p- 
ers, partLCnlarly those of Frsjice, in 1688, and 1761 ; and of Spain, in Vi 


162 THE world's PltOGUESS, [ ALS! 

1783, and 1784. It was bombarded by the British fleet, under lord Esmontb, 
Aug. 27, 1816, when a new treaty fbUowed, and Chrislian slavery was abol- 
ished. Algiera enrrendered to a French armament, under Bounnent ftn<; 
Duperr6, aSler Bome severe cenfiicts, July 6, 1830, when the dey waa deposed, 
and the barbarian government wholly overthrown. The French ministi? 
announced their intention to retain Algiei*, parmanenfly. May 20, 1834. 
Marshal Clansel defeated the Arabs in two engagements (in one of which 
the duke of Orleans was wounded), and entCTed Mascara, Deo. 8, 1886. 
General Damremont attacked Constanljna (leMch see), Oct^ 18, 1837 ;" fiinco 
when varioua other engagements between tie French aud the natives, have 
taJcen place. Abd-el-Kader surrendered to General Lamoriciere, Dec. 22, 
1847. See Morocco. 

ALI, Sect ot. Fomxded by a iiimous Maiometau chief, the son-in-law of Mac 
hornet, (having married his daughter Fatima,J about a. u. 682. Ali was 
' called by the Prophet, "the Lion oTGod, always victorioiis;"and the Persians 
follow file interpretation of the Koran according to Ali, while other Maho- 
mettins adhere to that of Abubeker and Omar. It is worthy of remark, 
that the first four snccesaora of Mahomet— Ahubeker, Omai, Othman, and 
Ali, whom he had employed as his chief agents in esfablishing; his religion, 
and extirpating unbelievers, and whom on that aoconnt he styled the " cut- 
tang sworda of Gfod," all died violent deatiis I and that this bloody impos- 
tor^ fiuoily was wholly extirpate ivithin thirty years after his own decease. 
Ali was assassinated in 660. 

ALIENS. In England aliens were grievously coerced up to a. d. 1877. When 
they were to be tried criminally, the juries were to be half foreigners, if 
they so desired, 1480. They were restrained ftora exercising any trade or 
handicraft by retail, 1488. 

ALL SAINTS, The festival instituted, a. e. 626. AU Saints, or All Halkiws, 
in the Protestant church, is a day of general commemoration of all those sainiB 
and martyrs in honorof whom, individnally,no particular day Is ass^ed.^ 
The Church of Eome and the Greek church have sniuts for every day in the' 
year. The reformers of the English church provided offices only for very 
remarkable commemorations, and Etmck out of their enlendar altogether a 
great number of atmiversaries, leaviag only those which at UMr time were 
connect^ with popular feeling or li'adition. 

ALLEGORY. Of vejy ancient composition. The Bible abounds in tlio finest 
insiancea, of which Blair gives Psalm Ixsx. ver, 8, 16, as a specimen, Speri- 
ser's Faerie Qaeene is an allegory throughout ; Addison, in his Specistor, 
abomids in allegories; and the PUgHm's Progress of Bunyan, 1668, Is per- 
fect in its way. Milton, among other English poets, is rich in allegory. 

AUJANCES, 'riiEATiBS OP, between the high European Powers : See CeaMHan, 
Treatiei, &o, 

AlllMiso of Leipao . . Aprtl9,I63i Allianea Df Versailles . Mayl,l?56 

Alliaocl'll.e Trk>*6 . ' . Jm^aelieeS AMiS of Pa'^S^ . ' . MaJlB,l?96 
Allfanee of Warsaw . MarchSl, 1683 AiiUinceof Pelersburg . April 3, ISOS 
AlUMLCa,thHGrtind . . May 12, 16BB AusHism Alliance . . Mai-ch 14. ISia 
AIMancu, UiB Usinie . Jan. 4, 1717 Allianre of Sweden . UarcJi 24, 1313 
AllanCB, UiB aiiSniple . Aqg. % IIT^S Alliance of Toplits . . Sepl. B, 1313 
Alliance of Yleooa . MaroE10,1731 Alliance, Ite Hoi j . Sepl. 26, ISiS 
s computed time by instruments. Log caleu- 
_ . Al-mon-aght, is of Saxon origin. In tho Bri- 
tish Museum, and univerBities are curious specimens of early almanacs. 
Michael Nostrodamus, the celebrated astrologer, wrote an almanac ia tht 
style of Merlin, IfM.— The most noted early almanacE were : 



unpublished al I 
in Kti^laiid, by R 

LUlj'B Bphem 

Lady's Dial- 

.iclHrd'H Alinanac, 

Of Moore'a, at one period, upwards of 600,000 copiea were annually sold. 
The Stationers' company claimed the exclnsive rigM of pablLsbing, until 
1790, in virtue of letters patent &om Jamea I., gianting- tlie privilege to this 
company, and the two uniyereities. The starop duty on alnumaos was 
abolished in England, 1831, 

ALMEIDA, BiTTnB op, between the British and Anglo-Spanish army, com- 
manded by lord Wellington, and the French army under Massena, who waa 
defeated with conBiderable losa, August 5, 1811. Wellington compelled Mas- 
sera to evacuate Portugal, and to retreat rapidly before liiin ; but the route 
of the French was tracked by the most horrid desolation, 

ALPHABET. Atiotea, son of Menes, was the author of hieroglyphics, and 
wiote thns the history of the E^tiana, 3122 b. c— Blair. But Josaphas 
afOrms that he had aeen inecnptions by Seth, the son of Adam: thongh 
this is doubted, and deemed a, miataka, or &balous. The flrat lettet of the 
Phoenician and Hebrew alphabet was ideph, called by the Greeks iu,pha, and 
abbreviated by the moderna to A, The Hebrew is supposed to be derived 
ftoni the Phcenieian. Cadmus, the fbunder of Cadmea, 1493 b. c, brought 
the Phraniciari letters (flftean in number) into Greece ; they were the fol- 
lowing : — 

A, B, r, A, I, K, A, M, K, O, n, P, 2, T, T. 
These letters were originally either Hebrew, PhcBuician, or Aasjriau char- 
acters, and changed gradually in form till they became the ground of the 
Roman letters, cow used aO over Europe. Palamedes of Acgos invented 
the double characters, 8, X, 4>, B, about 1224 ■b. o. ; and Simonides added Z, 
■*, H, n, about 489 s. c. — Armtdslian Marliles. When the E was introduced 
is not precisely kDO^vn. The Greek alphabet consisted of ai^Ltean letters 
till 399 n. c, when the Ionic, of 24 characters, was iuiroduced. The small 
letters are of late Invention, Ibr the convenience of writing. The aJphabeU 
of the different nations contain the fbUow ing number of letters : — 

Bnglish . . SE I Germsa . .3S\ Greek . . 34 t Turkic . . 33 

Frepcb . .S3 Sclayonic . .HT] Ilebnw . . ^ Sanscril . . BO 

ALPHONSIKE TABLES ■ Celebrated astronomical tablaa, composed by com- 
mand, and under the direction of, Alphonsus X. of Castile, smTiamed the 
Wise. This learned prince is said to have expended upwards of 400,000 
crowns in cwnpleling' the work, whose value was enhanced by a pce&ee, 
^5 ritten by his own hand : be commenced his reign in 1252. 

ALTARS,. were first raised to Jupiter, in Greece, by Ceoropa, who also insti- 
tuted and regulated toarriagea, 1556 e. o. He introcluced among the Greeks 
the worship of those deities which were held in adoration in ijypt. — ifeju- 
dobas. Christian alters in churches were instituted by pope SIztus I. in 135 ; 
and thaj were first consecrated by pope Sylvester. The flist Christian altar 
inBrltamwas in 634.^iS(owi;. The Church of England, and all the reformed 
churches, discontinue the narao, and have abolished the doctrine that sup- 
ported their use. 

ALUM, is said tohave been first discovered at Roelia, in Syria, about a, d. 1300; 
it was found in Tuscany, in 14S0 ; was brought to pei'ftection in England, in 


IS discovered in Ireland, in 1757; and in Anglesey, in 1790. Alum 
Is a salt u£ed as a mordant in tanning ; it is used also to harden tallow, and 

to wMten bread, ft may be made ofpnro olav exposed to vapors of sulphu- 

' ijlphate of potash added to the ley " '' '"' 

■e called amm slate. 

ic acid, and sulphate of potash added to the ley j lint it is usiialij obtained 

AMAZONIA, discovorod by Francisco Orcllana, in 1580. Coming ftom Peru, 
Orellima saiiod down the river Amazon to tho Atiantio, and obsorving com- 
panies of women in airas oil its baiika, lie called the conntry Amazonia, and 
gaye the name of Amazon to the river, wMcli had previously been called 

AMAZONS. Their origin is fehnloufl. They are said to have been the descend 
ants of the Scythians inhabiting Cappadocia, where their basbands having 
nmde incursions, were all slain, being; surprised in ambnecadea by their 
enemies. Their widows, reflecting on the alarms or sorrows thej under- 
went on account of the Site of their husbands, resolved to form a female . 
state, and having firmly eBtabiished themselyefl, they decreed that matri- 
mony was a shamefnl seiTitade ; but, to perpetoate th^ race, ihey, at stated 
times, admitted the embraces of their male neighbors. — Qiswitits Cttrfms. 
They were conquered by Theseus, about 1231 b. c. The Amazons ware con- 
stantly employed in wai's ; and that they might throw the javelin with moi'i, 
force, tlieir right breasta were burned ofif whence then- name from tlie 
Greek, -non aM. mamma. Their qneen, Thalestris, viaited Alexander tlie 
Great, while he waa pursuing his conqueets in Asia, and cohabited with 
him. In the hope of having issue by bo illustrious a warrior; thi'ee hundred 
females were in her train.— aferodoiiw. 

AMBASSADORS, accredit^l agents and representatives fW>m one court to 
another, are referred to early a^ea, and to almost all nations. In most coun- 
tries they have great and peculiar privileges ; and in England, among othei^, 
they and their servants are secured against arrest. The Portuguese ambas- 
sador in England was imprisoned for debt, in 165S ; and the Russian, by a 
lace-merobant, in 1709, when a law, the statute of 8 Anne, passed for their 
protection. Two men were convicted of awesting the servant of an ambas- 
sador. They were sentenced to be conducted fo the house of the ambassa- 
dor, with a label on their hreasta, to asli his pardon, and then one of them 
to be imprlBoned three months and the other fined, May 12, 1780. — FMRips, 

AMBEK. Of great repute in the world from the earliest time ; esteemed as a 
medii^e before theChristian era: Theopbrastus wrote upon it, 300 b.o. 
Upwai-dfi of 160 tons of amber iiave been Ibnnd in one year on the sands of 
the shore near PUlan. — PA^iUps, Mnch diveraily of opinion stdll prevails 
among natnTalists and chemists respecting the origin of amber, some refer- 
ring it to the vegetable, otbers to the mineral, and some to the animal king- 
dom ] its natural history and it£ chemical analysis affording something m" 
a,vor of each opinion. 

AMEN. This word is as old as the Hebrew itself. In that language it means 
tnte,fm&fiii, cartam. Employed in devotions, at the end of a prayer, it im- 
plies, so Es it; at the termination of a creed,' so it is. It has been generally 
used, both in the Jewish and ChrisHan churches, at the conclnsiou of prayer. 

AMENDE HoNoniBi^E, originated in France in the ninth century. It was firat 
an infiunoue punishment inflicted on traitors and saci'ilegiouB persons : the 
offender was delivered'into the hands of the hangman; his shirt was stripped 
off a rope put about liis neck, and a taper in hia liand ; he was then led into 
court, and was obliged to pray pardon of G!od, the king, and the country. Death 
or banishment sometimes followed. Amende hmmr^le is now a term used for 
making recantation in open court, or in the presence of the injured pai'ty. 


DATES. 165 

AMFEICA See United States Discovered ty Chriatopliev Colomlio, a Geno- 
ese bettPi kcmn '.Cliuil 1 1 li Coliimbns a,d. 14B2, on the llth of Octo- 
bs"! oimh I Itof&t Salvadoc, Sea BaAoMio /stotds. 

Till u H I I iient of America in 1497, and the 0!wt- 

na i,oisf. ypapneci (Americns Teflpnciufi) in 1498; 

nliole of America ia named. 

1 OaboL iml by liua lj^uiI 
■a Vtala " 

J Ihe Sal BsgliBh se 


AMEEICA SOUTH The Spaniards as bemg the first disooyereis of ttiia vast 
poihonof theWesteniWoiM,liad tbe largest and richest share of it. When' 
they landed in Pern., a. d. 1530, they found it governed by sovereignB called 
IncaH, who were revered by their subjects aa divinities, but tlie~ were soon 
Bubdned by their invaders under the command of Francis Pizarro. The 
cmelties practlaed by iJie new adventurers wherever they appeared, will be 
a reproach to Spain fbr ever.* Spanish America has succeasftiliy asserted 
Its freedom wiliiu the present century. It flrat declared its independence 
in 1810; and the provinces assembled, and proclaimed thp sovereignty of the 
people in Jniy, 1814 ; since when, althoug-li the wara of rival and contending 
chie& liave been afflicting the country, it has released itself from the yoke 
of Spain for ever. Its independence waa recognized ftrst by the United 
States, chiefly through the influence of H. Clay ;■ by England, in 1828. et seq. i 
and by France, Sept. 80, 1680. See Braxil, Cdomia, iMta, Peru, &c. 

AMERICAN LrrERATORE. The American Almanac ftr 3840 gives a list of 
776 names of American authors who had died previonB to that yew. This 
Aid not include authors of mere pamphlets, Tvfiioh would have swelled the 
number three-fbld i but the " authorship " of many in the list was of very 
moderate amount or value. Of the 776 names, there were writers on Theo- 
logy, SeiTOona, &c., 259; Poeti7,67; History and Biography, BO; Politics 
and Law, 77. [In these numbers, writers on two or more of the aubjeds are 

AIVIETHYSTS. Wiien this stone was iii-st prized is not known ; it was the ninth 
in place upon the breastplate of the Jewish h^h priests, and the name 
IsiochoT was engraved upon it. It is of a rich violet color, and according 
to Plutarch, tafeea its name from ita color, reaembhng wine mixed with water. 
One worth 200 ris dollars Jiaving been rendered colorlera, equalled a dia- 
mond in lustre valued at 13,000 gold crowns.— De Boat Msi. Genitntiiian. 
Amethysts were discovered at Kerry, in Ireland, In 1756. — fiiwms. 

AMIENS, Peace op, between Great Britain, Holland, Prance and Spain; the 
preliminary articles, fifteen in mimber, were s^ed by lord Hawkesbury and 
M. Olto, onthepart of England and France, Oct. 1,1801; and the definitive 
treaty was subscribed on March 27, 1802, by tlie marquis Corawallis for 
England, Joseph Bonaparte for France, Azara Ibr Spain, and Schimmclpen- 
ninek for Holland. 
j\MM0NrrE8. Descended from Aromon, the son of Lot; they invaded the 
land of Canaan and made the Israehfra tributaiios, but they were defeated 

* LasCaaiiB,taflMcribinglh«barl!BriWoflhBSpaiiiiii^wMsparaniiiglhof(Mnqu(alti>ecorta 
raaiiy inslanceB of tl dial fill the mfnd wilh Ikhtm. In Jamaica, lie osrs, thay hanged Ibo unte- 
siatiii? oatiTes bv tJiineen at a. Uine. ia hnaot of Ihe LUiLeBD apooUeal and ne has beheld lliem 


hy Jephthah, 1188 b, o. They ag^ icvadeil Canaan in tlie reign of Sftnl, 
witli an inteotion to put out the rjglit eye of all those they Bubdued, but 
Said overthi'BW tliem, 1093 b. c. They were aRerwarda many limes van- 
qnished; and Antiochus the Groat took Eabboath tliuir capital, and destroyed 
aU the walls, 198 b. c.—Jiisep&iis. 

AMNESTY. The word aa well as the praotico waa introduced into Greece by 
Tiirasybulus, tjia Athenian general and patriot, who commenced the espul- 
sion of the thirty tyranta with the assistance of only thu^ty of his ftiends : 
having sncceeded, the only reward he wonld accept was a crown made with 
two branches erf oliTe. 409 b. o, — Hume's Essmjs. 

AMPHICTYONIC COUNCIL: Established at Thermopylie by Amphictyon for 
the management of all afteirs relative to Gi'eece. This celebrated council 
which was composed of the wiseat and most vutnous men of some c ties 
of Greaoe, consisted of twelve delegates, W98 b. c. Other cities in process 
of time sent also some of their dtizens to the council of the Aiuphictyons 
and In the age of ADtoninus Piua, they were increased to the numbei of thirty 

AMPHITKEATRES, They may be said to be fhc invention of Julii s C-osar 
and Cario; the latter was the celebrated orator, who called tJie formei r 
fall senate " OmiiCTrat wuiJerum mmm, et omniiim niroj^tt tmdierem In the 
Roman araphithoatres, which were vast roimd and oval buihlings, the people 
assembled to see the combats of gladiators, of wild beasts, and other exhi- 
bitions; they were generally built of wood, but Statilius Taurus made one 
of stone, under Auguetfls Ctesar. The amphitheatre of Vespasian mas built 
A. D. 79; and is said to have heen a regu&r Ibrtress in 1312. The amphi- 
theatre of Verona was next in size, and then that of Nismes. 

AMSTERDAM. This noble city was the castle of Amstcl hi a. d. 1100 ; and its 
builduig, as a city, was commenced about 1203. Its fiimoua exchange win, 
built in 1634; and the atadthonse, one of the noblest palaces in the world, 
in 1648 ; this latter cost three miUions of gnlldera, a prodigious sum at that 
time. It is built upon 18,659 piles, and the magnificence of the structure ia, 
for its size, both in external and internal grandeur, perhaps without a paralH 
in Europe. Amsterdam surrendered to the king oi^ Prussia, when that prince 
invaded Holland in flivor of the stadtholder, in 1T87. The French were 
admitted without resistance, Jan. 18, 1795. The ancient government was 
restored in November, ^1818. See HoSartd. 

AMIJLETS, OR CHARMS. AU nations have been fbnd of amulets. The 
Egyptians liad a great variety ; so had the Jews, Chaldeans, and Persians. 
Among the Greeks, they were much used in exdting- or conciuering the 
passion of love. They were also in esUmation among the Romans.— Piiftji. 
Oeid. Among the ChrisUans of early ages, amulets were made of the wood 
of the true cross, about a. d. 328. They have been sanctioned by religion 
and astrology, and even in modem times by medical and other sciences— 
wifeless the anodyne necklace, &c. The pope and Catholic clergy make and 
s^ amulets and charms even to this day. — Ashe. 

ANABAPTISTS. This sect arose about a. d. 1525, and was known in England 
before 1540. John of Leyden, Muncer, Storek, and other German enthusi- 
asts, about the time of the refbrmation, spread its doctrines. The anahap- 
tista of Munstor (who are, of course, properly disHngnished firan the existing 
mUd sect of this name in England) taught that infant baptism wna a contriv- 
ance of the devil, that tliere is no original sin, that men have a free irill in 
spiritual things, and other doctrines still more wild and absurd. Munaler 
they called Mount Zion, and one Mathiafl, a baker, was dedm'ed to be the 
king of Zion. Their enthu^sm led them to ths maddest practices, and 


they, at length, roaa in arms uader pretence of gospel, liberty. Minister was 
tateii about fifteen months afterwaMs, and they were aUput to death. The 
anabaptists of England differ from otlior Protestants in little more than the 
not baptJEing children, as appears by a confession of faith, published by the 
reinesentatives of above one hundred of their coagregalaona, in 1689. 

ANACREONTIC VERSE. Commonly of the jovial or Baochanalian strain, 
named after Anacroon, of TeoB, the Greek lyric poet, about 610 b, c. The 
odea of Anaoi'son are much nrized ; their author hyed in a conslant round 
of diunltenneas and dehaucnery, and was choked by a grape stone in his 
eightj'-flfth year.— Stem%'s Lines ofOie Poets. 

■INAGRAM, a transposition of the letters of a name or sentence; asfromilfarj;, 
tlie name of the Virgin, is made army. On the question patbyPilal* to our 
Sayiour, " Qiiiid esf Veritas?" we have thia admirable anagram, " Eitvir gui 
adest." The French are said to liave introduced the art as now practised, in 
the reign of Charles IS., about the year 1560. — HenamU. 

ANATHEMAS. The word had four signifieations among the Jews: the ana- 
thema, or cnrse, was the deTOting some person or thing to destruction. We 
have a remarkable instance of it in the city of Jericho (see Joshua vi. 17). 
Anadieinfls wore used by the primitive cbnrches, i. o. 887. , ihich ecclesias- 
tical den~m.ciBtJons caused great terror in England up to the close of Eliza, 
heih's reign. — iJopm. The church anathema, or cnrae, with excommunica- 
tion, and other severities of the Komiah religion, are still practised in Catholic 
eonntiies to this day.— .Asie. 

ANATOMT. The struotnre of the hmnan body was made pai-t of the philoso- 
phical inveatjgationa of Plato and Xenophon ; and it became a branch of 
medical art under Hippocrates, about 420 b. c. But EvaaistTatua and Hero- 
philus may be regarded as being the fiithers of anatomy : they were the first 
lo dissect the human tbrm, as anatomical research hod been confined to 
brutes only : it ia mentioned that they practised upon the bodies of living 
criminals, about 300 and 293 n. c. Tji England, the schools were supplied 
with subjects nnlawfiilly exhumed from gravea ; and, nnUl lately, the bodies 
of exeonted criminals were ordered for dissection. The first anatomical 
plates were designed by Vesalina, nboitt a. d. 1538. The discoveries of 
Harvey were made in 1616. The anatomy of plants was discovered in 1680. 
~BVeiad's History of Physk. ■ 

AKCHOKITES. Paul^ Anthony, and Htlarion were the first anchorites. Many 
of the early anchorites Uved in caves and deserts, and practised great aus- 
terities. Some were analogous to the fifcaers, who impose voluntary pnn- 
ishments upon themselves as atonement for their aios, and as being accept- 
able to God ; and their modes of torture were often extravagant and crimi- 
nal. The order first arose in the fourth oentnry. 

ANCHORS POH SHIPS, are of ancient use, and the invenfJon belongs to the 
Tnscans. — Pliay. The second tooth, or fluke, was added by Anacharsis, the 
Scythian. — Slrabo. Anchors were first forged in England a.d. 578. The 
anchors of a flrsl^rate ship of war (of which such a ship has four) will 
weigh 90 ewt. eaiih, and each of them will cost £i60. — PhUiips. 

iSEMOMBTTER, to measure the strength and velocity of the wind, was in- 
vented by Wolfius, In 1709. The extreme velocity was found by Dr. Lind 
to be 83 milaa per hour. See ai'ticle Wiiids, 

AKGELIC KNIGHTS op ST. GEORGE. Instituted in Greece, j. n. 156. The 
Angdici were instituted by Angelns Comnenus, emperor of Conatantmople, 
IIM.. The Angelica, an order of nuns, was founded at Milan by Louisa 
ToroUi, A. D iSSi. 


ANGELS. Authors are divided aa to the time of the creation of aiigola. Some 
Tviil have it to have beeli at the same time with onr world ; otliera, betorp 
all ages, that is, fiom otamity. This latter is Oiigeii's opinion.^ — Cai:c's 
Hist. Lilterat. The Jews had ten orders of angels ; and the popes liave I'e- 
■" ■ ,e choirs and three hierarchies. 

ANGELS, IN COMMERCE. ' An angel was an andent goM coin, weighing 
foui' pennyweights, and was valued at 6s. Qd. in the reign of Henry VL, and 
at Ids. in the reign of Elizabeth, 1562. The angelot was an ancient gold 
coin, value half an angel, strnolc at Paris when that eapitol was in the hand's 
of (he English, in the reign of Henry TI., 1^1.— Wood. 

ANGLING. The origin of this art is involved in obscurity ; aUusion is maO 
to it by the GreeS and Romans, and in Hie most ancient books of flio Bibli., , 
as Amos. It came into general repute in England about the period of the 
ReformaHon. Wyhkin de Worde's Trecdyse of Pgsshinge, Hie flist book 
printed on angling, appeared in 1496. Isaac Walton's book was printed in 

ANIMAL MAGNETISM. Thia deception was inti'oduced ny fetlier Hehl, at 
Vienna, about 17M ; and had wonderful success in France, in 1788. It had 
its dupes in England also, in 1789 ; but it exploded a few years afterward,^. 
It was apretendcd mode of curing all manner of diseases by means of symp(t- 
tAstic a^cUsa between ttie sick person and the operator. The efifect on the 
patient was supposed to depend on certain motjona of the fingera and featnreii 
of the operator, he placing himself immediately before the patient, whos 
eyes were to be fixed on his. After playing in this manner on the imag-jn 
tion and enfeebled mind of tbe sick, and peribrming a number of dfato 
tions and grimaces, the cure was said to be completed. — Ha^dn. 

ANGLO-SAXONS, or ANGLES, The name of England is derived ftom a vii-"- 
lage near Sleswiclt, called Angleji, whose, population joined the first Sa^n 
freebooters, Egbert called Sis kingdom Anglesland. Anglia East w" " 
kingdom of the heptarchy, foun "' " '' — ^'"" '--'— — -" —■^ — - -' 
Uffii, assumed the titla of king, t 

ANNIHILATION. The doctrine of annihilation was unknown to the Hebrews, 
Greeks, and Latins : tlie ancient philosophers denied annihilation ; the first 
notions of which are said to have arisen from the Christian theology.— iTr. 

ANNO DOMrai ; in the year of our Lord ; used by the Christian world, and 
abbre'viatedi.n. This ia the computation of time from the incarnation o^ 
our Saviour and is called the vulgar era ; Sret adopted in the year 625. Set 
Jra. Charles III, of Germany was the first sovereign who added " in tl-- 
iiaic of onr Lord" to his reign, in 879. i 

i i'AECTIC, The south pole is so called, because it is opposite to the north 
or arclie pole, A continent of 1700 miles of coast from east to west, ant" 
64 to 66 degrees south, wsa discovered In the Antarctic Ocean by French 
and American Exploring Expeditions, under D'Urville and Wilkes, resnec- 
tively on the same day, Jan, 19, 1840 ; a coincidence the more singular,' a | 
the discoverers were at a distance fi'om eacli other of 720 miles. ItwaF 
coasted by captain Wilkes for 1700 miles. Mr. Brisoow, of the British Nav/ 
fell in with liuid, which he coasted for 300 miles in lat. 67, long. 50, in thi 
yeai' 1830. 

ANTEDILUVIANS, According (o the tables of Mi-. Whiston, the number o 
people in the ancient world, or world as it existed previous to Uie Fir 
reached to the enormous amount of 649,755 millions, in the year of the ■ 
1482. Burnet has supposed thatthefirsthmuanpairmight havoleft, ».,<. 


-LMT] mC!™«Ar.Y OF DATES. 169 

end of tha first century, fen married couplea ; and from these, aliowiog 
tliem to multiply in the same decuple proportion as tho first pair did, would 
rise, in 1500 years, a greater numiier of pai-soaB Hinn the earth was capable 
of tolding;. He tlicvGlbre Buggests a quadi'uple multiplicftfdon only; and 
then eihlSita the fi>!lowiug tnUo of Inoi-easo during tlic fii'st aisteen centu- 
ries that preceded the Flood: — 

1. . . iO I V. . . a,5C0 1 IX. . . G55,3M I snL , , 167,143,160 
n. , . 40 VI, . , .10540 X. . 2,621,440 XIV. . STl.OEKMO 

111 . . 360 VU, . . 40,900 XI . 10,4ia,7BO XV. . S,^3m360 
IV. . 610 1 Vlll. . 163^ I XIL . 41,M3,M} | XVI. . 10,737iiia,SW 

Tliis calcnlatlon^ althongli tho most modernto made, exceeds, it mill be seen, 
by at least ten tomes, the present number of mankind, whicil, at ilie liigbost 
(t^timate, amoimts to only a thousand millioDS. 

ANTHEMS, OH HYMNS. Hilaiy, bishop of Poitiers, and St. Ambrose, were 
the first who composed them, abont Oie middie of the fourfii centuiy.— 
Lsnglet. They were introduced into the ehuroh service in 886. — Saiei: 
Ignatius is said to hare iatroduced them into the Greek, and St. Ambrose 
into the Western chra\;h. They were inljxidiieed into the reformed churches 
in queen Elizabeth's reign, about 1565. 

ANTHROPOPHAGI Eaters of human flesh have existed in all ages of the 
wocld. Tho Cyclops and Lestryeonea are represented as man-eaters, by 
Homer ; and the Essedonian Scythians were ao, according to Herodotus. 
Diogenes asserted that we might as well eat the fieah of men, as that of 
other animals ; and the practice still exists in AAdca, and the South Sea 
Islanda, &o. 

ANTIMONY. This mineral was verj eavly known, and applied by tho ancienfe 
to varions purposes. It was used as paint to blacken both men's and wo- 
men's eyes, as appears fi'om 2 Kin^s is. 30, and JeretaioA iv. 80, and in 
e;ist(:m cuuiitriea is thus used to this day. When mixed with lead, it makes 
typiis for piiiitiug ; and in physio its uses ni'e ao varioua that, according to 
ils preparation. Hone; or in company wiili one or two nBaooiatea, It is suffi- 
cient to answer all a physician desires in an npofheeary'e shop.— Boyle. 
Wc arc indebted to 'Basil Valentiue ibr the earliest acoomit of yarious pi^o- 
ceaaeg, about lilO.—Frieslletj. 

AKTINOMIANS, tho nama first applied by LuUior to John Agi'icola, in 1588. 
The Antinomians trust in the gospel, and not in their deeds ; and hold 
(hat crimes ara-not crimes when committed by tliem, that their own good 
works are of no effect; that no man should be troubled jn conscience Ibr 
sic, and other equally absm'd doctrines, 

AKTIGCH, built by SeleucuB, aRev the battle of Ipsus, 801 b.c. In one 
(lay, 100,(HX1 of its people were aloin. by the Jaws, 14B b, c. In this city, once 
tho capital of Syria, the disciples of the Redeemer wera first called Chris- 
tians. 'The Ei'a of Antioch is much used by tlie early Christian wiiterit 
attached to the churches of Antioch and AJexaadria; it placed the creation 
6492 years n. c. 

A:YnPODES. Plato is said to ha tho flrst who thonght it possible that anti- 
podes existed, about Sfi8 b. c. Bonifiice, archbishop of Menta, legate of 
pope Zachary, is said to Iiave denounced a bishop as a heretic for maintain- 
ing this doctrine, a. d. 741. Tho antipodes of England lie to the south-east 
ef New Zealand; and near the spot is a small island, called Antipodes 
Mand. — Brookes. 

ANTIQUARIES, and ANTIQUE. The term auM^iie i,? applied to the produo- 
tiona of the arta from the age of Alexander to the time of thu irruption 
ofthe Goths into Italy, ini.n. 400. A college of antiquaries is said toliave 
esiated in Irehmd 700 years b.c; but this has very little pretensions to 


170 THE WOItLu'w PROOEESa. [ At% 

credit. A society was fomiiled by arehbialiop Pai'ker, Caioden, Stows, and 
otievH, in 1572.— jSJieimoti. Application iros made In 1689 to Elizabeth for 
a eliarter, but lier death ensTied, tind her anccessoi-, James I., was fir froti 
fi,Toriiig the design. In. 1717 this sociBty was reviTed, and in 1751 it re- 
ceired its charter of incorporaWon Horn George II. It began to publish its 
diacoverieB, &c., under the title of Archaologia, in 1770. The Society of 
Antlq^uariea of Edinbnrgh was founded in 1780. 

ANTT-RENTISM, In Henaaeker and Delaware oonntics, State of New-York, 
an armed resistance of the tenants (chiefly (liose on the Tau Eensselaer 
eslotea) to the demand for the payment of rents, commenced in 18i6. 
See Riots. Got. Young pardoofl eighteen anti-rent rioterfl, and releases tliem 
ft-om prison, Jan. 37, 1847. 

AKTI-TRINTrAKIANS. Theodotns of Byzuntinm is supposed to have been 

' the first who advocated the simple humanity of Jesus, at the close of tlie 
second century. This doctrine spread widely after the refbrmation, when it 
was adopted by Ltelius and Pauatua Socinus. Bogle. — See Aiiam, Soeini- 
a/as, and Umttmam. 

AWTWERP, First mentioned in bistory in a. n. E17. Its fine exchange built 
in 1581. Taken after a long and memorable siege by the prince of Parma, 
in 1585. It waa then the chief mart of Flemish commerce, hat the civil WEca 
caused by the tfraT "f Philii) II. drove the trade to Amsterdam. The 
remarkable cruciSx of bronze, thirty-three Ibet high, in tbe principal street, 
vraa formed from the demolished statue of the emd dnke of Alva, which 
he had himself set up in the citadel. Antwerp was the seat of the civil war 
between the Belgians and the honae of Orange, 1830-81. In the late revolu- 
tion, the Belgian troops having enterod Antwerp, were opposed by th( 
Butch garrison, wbo, after a dreadful conflict, being driven into the citadel, 
cannonaded the town with red-hot balls and shells, doing icomenae mischief 
Oct. 27, 1880, General ChaSB* surrendered the citadel to tlie French a^c,■" 
a desfiuctive boml>ardment, Nov. 24, 1832. See Belgivm. 

APOCALYPSE, the Revelation of St. John, wi-itten in the Isle of Patmos, about 
A. D. 95. — Irenixus. Soma ascribe the authorship to Cerinthus, the heretic, 
and others to John, the presbyter, of Ephesns. In the first centuries m^ny 
churches disowned it, and in the fbnrth century it waa excluded from the 
sacred canon by the council of Laodieea, but was ^aiu received by other 
councils, and confirmed by that of Trent, held 1645, et seq. Hejected by 
Luther, Michaelia, and othera, and its authority questioned in all ages from 
the time of Justin Martyr, who wrote ilia first Apology fiir the Chriatiani, in 
i. D. 189. 

APOCRYPHA. In the preface to the Apocrypha it is said, "Those Ijoolca are 
neyther found in the Hebnie nor in the Cteilde."— BiSfe, 1689. The histor;- 
of the Apocrypha ends 136 n. c. The books were not in the Jewish canon, 
hut they were received as canonical by the Catholic church, and so adjudged 
by the councal of Trent, held in 1645, et seq. — AsKe. \ 

APOLLINARIANS, the ibllowerB of Apollinariua, bishop of Laodicea, who 
taught that the divinity of Christ was instead of a soul to him; that Jjia. 
flesh was pre-exiatent to hia appearance upon earth, and that it was sect 
down ti'om heave^i, and conveyed through the Virgin, aa through a diannel- 
that there were two sons, one bom of God, the other of theVirgin, &c. 
Apollinarius was deposed for hia opimons in a. d. 878. 

A POLLO, TjiMPi.EB OF. Apollo, the god of all the fine arts, of medicine, music, 
poetry, and eloquence, had temples and statues ei'ected to him in almost 
every country, particularly Egypt, Greece, and Itab'. His most Bplendi(!i 
temple was at Delphi, built 1263 B.C.— See OeJpAi. His temple at Daphnj^ 


liullt 434 B. c„ during a period in which pi 
S@2, and the Chiistiana accmed of the cnmn.—LengM. 
APOSTLE'S CREED. The Bmumary of belief of the ChrisUan dith, called the 
Apostle's Creed, is generally believed to have been composed a gi'eat wiiile 
after tlicir time.— Piwrfini. Tho repeaUog of tils creed in puhlic worship 
was ordiiined in the Greek church at Antioch, and was institnted in the 
Human cluii-cli lE tbo eleyenth century ; wheuce it passed to the oWch of 
England at the period of the reforDmilon, in 1534. 

APOSl^OLICI. The ftrat sect of Apostolici ni-ose In tlio third century; the 
second sect was founded by Sagarelli, who was burned alive at Parma, a. n, 
300. They wandered about, clotlied in white, with long beards, dishevelled 
hair, and bare heads, accompanied by women whom they oaEed thair spirit- 
ual sisters, preaching agmnst the growing coiTuptiou of tlie chordi of 
Rome, and prediciJng its downfiill. 

APOTHEOSIS. A ceremony of the ancient naUona of tie world, oy which thej 
i-aised their kings and heroes to (he rank of deities. The nadons of the 
East were the flrst who paid diWne honors fo theic great men, and the 
RotnliDS followed their example, and not only deiHed the most prudent and 
humane of Uieir emperora, but also the moat cruel and profligate. — I&rodian. 
Tiiia honor of dei^ng the deceased emperor was hegun at Rome by Augus- 
tus, in favor of Julius Cresar B c la — TiUcmimt 

.\PPEAL OP MURDER. By the late law of ingland a man m an appeal of 
tniu'der might flght with the appellml tl ] \ i n.1 e prtof of his guilt 
or innocence. In 1817, a yonng i bolitved to have 

heen violated ^id murdered by \l i ai p eal, claimed 

hia right t* his wager of battle 1 I lut the appellant 

(the brother of the maidl refus Luminal escaped, 

April 16, 1818. This law wafl in i h ick from off the 

etatute book, 69 George in 1819 

APPRAISERS. Tha rathig and valnation of goods fo 

businesa la England | and so early is 11 Edward I i 

valued the goods of the parties too high the appraiser should take them al 
the price appraised. 12fe 

APRIL. The fourth month of the year according to tho TOlgai compntatlon, 
but the second according to the anoienl Doiuana. Numa Fompiliua having 
introduced Ja/imarias aod Jtimisriuj befbre it 718 b. g. — Peackam. 

AQUARIANS. A sect in the primitive church, said to have been founded by 
TaUan in tiie second century, and who forbore the use of wine even in the 
sacrament, and ufled nothing but water. 

AQUEDUCTS. Appius Claudius advised and coDstmctcd the first aqueduct, 
wliioh was therefore called the Appian-viay, about 4-68 a. c. Aqueducts of 
every kind were among Uie wonders of Rome.— Z/jiij. There are now some 
remarkable aqueducts in Europe: that at Lisbon Is of ^reat extent and 
beauty ; that at Segovia has 139 arches ; and that at Versailles is three miles 
long, and of immense height, with 242 arches in three stories. The stupen- 
dous aqueduct on the EUeamere canal, in England, is lOOT feet in length, and 
15B fi;ct high; it was opened Deo. 26, 1805, 
\QCtTAIXE, formerly belonged ftogether with Normandy) to the kings of 
En!;ljirid, as descendnirta of William the Conquerov. It was erected into a 
pviii<;i)iiility in 1862, and was annexed to Prance in 1870. The title of duke 
nf Aqnitaino was taken by tlie ci'Own of England on the conquest of this 
dnohy by HcniyV. in 1418; but was lost inllio reignof Henry "VI. 

ARABIA. Tliis country Is said never to have beon conquered ; flie Ambians 
made no figure in history till a.d. 622, when, under the new oanio of Sara- 


rra the WOELD's PliOOKESS, [ABU 

cens. they followed Miihomet (a native of Arabic) m thoif gcnoral and pro- 
phet, and mada consideraijlc oonqneats. — PriesUcy. 
ARBELA, BiTTtE of. Tba third and deciaire battle between Alexander the 
Great and Banna Codomanus, which decided the filte of PoTSia, 331 b.u. 
The avmy of Darius consisted of 1,000,000 of foot and 40,000 horae; the 
M'.ii:ed(>i!i;;ii armv ainoiiiiU](I to only 40,000 foot and T.OOO hoi-BC.— Jr)-t«?(. 
Tlie (jnid and si'liiir found in the cities of Susa, Peraepolis, and Eahyloi^, 
n!iii;l"i I'i'll til Alnxancl(;r I'loin tliis vietoiy, aiflcnmted to thirty millions ster- 
ling ; and the Jewels and otlier precioiiB spoil, belonging to Dariua, eufllccii 
to load 20,0(XI 'males and 5,000 camels.— PWareA. 
ARCADIA. The people of this conntry were very aadent, and reckoned there, 
selyea of longer Btanding than the moon ; they were more rude in theif 
manners than any of the GreeJffl, from whom they were shnt np tn a valley, 
surronnded witJi mountainB. Pelasgus (aught them to feed on aooma, aa 
hemg more nulricious than herbs, their former food ; and for this discovery 
they honored him as a god, 1521 b.c. Arcadia had twenty-five kings, whota 
liistoiy ie altogether febrdons. The Arcadians were fond of militaiy glory, 
although shepherds ; and tl'equently hired themselves to fight the batflea of 
other states. — E^istathins. A colony of ATcadiana waa conducted by QLno- 
tms into Italy, 1710 i.e., and the country in which it settled was afterwards 
called Magna Qrada. A colony under Evander emigrated 1244 a. c. — Iikvi,. 
ARCHBISHOP. This dignity was known in the East about a. d. 820. Atha- 
nasias conferred it on his successor. In these realms the dignity ia nearly 
coeval with the estabhslnnent of Christianity. Before the Sasons came into 
England there were three sees, I^ondon, York, and Caerlaon-upon-Usk ; but 
soon after the arrival of St. Austin, he settled the metropolitan see at Can' 
tarljnry, a. o. 696. 
ARCHDEACONS. There are sixty chui-ch officers of this rank in England, 
and thirty-four in Ireland. The name was given to the fiist or eldest de-v. 
con, who attended on the bishop, without any power ; but. since the council 
of Nice, his function is become a dignity, and set above that of piiest, 
though anciently it waa quite otherwise. The appointment is referred to 
A.n.lOTG. The archdeacon's court is the lowest in eccleai astiea l polily : an 
appeal lies from it to the oonsiatorial court, stat. 24 Heniy ViU. 15S2. 
AKCHEKY. It originated, according- to tlie fimcifW opinion of the poet Glan- 
dian, tcora. the porcupine beii^ observed to cast its quills whenever it was 
offended. Plato ascribes the invention to Apollo, by whom it was commn- 
nicated to the Cretans. The eastern nations were es^pert in archery in t'.i» 
earliest agra, and the prerasion of the andent archer ia Boarcely'exceeded 
by onr akdl in modem arms. Aalor of Amphlpolis, upon being slighted by 
Philip, ting of Macedonia, aimed an anow at him. The arrow, on whiot 
was written " Aimed at Philip's right eye," struck it, and put it out ; and 
Philip threw back the arrow with these words : "If Philip take the town. 
Aster shall be Iiacged." The conqueror kept his word. 
AECHERy ra Enolind. It was Jntroduoed previously to j. d. 440, and Ha 
rold and his tivo brothers were killed by arrows shot from the ci'oss-bowf 
of the Norman soldiers at the battle of Hastings, in 1068 ; that which kilkii, 
the king pii^rced him in thii brain. Richard I. revived archery in Englant 
in 1190, and was tiiinsi'lf killed by an arrow in 1199. The victories of Crecy, 
I'oititra, and Agiiicomt. iv<!i-o vnm chiefly by archers. The nsnal range o) 
(lio Inng-boiY was from 300 to 100 yards. Bobiij Hood and Little John,, 11 
is said, slioL tiviee tli!:t dislonoo. Four thousand archers suiTounded the 
houses of Parliament, ready to shoot the king and the members, 21 Rich- 
ard n. 1897. — Stoae. The citizens of London were formed into companiei 
of archers in the reign of Edward HI, : they were foimed into a corporatr 



totly Ijy the style of " The rrateraity of St. (5eorgv3," 29 Henry YIII. 1B38. 
— Nfrrtkoak's History of Lrmdon. 
ARCHES, TBTOMPGAr., aro traWd to tlie ei'B of the Macedonian conquest by tha 
best writers. The ■hiumplial arahts of the Romaus foiin a leading feature 
ill their aj'ciliiteotiire. Thoso of Trajaji (ereoted i, d. Hi) snH Conatantjne 
ivcra magniScect. 
^..RCmTECTDRE was cuJtiya,tcd tiy the Tyi'iana, ahoiit 1100 b,o. Tiieir 
King, Hivani, supplied Solomon irith cedar, gold, silver, and other materials 
iiif the Temple, in the building of whicli he assisted, 1015 b. c. The art 
passed to Greece, and fi'om Greece to Rome. The style called Giotbic came 
into vogue in ihe ninth century. The Sai'scens of SpMn, being engaged 
during ppace to build mosques, introdnoed grotesqne carvings, Stc., and the 
ponderous suhlunity of had taste ; which species is Imown by ellipfjo arches 
and buttresses. The drcnlar ardi dieliDgulsljea the Noiman-Gothic from 
tho Saracenic, and came in with Henry I. The irue Grecian style did not 
fully revire Ull about the reign of iJames I. 1608. 
WICHONS. When royalty was abolished at Athens, the eaecntiTO gOTem- 
incnt wsa vested in elective magietratoa called archons, whose office cod- 
tinues for life. Medon, eldest son of Codrua, is the first who obtained this 
digiuly lOTOn c 
APCOLA, BiTTLE OP between the French under general Buonaparte, and the 
liTsimuB undo field marshal Alvuizy taught Nov I'i, 1796 Tho result of 
thib Lloiidi 1 oiiHk t iihith was fought foi eight successive days was the 
li •. on th( ]iut it tlK 4ustuins of 12 000 men, in killed, wounded, and 
j iiM 111 1 i nil At"" 1 il eighteen guns 
A' (,111 r\y^ I'M Hm^ 'ifweral liave hpnn nnd"! taken by England, and 
vnm !n 1 ( 11 lul 1 (li 1 i.i>uii(l[i Sii Mafiii I lobishci nas the first 

Til lihniiii I L ■ hina A. D. 1576. 

l>ni Si 1 II I IL 111 1586 After a 

inimlj 1 j1 I I I I liman attempted 

to liiid I II I I I I I jr the subsequent 

indlitL c ) L 1 111 1 L 11 L LL li 1, 1 1 1 , I iL 1 u 1 tho^o of Bttchaa, 

rianldin,Rosi, Piiij I iddi n Ljon )5uk, &.' , scl \Dilk West Passage. 

^GEOPAGrriE A fiimous oouuod said to have beard causes in the dark, be- 

riuse the judges weie Mmd to all hnt feets inahtuKd at Athena, 1507 n. o. 

— Irii I ' Mi/ill Ih' name is deuved flom thu Greek Areas pagos, the 

J r I II Virs was the first who waa biodtheie forthe miiiy 

Im had violated his daughter Alcippa. Whatever 

L letheln were to be divested of all oratory and fine 

I I L -.hould diann their eara, and corrupt their judg- 

II I I 111 most ]ust and impartial deoiaions. 

\rf-FNr\PT\ B\rTTF OF One of the moat renowned in its timM, fought in 

Alsace between tho AllLin-mm and. the Romans, the former being- delfeatcd 

b\ the latter with the lo^s if nuM than 35,000 ont of 40,000 men, i, d. 37S, 


A.IGONAUnC EXPEDITION, undertaken by Jason to avenee the death of 

Phrysus, and recover hifl frLamres seized by the king of Colchis. The ship 

in which Pbryxna had sailed to Colchis having been adorned with the 

Hgnro of a ram, it induced tho poofs to pretend the jonmey of Jason 

wa.1 for the recoveiy of tlie gohlvm fleece. This ia the first naval expedition 

on record ; it made a great noiae in Greece, and many fcinga and the first 

hovoes of tlie agi: aecompaided Jaaon, whose ship was called Argo, from ila 

builder, 1263 a. a. — Dafresaoy. 

IRGOS. This kingdom waa founded bylnachus, 1866 n.o., or 1080 years bo- 


74 THE world's rr.oGRKSs. [ a 

fore the flrat Olympiad.— BJotr. The nme kinga fiom the founder is 
nailed Inackid/e. of whom the fourth was Argus and he gii e hia name 
the countoy. When the Heraclidce took possesEion o( Peloponnesus e 
1102, Temenua seized Argoa and its dependt.nci(,a Aig n n i« iftii«ai<i 
republic, and distinguished itself in all the n jj f i ~ 

nsiga of PrcBluSjHTin iHolher of Aon 


i of Acni 

EelgnofCmiopua . . . . IGOB 
Slhenelus T9igiui .... 14% 
GelauoT 13 deposed by Banana . ■ 1474 
Peasi of Uis Mambeaox, In honor of 
Argos, in modem histoiy. wsa taten flora the Venetians * n 168G It mts 
lost to the Turks in 1710, Bmce when it contmued in their hands until 1826 
Argos became united in the sovereignty ot Gieeee imder Otho, the present 
and first king. January 25, 1833. See Grtea. 
ARIAWS. The followers of Aalns, a nnmerous sect of Christians, who deny li.e 
divmity of Christ: they arose about i.n. 316. The Ariaaswere condumned 
by the eouDcil of Nice, in 32fi: bnt their docti'ine became for a time the 
reigniM religion in tie East. It was favored by Constantine, 819. Carried 
into Aftlce nnder the Vandnla, in the fifth centacy, and uito Asia under the 
Goths. Servotns published hia treatise aeainst the Trinity, 1681, and hence 
arose the modem system of Arianism in GenoTR. Anns died in 836. Serve- 
tns was burnt, 1553. — VnriBas, Hist dt I'Heresie. 
ABrrHMETIC. Where first inyented ia not linown, at least with certainty. 
It was brought from Egypt into Greece by Thales, abont 600 b. c. The 
oldest treatise upon arithmetic ia by Enclid (7th, 8Ui, and 9th books of hia 
Elements), ahout 300b.c. The sexaeeBimal arithmetic of Ptolemy was used 
A. V. 130. Diophantus of Alexandria was the anthor of thirleen hooka .of 
Arithmetical questiona (of which sii are extant) In 168. Notation by nine 
dirffs and zero, known at least as early aa the sixth century in Hindostan — 
infroduced from thenee into Arabia, about 900— into Spain, 1050 — into Eng- 
land, 1253. The date in Caxton's Mimmr of the World, Arabic charaotew, 
is 1480. Arithmetic of deeiraala invented, 1482. First work piinted ili 
England on arithmetic (ite Arte Sfiipjmtimili) was byTonstal!, bishop of Dur- 
ham, 1522. Tlie theory of decimal ftuctions was perfccted by Joid Napier 
in his Rabdologvi, in 1617. 
ARK. Mount Ararat is venerated by the Armenians, from ahelief of its heiag 
the place on which Noah's ark reslecl after the universairelugei 2347 n.c. 
But Apamea, in Phrygia, claims to be; tte spot ; and medals have been struck 
there with a chest on the waters, anil^o letters NOE, and two doves: this 
place is 800 miles west of Ararat. The ark was 800 cubits in length, flft)- in 
breadth, and thirty high ; but most interpreters suppose fliis cubitto he ahi'flil 
a foot and a hali; audnotthegeometricfSoneof six. There were, we are told, 
three fl-oors— the first ftn- beasto, the second for provisions, and the third fnr 
birds, and Noah's fkmily. It was not made iike a ahip, but came near the 
fignre of a square, growing gradually narrower to the top. Thero wss a 
door in the first floor, and a great window in the thiid. 
ARKANSAS, one of the United States, was a pai't of the Louisiana pureliaae. 
It waa made a separato territory in 1819, and was admitted into the Union 
in I8S6. Population in 1880, 80,888 ; in 1840, 97,674, inclndin? 19,985 slave? 


ARMADA, Tqe Invinciele. Tlic foiraons Spanish armament ao called oon- 
sisted of 150 sMps, 2650 groat gnna, 20,000 soliOiers, 8000 saUors, and 2000 
Yolunteei'S, nnder the diike of Medina Sidonia. It an'ived in tlie Channel, 
Jnly 10, 1588, and was defeated tlie next day by Drake and Howard. Ten 
" — 'lips having lieen Bent into ihe cueniies' fleet, they cut their cables, put 
., and endeavored to ratnm to their rendeavouB between Calais and 
: the English fell npon them, took rmaiy ships, and admiral 
Howard maintaiEed a mmiing fig-ht from the 3l9t Jidy to the 270i, obliging 
the fibattered fleet to bear away for Scotland and Irelaiid, where a atonn dia- 
peraed tliem, and the remainder of the annameDt returned by the North 
Sea to Spala, The Spaniards lost fifteen capital ships in the engagement, 
and 5,0(i0 men; seventeen ships were lost or talran on the ooaat of Ireland, 
and upwardfl of 5000 men were drowned, killed, or taken prisonera. The 
English loat but one ahip.^ — Rajnn, Carts, SitDie. 

ARMAGH, See op, the flrat ecclesiastical dignity in Ireland, was founded by 
St. Patridi, its first bishop, in 444. 

AEtMED NEDTRALITT. The confederacy, so called, of the. northern powers, 
Bgainat England, was eonmienced hy tlie empress of Russia in 1780; but 
its ohjeefs were defeated in 1781, The pratcnaiou was renewed, and a ti'eaty 
ratified in order to eanse their flogs to be respected by the holligereut pow- 
ers, December 18, 1800. The principle that neutral flags protect neutral 
bottoms being contrary to the maritime system of E:^laud, the British 
cabinet remonstrated, and Nelson and Parker destroyed the fleet of Den- 
mark before Copenhagen, April 2, 1801. That power, in conso^inerLce, was 
obhged to secede from the alliance, and acknowledge Ihe claim of England to 
the empire of the sea ; and the Armed NentraUty was soon after diasolvod. 

ARMENIA. Here Noah and hia people resided when they left the ark, 2347 
B. 0. After being sul^ect soccessiTely to the three great monarchies, Ar- 
menia fell to the kings of Syria, lite Armenians were the original wor- 
shippers of fire ; they also paid great veneration to Venus AiuuUs, to whose 
prieslB eyen the highest eJasses of the people prostituted their daughters, 
prior tomairiage. — Martin's Memoires mr L'Arminie. 

Ci^yqfATiaiambnilt . . B.a.lBfl ArUoIoa is dopoBert . . B.C. 30 

TigmneB the Greai reignB . . 93 Ho \a teetoiGd-lo his thione, oiill iiic3,— 

Tiridatea delhroned, ai 

lbiIes aesisis Ihe PanhiaOB Bgabisl . , 

Anlony . , . 3fi flgnlii ini 

r eulilites, BaS Eenda Lira loaded IIRhn ( 


A-TIMENIAN ERA commenced on the 9th of July, a.d. 662: the Ecclesiasticai 
year on the 11th August. To reduce this last to our time, add Sol years 
and 221 days ; and in leap years subtract one day from Mareli 1 to Aiigiiat 
10. The Armenians nae the old Julian style and monfJia in their corre- 
spondence with Europeans. 


natural position and molaon, the whole being comprJaed in a fimne. It is 
Baid to have been inTented. by Eratoathanefl, about 265 b. c. 
ABMINIANa (the) chiefly contend for the doctrine of imiFersal redemption, 
and generally espouae the prmciples of the Chui'ch of England : especially 
asserting the aubordination of the Christian church to the civil powois. 
Thojalso contend for the (^caey of good works, as well as their iieccssiiy, a\ 
seeming man's salyation. Jamea I. and Cliailoa I. favored the doctiincs ni 
tlia Arminiaufl ; and tJle prindplea of the sect prevail generally in Holland 
and elsewhero, though condenmed at the synod of Dort (see DdtI) in 1618. 
AiTuicius, who was a diyinily professor at Leyiien, died in W^.^Brmuti. 
ARMORIAL BEABINGS became hereditary in tamiUea at the close of Hi:, 
twelfth oentary. Tiiey took (heir rise fiom tie fcniglita painting their ban- 
Dors with different flgni'es, and were introdnoed by the CruaaderH, in order 
at first to diatinguiah noblemen in battio a. d. 1100. Tho lines to denote 
colors in anna, by their direction or Intersection, were inveni«d by Cohun- 
biere in 1639. Ai'inorial beariuga were taxed in 170S— and again in 1808. 
ARMOR. Tlie wavlike Ewopeans at first drapised any other defence 'ban 
the shield. Skins and padded hides ware first used ; and braas and iron 
armor, in plates or scales, fallowed. The first hody-annor of the Britons 
was skins of wild beasts, eichai^d, afWr the Roman conquest, for the 
well-tanned leathern ouiraaa. — Tacilias. This latter continned till the Anglo- 
Saxon era, Ileng^t is said to have bad scale armor, *. n. 4i9. Tho heavy 
cavalry were covered with a coat of mail, Henry HI. 1216. Some horsemen 
had yiaors, and skullcaps, same reign. AiiBor became esceodioglysplundii' 
about 1850. The armor of plate commenced, 140¥. Black aimor, used, 
not only for battle, but for monxning, Henry T. lilS. The armor of Henry 
Vil. consisted of a cuiraSs of steel, in the fbrmof apair of stays, about 1500. 
Armor ceased to reach below tho iaiees, Charles I. 1625. ia the leigo of 
Charles II. officers wore no other armor than a large gorget, which is commem- 
orated in the diminutive ornament known at the present day. — Uteyridc. 
ARMS. The chib was the first offensive weapon] then followed the mace, 
battle-axe, pike, apsar, javelin, sword, and dag-ger. Among ancient missiles 
wore bows and arrows. PJJny ascribes the mventioa of- tlie sling to the; 
Phcenlcians. See tie varioiti leeapom t/avagh the valwite. 
ARMY. NinuH and Semhamis had armies amounting to nearly two millions of 
fighting men, 2017, e. o. Tho first guards and regular troops as a standing 
army were fonned by Saul, 1093 s, c— JEiKseJiiM. One of the first standing 
armies of which, we have any acconnt, is that of Philip of Macedon. The 
first standing army, existing aa such, in modem times, was maintainod in 
lYance by Charles VII. in 1445. Standing armies were introduced by 
Charity I. in 1688 ; they wore declared illegal ui England, 81 Charles U. 
1679. Tho chief European nations have had in their service the following 
armies: Spain 150,000 men ; Great Britain, 810,000; Prussia, 850,000; Tm'- 
key, 450,000 ; Austria, 600,000 ; Russia, 600.000 ; and France, 680,000. 
ARM?, BRITISH. Statement of fiieefffeetive military strenglh of the FnitedKing- 
dom at tlie decennial periods respectively mentioned, and of tiie sums votei? 
for military expenditui'e, drawn nxim parliamentary returns and other official 

i7Efl,'nnieofwar! itoopBofihaUnB . ; aniounM10,000 men . . sum Towd iE734TJ100 

1300, War dtuo lCB/«0 men . . iliUo ir.<ra/«0 

1310, Wat; army. Including foreign Itoopa dil.lo 300,000 men. . ddlo a6,743flOC 
ISIS, Lam Toai' oflbe wai' . . dim 300,000 men . . clluo 39,lliaOD0 

18S0, Peace dino Sa,300 man . . dino 61^,000 

In 1846, the army, of all ranlts, numbered 100,011 men; and the sum vol«d 
was ie4,187,753. See MUiiia and Voianleers. 


ARTIIXERY. The Gvst piece was a amall one, contrived hf Sohwarte, a Gev- 
man oordeliur, soon after tlia iuyention of gunpowder, in 1S30. ArtDiery 
was used, it is said, by ttie Moora at Algesinis, in Spain, in the siege of 
1341 ; it was aeed, according to oar liietorianB, at Uie hattle of Creasy, in 
1840, wJiGQ Edward m. iiad four pieces of cannon, whicli gained hiui the 
battle. We had artillery at the siege of Calais, 1847. The Venitiaiia first 
omplojfld artillery against the Genoese at sea, 1877. — Voltaire. Cast in 
England, together witS mortars for bomb-ahells, b^ Flemiajj artists in SuBsex, 
Ih&.—Rijmer's F'ledera. Made of braes, 1685 j improvementa by Browne, 

iu'itbmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy.— fljirm. The Royal Society 
of England (which see) obtained its chailer April 2, 1663. TLe Society irf 
Ai'ts tu promote the pohte arts, commerce, mann&ctures, and mechanics, 
was iustituled in 1754: it originated in the patrioUo seal of Mr. Shipley, and 
of its first president, lord Folkstone. The first public exhibition by the 
artists of the British metropolis took place in 1760, at the rooms of this 
Eodety, and was repeated tijere for several years, til!, in process of time, the 
Royal Academy was fonnded. &ee Royal Academy. The Society of British Art- 
ists was institnWd May 21, 1823 ; and th^r first exhibition was opened April 
19, 1824. — See Bntisi Mnsao/ni, ; Briiah litslihdiim ; Naiionai Gtdkry, ^c. 
.4 KDNDELIAN MARBLES : containing the chronology of ancient history from . 
1582 to 866 B. c, and said to have been scalptnred264 b. c. They coDsist of 
37 statnea, 128 hnsCe, and 260 inscriptions, and were fonnd in the Isle of 
Pares, in the reign of James I., aljout 1610. Tliey were puiohased by loid 
Arundel, and given to the nniversity of Oxford, 1627. The characters are 
Greek, of whidi there are two translationa : by Sdileii, 1028 ; by Pndeam:, 
1676.— See KUd's TraOss and Pnrstm's TreaHie, 1789. 
A.SCALON, Battle op; in which Richard L of England, eommanding ■the Chris- 
tian forces, aofeated the snltan Saladin's army of 300,000 Saracens and other 
infidels. No less than 40.000 of the enemy were left dead on the field of 
battle ; and the Tiotorious Richard marched to JerusaJom, a, d. 1192.— %i?icr. 
AaH-WEDNESBAT. The primitive ChriBtians did not commence their Lent 
until the Sunday, now called the first in Lent. Pope Fells HI., in a. d. 487, 
first added the foTir dajs preceding the old Lent Sunday, to complete tlie 
number of flistina days to forty ; Gregoiy the Great introduced the aprinlc- 
liug of ashes on the first of the four additional days, and hence the name of 
J>ie! Cineram, or Aah-Wcdnesday : at the Refbiiiiation tliis practice was 
abolished, '■ as being a mere shadow, or vain show." - 
ASIA; so called by the Gfreeks, from (he njropJi Asia, thedanghtflrof Oceanus 
and Tethjs, and wife of Japhet. Asia was the first quarter of the world 
peopled ; here the law of God was first promulgated ; here many of the 
greatest monarchies of the .earth had their rise ; and fiom hence most of 
the arts and sciences have been derived. — Pardon, 
\SPERNE, BiTTLE OP, between the Austrian army under the arclidulte Ciiailes, 
and the French, fought on the Slat May, 1809, and two following days. In 
tills most sangninarj fight, the loss of the former ai-my exceeded 20,000 
men, and the Joss of the French was more than 30,000 ; it ended in the deifcat 
of Bonapai-te, who commanded in person, and was the severest check that he 
bad yet received. The bridge of the Damihe was destioyed, and hia retreat 
endangered; but (he eucccss of the Austiians had no beneficial effect on 
the subsequent prOBQcntion of the war. 
ASSASSIWATIOW PLOT. A conspiracy so called, foiToed by the earl of Ayles- 
bury and others to assassinate king WiUiam in,, near Richmond, Smrey, as 



lie came ftom hnntjng. The object of the conspiTaoy was to have been con- 
sammatecl February 15, 1695-6, but for its timely discoveiy by Pi'endergaBt. 
— 3ist. Eitgland. 

ASSASSINS. A tribe iu Syria, a fiimoiia heretical sect among the Mahometans, 
Bcttled in, Persia, in a. d. 1090. In Syria, they possessed a large ti'act of land 
among the mountiuna of Lebanon. They murdered the margnia of Mont- 
feiTat in 1192; they ass^sinatod Iiewis of Baiaria la 1213; the khan of 
Tartary was mm^ered in 1254. They were conquered by the Tartars in 
1257 ; and were eilirpated in 1272. The chief of the coijis assnmod tho 
title of "Ancient of tAe Mmmiams." 

ASSIENTO. A contract between. th6 fcing of Spain ami other powers, fiir far- 
nishing the Spanish dominions in America with negro slares. — Bm-lee. It 
began in 1889, and waa vested in the South Sea Company in 1713. By tlie 
ti'caty of Utrecht it was transferred to the Engliah, Tsho were to furnish 
isoo negroes annnally to Spanish America. This contract was given up to 
Spain at the peace in 17^8. See Chdnea. 

ASSIGNATS. . Paper currency, to support the credit of the republic doting the 
revolation, ordered by the National Assembly of Fi'ance, April, 1790. At 
one period the enormous amount of eight milliards, ov nearly 350 millions 
of pounds sterling of this paper were in cirealation iu France and ils depec ■ 
dencies.^ — Alison. 

ASSDMPTION. A festival obserred by the church of Rome in honor of the 
Virgin Mary, who, as the Catholics believe, was taken up to heaven In hec 
corporeal form, body and spirit, on Angust 15, a.d. 45. Mary is repoi-ted to 
have been in her 75th year. The festival is said to have been inaHtuted 
in 813. 

ASSURANCE. See Immwnce. The practice is of great antiquity. Suetonius 
aacribee the contj-ivanoB to Claudius Cteaar, a.d. 48. It is certain that assu- 
rance of ^ips waa practised in the year 45. Tlia first regnlalioDS concern- 
ing it are in the Iiex Oteiwi, by which it appears to have been known in 
Europe very generally in 1191. Tho custom (rf Lombard-street was made a 
precedent for all poUciea at Antwerp, and iu the Low CouuMes ; but the 
■first statule to prevent frauds fl\im private assurers was made 43 Elizabeth, 
1601. — MolineaiKe's Lee Mefcatona. 

ASSYRIAN EMPIRE. This is the eariiest recorded empire— that of Bacchus 
wanting records. It commeDcod under Nhiua, who was the Jupiter of the 
Assyrians, and the Hercules of the Chaldeans, 2069 b. c. It arose out of the 
nnioTi oC two powerful kingdoma, Babylon and Aaayria, or Nineveh, the latter 
fouiidBd by Ashur, and ending witli Sardanapalua, 820 b. c. When this last- 
named prince was conquered by Aibaces, he shut himself up in his palace, 
with hia concubines and eunuchs, and causing it to be sot on fire, they all 
perished in the flames Ou Uie ruins of the empire were tbrmed tie Assy 
nansofBabyon Nineveh and tho Median fejngdom — Le7i,li 

TbB DwBiTDf BRba Lmll — Genestar i Bfihyoti D^maLea heseatofhe 




ASSYKIA, Pkopek. Afier the deslruotion of the lirst Assyrian monarchy. Phu), 
the last king's son, was raiBed to the throne by tie Hmevites 777 e o and 
the kingdom continued until 621 wh Sa ac H rdan palua IE t ing 
besieged, b; the Medea and Baby man p b m d bud d atb, 

and burnt himself In his palace, a te m wb m 8a da- 

Qftpalua I. See w^cediitg article. Nm "" ^'" jj.-i.--_j 

^ - «^».-»«^.^ j:.^,qA.4 A flam, n J 

fln II 

5 red by 

ghalnuiDezai' takes Ssmula, uauepo 
th^ people, whom ho repLaces b 
colony of Ciulieaoa and otheiB, on 
thus fiuiahsB tlie kingdom of Ism 

Hb relires ftoto bBforo Tjra, bUs 
elege of file joara.— Binir 

as invented by the .ChaldeauB, and hence 

.^ -_ ^^^ s, Gi'eekB, and Romans, It was much in 

.. _n Prance in the lame of Catherine de Medicia, 16&Z.—Henmdt. The 
early liistory of astrology in England la very little known : Bede was addicted 
to it, 7M : and 60 was Roger Bacon, 1260. Cecil, Lord Bnrleigh, calculated 
the nativity of Elizabeth ; and she, and nU the European princes, were the 
humble servants of Doe, lie astrologer and conjurer. But the period of tlio 
Stnai-ts was the acme of astrology In. England. — Sir Walter Scott has made 
ample use of sir William Lilly, the noted astrologer, in his talas of this 
ponod i and if is certain that UEy was consulted by Charles I. respecting 
his projected escape ftom Cariabroofc castie in 1817. — F^guson. 
ASTRONOMY. The earliest accounts we have gf this science are those of 
Babylon, about 2234 b. c. — Biidr. The study of astronomy was much ad- 
vanced in Cbaldasa under Habonsasur; it was known to the Chinese about 
1100 B.C.; some say many centuries bofore. Limar edipsea were observed 
at Babylon with exooeding accuracy, 720 b. c. Spherical fona of the eartb, 
and the fme cause of lunar eclipses, taught by Tholes, 6i0 e.c. Further 
discoveries by Pythagoras, who taught the doeti'ine of celestial motions, and 
believed in tho plm^ality of habitable worlds, 500 a. c. Hippa^chiis began 
Mb observations at Rhodes, 167 b. c— began his new cycle of fie moon in 
143, and made great advances in the science, 140 s, c. The preoesEiou of 
the equinoxes confirmed, and the places and distances of tlie planets discov- 
ered, by Ptoirwiy, I.E. 130. After the Uipse of nearly seven centm'ies, during 
which time asti'onomy was neglected, it was resumed by the Arabs about 800 ; 
and was afterwards bvouglit Into Europe by the Moors of Barhary and Spam, 
but not sooner than 1201, when they also infioduced geograpby. 
TliflA7pliQnslmialilBa((DAieS»ee)weK "" 



of Ihe pUmalary moUoi.a,l)y 


Th distance h fl tare pp d be dOO 000 m g fr 

an re ft m 88 lU M nulli 

cann ball d t eai iml to 

bni oac bito fimur umg ts 

ta andft (luaiifii to reaoli us flom 

,_ , . . ling' from one of those atai's ; but 

calculations of later asti'onomci'a prove aomo stars to be ao distajit, thut 
tlieir light must talte coutui'ieB before it can roach us ; and tliat evciy paj'- 
ticlo of light which enters our eyes left the star it comes from three or four 
hundred yeai'S ago, — Objects of Science. 
ASYLUMS, OH Pritileqed Plicbs. At first they wei-e places of refuge for 
those who, by accident or necessity had done thinge tliat rendered them 
obnoxious to tlie law. God commanded the Jews to build certam cities foi' 
this purpose The posterity of Heicules is said so have built one at Athene 
to protent themselves aeamst such ai tlioiv tatliLr had uritated Cadnloa 
buut one at ihi,bus aud Romulus oi 
coming of Chiibti imh mtoTii^liui 

,tluit churcln 11 I II I I II I I I iiiL ■^^J 

Irans to ill til II I ' '•' J 

ill uaewaa m "uc 

the Saroy Chnk ]X idin ui s 1 1 ic. iidiiti^m ilnii uud \\il 'Miiit Iha 
aecunty waa abolished a d 1606 , but the Isat was not wholly auppufcsed 
until the rtigu of Geoigo I —See Pra-ilsged Places aai SwncloBmis 

ATHAWASIAN CKEED a-.d CONTPOYTR'JS The great controveray reeaid 
ing the divimty of Chi it ' i I between a. d. 333 and 84'' 

Atianasiua, who was a » 1 11 nuntered great peraeciLtioii" 

at the bands of the Aim I tunes, and was exiled lb] 

them again and again 1 by his name is supposed by 

most authorities to hai 1 1 1 1 lli itar 340;.tiut itisalBrmed 

by other writers to bo tbL <:i>iii]iilutiuii i>! in Aliieanliiiliopin the fifth cen- 
tury. — Ott Pin 

ATHEISM. This absurd doctnne Las had its votaries and its martyi'S. Spi- 
nosa, aforeigrei, wasitinotcd dtfender m the 17th century. Lucilio Vanini 
pnhliciv tauyht ^tlll 1 m in Ti inci and was condemned to he burnt at Toi. 
lause in KJIU, ^^lllll1■^ KmU„Lri iif Holstem openly profiiBSed atheism, and 
had upwards oi a IIilllmhI diiLiplts in Gcnnany about 1Q74 ; he travelled 
to malic pioscl lL^ infl lii>. ^jlliivers wore called Consdrndofres, because 
they held tliafc tki le i-. ir otli 1 doitj than consoionce Many eminent mun 
of various countries have been professors of Atheism, and even in England 
we have had writers tinctured with it.— iMcSiwrfsoji.. Ashe. "Though a small 
di'aoght of philosophy may lead a man info atlieism, a rfeep draught will 
certainly bring him back again to the belief of a God." — Iiord Boom. " fi''' 


.„TtJ dictionary of DATE5. 181 

Dieii ni'e^tait pas H faiidrait Vinventer i" If a God &\& not Oiist, it would 
1>B neceasary to invent one.— VoUawe. 

ATHENiEA.. These were great fefltlTalB celebrated at Athens in honor of 
Minerva. One of them waa called Panathensea, Bod the other Chalcca; 
thay were first instituted by Erecthens or Orpheus, 1397 b. o. ; and Theseus 
afterwards renewed them, and caused them to be observed by all the people 
of Athens, the first OTory flfiJi year, 12B4 b. c.—PlviaTcli. 

ATHENiEUM. A place at Athens, sacred to Minerva, where the poefe and 
philosophora dectiitned and recited their coiupositioiis. The roost celebrated 
Athemea were at Athens, Rome, aud Lyons : that of Korae was of great 
beauty in ita building, and was erected by the emyei-or Adrian, a. d. 125, — 
Tiliemmi^s Idfe of Adrian. 

ATHENS. The onee celebrated capital of anient Attica, whose magnificent 
ruiiiB yet attest its formev graadem' — the scat of science and theatre of valoi', 
Tho first sovereign of whom we have anykoowledgo is Ogyges, who reieiied 
in Bceotia, and was maatei of Attioa then called Ionia In h s leign a lolugB 
took place (by some supposed to I>e no other than tho uui ersal deluEe or 
Noah's flood) that hiid waste tlia I I 1 tate it remained two 

hundred years, nntil the arr I i a and a colony by 

whom t^ie land was repeople 1 1 1650 s c The first 

state of Athena was undai sei period of 487 yeai'E, 

but the history of its first tw I ! loos in its second 

state it was governed by thirte ] ] lod of 316 years ; in 

its thir^ state by aeven deccnniil -u I b, I ^tended ovei 70 yeaia, 

and, lastly, in ita fourth state by annual archouB who TOled for 7B0 J eai's. 
Under this democracy Athens became unrivalled, and hci people signahzad 
themselves by their valoi raunificencQ and culture of the fine ai t9 and 
perhaps not one other smgle c ty m tho world cun boost in auoh a short 
space of time, of so great a number of illuatnoua citizens. The ancients, to 
distinguish Athens in a more peculiar manner, called it Astii, one of the eyes 
of Greece.-— PliUarcL The Venetians got possession of Athens in i. n, 1204, 
and the Turks in 1687.— JVicj(%. It became the capital of Livndia, a pro- 
vince of European Turkey; and is now tliat of the new kingdom of Greece, 
aud the seat of ita iBgialature, established under King Otho L, Jannavy 25th, 
1888.— Soo Greece. Per events m the history of Athona, sae Tailes from 
B.C. 1556 to B.C. 21. 

ATMOSPHEHE. Posidonius first calculated the height of the atmosphere, 
stating it to be 800 stadia, nearly agreeing with our modern ideas, about 79 
I.e. Its weight was determined by GalDeo and TaiTicelliua, about 1630; 
its density and elasticity by Boyle; and its relation to light aud sound by 
Hooke, Newton, and Derhara, The composition of the atmosphere was 
ascertained by Halos, Black, Priestley, Scheele, Lavolsior, and Cavendish ; 
and its hiws of re&actioE were Investigated by Dr Bradley, 1787 

ATTAINDER, Acts op, have been passed in numerous reigns two witnesses 
in cases of high treason are neecssary where corruption of blood is incnned, 
unless the party accused shall confHsa, or stand mute 7 and 8 William III 
1B91-5.-- eifta(rs(oi«. The attaindei- of Loid Rn''ii U nlin ms beheaded m 
Linooln'B-inn-PieldE, July, 21, 1683, was r^'i . . nl i > I nii in 1689 
The rolls and records of the acts of attaiml i i ' i ii of limg 

James H^ were eanccllecl and publicly bui 1 1 1 i i 1 1 i(.ts were 

roversed in subsequent reigns. Amongthi I i i imltheleaat 

interesting- was the attaint of the children i n i ] I L 1 i .,1 1 jid (who 
was implicated in the vobollion in Ireland of 171'^), Juh 1 l!i14 

ATnLA, Bnraamed the " Samrgi of Ood," and ihus diatlngnished tbr his con- 
quests and his ciimes, ravaged (fll Europe, a d 447 He invaded the Ro- 


man empire wiiti an army of 500,000 Haiis, and laid waste all the proviocee. 
He died on tho night of fiis nuptialB with s, beautiful virgiE named Udioo, 
about ji. D. 453.— (jMdjmift. 

ATTORNEY-GEfJERAL. A great offloer of the crown, appointed by letters 
patent. It in among' liis duties to exliibit infbrmatione uud prosecute fbr 
tlia king- in mattera ciiminal ; and to fQe bills in Exoliequor, for any claims 
eoneeraing tlie crown, in inheritance or profit ; and others may bring bills 
against the king's attorney. The first Attorney-General was Willmm de 
Gisilham, 1 Edward I. JSlS,—Beaiiim. 

ATTOSNEVS. The number piaetising in Edward Dl.'a reign was under 100 
ibr the whole kiogdom. In the 82d of Heniy TI. 14E4, a law reduced tho 
practitioners in Norfolk, Forwich, and Suffblk, from eighty to fooiteen, and 
rosfricted their increaae. The nnmber of attomeya now practaaing; ill Eng- 
land, or registered, or retired, is about 18,000. The number sworn, and 
practising or retired in Ireland, is stated at 2000, A list of 19,527 "praciii- 
ing laaayen" in the United States is giren in the Ziomyer's Directory, 1860. 

ATTEACTION. Copemicua deacribad attraoMon as an appefunce or appefitu 
which the Creator impressed upon aU parla of matter, about 1520. It was 
described by Kepler to he a corporeal affection fending to union, 1605. In 
the Newtonian philosophy, it is on original power which restores lost motion ; 
a principle whereby all bodies mutuaUy tend to each other. — See Astroiwmy. 

AUCTION, a kind of sole known to the Romana. The first in Britain was 
about ITOO, by Eliaha Yale, a governor of Fort George, in the East Indies, of 
the goods he had brought home with him. Auction sM sales' tax began, 1T79. 

AUERSTADT, Battle of. Id this mostsanguinarj conflict between the French 
and Pmsaian armies, thuy were commanded by their reapective soTereigns, 
and Napoleon obtained a decisive victory. The Pmssiaos were routed on 
every side, and lost 200 pieces of cannon, thirty standards, and 28,000 pri- 
Bonors, leaving 30,000 slain upon tho field, Oct. li, 1800. The Frcndi 
emperor immediately afterwards entered Berlin, from whence he issued llis 
memoraWo Berlin decree,— Soo Berlin Decree. 

AUGSBURG CONFESSION op FAITH. The confi;ssion of articles of faith 
drawn up at Augsburg by Melanethon, and by him and Luther presented tc 
the emperor Charles T. in 1580. It was divided into two parts, the first 
consisting of twenty-one articlea, and the aecond of seTen, directly opposed 
to tlie abuaea that had crept Into the Chiurchof Rome. Tho elector of Sax- 
ony, his son, ani\ scviivn.l ntliiiv prinecs of Germany, signed this confession, 
which was dWiui. il i.. i]ir .i i . im- in the palace of the bishop of Augs- 
hurg, and hciiti' ' ! 1 1 ■ i .ii.iaaion of Augsljnrg. 

AUQSBUEG, LuA'. ■ , ■ ,■■ i ■ Liu treaty concluded between Hollan'l 

and other Eiir(>|)i-:ii i i- -■lui ] iiad &r its object tho causing the trea- 
ties of Mmister and iviiiicguun tu be respected, le'Se.— See Monster and Ni- 

AUGURT. Husbandly was in part regulated by the comilw or going; of birds, 
long before the time of Hesiod. Augura inatituted at Rome, with vestals 
and several orders of tlie priesthood, by Numa, 710 s. o. There was a com- 
munity of them, appointed to ftroteU evenfa by the flight of birda, and 
other circumstances. The king Car, from whom Caria in Asia Minor is 
named, was the inventor of aoguryby birds.— Fojsiwj. The angurs of 
Rome drew omens from the phenomena of tiie heavena, the Chirping and 
flight of birds, and various strange casualties.— iiuy. 

AUGUST. The eighth month of the year. It was dedicated to the honor of 
Augustus Ciesar, from whom it was named in the-yoar 8 b. c, because in 
this month he was born, was created consul, or chief magisti'ate, thrice 



t raphe I n Po ne lul dued Egypt to the Roman empire, and made an 
1 1 th c ¥ 1 va -s It waa previonaly called SexiiUs, or the sixtli from 
U^TERLITZ BiTT bop Iwtween the French and Austrian armiea, gained by 
^he to me Three emperors commanded at this battle, Alexander of Rus- 
Bia, Francis of Aiisttia, and Napoleon of Fraaoe. The billed and wounded 
exceeded 40,000 on the side of the allies, wIlo lost, besides, jbrty standards, 
150 pieces of cannon, and many thoimands of prisoners. This decisive vic- 
tory of the French ied to the treaty of PresbniK, which was signed Deo, 26, 
same year. The battle was fought Dec. 2, 18067 See Preslmrg. 

AUSTRALASIA, incladea New Holland, Vaa Diemen's Land, New Gninea, 
Now Britian, New Zealand, &c., mostly discovered withia tvro centuries. Of 
a population of twenty-two millions, the nalave inhahiiants are not supposed 
to exceed one hnndred thousand. Several settlemenlfi &om Europe have 
been made since tlic commencement of the prfaent centary. Act to pro- 
vido Ibr the government of Western Austraiia, 10 George TV. 1829. Act 
to erect South Auatialia into a British provhica, i and 2 Williem IV. 18B4. 
New act, 5 and 6 William IV. 1886, Several oompauies and institutions con- 
nected with Anatrolia have lately been fijrmed in Jjocdon. 

J fJSTIilA anciently the Bolgic Gail of the Romans It was taken from Hnnr 

g'try and annexed to Germany, when it received its piesentname, about a. d. 

104 1 Tl -1 tt as T n rivaih loagne liad re established the Weataiii Empire, 

Tihitnas uJlud Ea&teru Piance, which its name in 

41m a ah liylh 

X^tauia ^ 

5C maijj vtclotias, eaieii 

- Sov. 14.1305 

Vienna evacnated br Ihs Fieact, 

Builealorc it 

al the peace Oct. M, 1803 

sri-ifB llie alcliaucLBEH 

1 Matia Loi 

sa th= dau^lGc of IhB 

April 1, 1310 
(Bioa ■ OeL a, 1314 

una . Fell. %, 1815 


K=w ttoaiy 




Tuoinli at 

? tanna. agltaUon ftf\o' 

uia, call in the aid ol GustsYua Adol < 

phieofSwedeD and diis leads to lbs u 

ueaty ol Westphal a 11^48 n 

Leopold I re raa —See Osraiojiy IbjS Mila 

Acee»io!iorPiandB,dukeofLoiTQine, wiih 

who niacriea tho calebralofl quean of Au-l. i 

JliriiBary,^aimTbuiflsa.Jau£hurof teir I 
the feecasBfl emae™, ciiorlw ¥L 1740 

Iteign of JOMpli ir - niS lomlui 

ml uliEck rhaiies Allien < 

9, lew ledefoiledmidriventoJ 


Ocl. fli " Venice laken by Raiielflky Aug. 22, ^ 
The Ilunsarian anny BdynncBil wiBiio iruugfuuni wav flnUiliad Ijj; the aurren- 

sirgcs Vienna, Vuii'lionitardB Ihe 
dLy mil niimtera it No., a, " , 

liiilbic tlio catalilislimeiit of tho Coiifodemtion. of tlie Rhine in 1806, Fmn- 
cis ceased to be emperov of Geiinauy, nnd Tjecame hereditaiy emperoi' of 
Austria, under the title of Francis I, Upon tlie forraation of the GermaDla 
Coofederalioa in 1815, tlie emperor of Austi-ia was declared hereditary head 
of that body. 

ADTHOES. Forlawsaeouiingeopjright, see Copyright tiiiA IMerary Prop^ly. 

ADTO DJ FE. See Inguisitimt. The pnoiahment, often by buraing alive, of 
a heretic. This Is called an act of Faith, aad is ooeral with the Inqnisltion ; 
and since its first practice in a, d. 1203, more than one hnndi'ed thonsand 
■victims have been aacriflced by the sentenco of the Inqnisitiona of Roman 
Catholic eonntiies on the burning pile. One of the last exeentiona of tltia 
liind was at Goa, where, Ibr the glory of the Christian religion (I) and in 
vindication of the Catholic ftith, twenty suflferers perished in the flames, 
1787. Theae horrible saeriflcea have ceased in Spain.— -AiAe. 

AVIGNOW, ceded by Philip UI. of France to the Pope in 1273. The papal seat 
was removed for seventy years to Avignon, in 1808. It was seized several 
times by the Preneh, by whom it was taken from the pope in 1789, fiat wss 
restored on the suppression of the Jesuits, 1778. Declared to belong to 
France by the National Assembly, 1791. Horrible massacres in October of 
that year. Continued to France by the CongreES of sovereigns, in 1816. . 

AXE, WEDGE, WIMBLE, &c. These instruments, with the lever, and vari- 
ous others of a coarse construction, and still in common use, are said to 
have hoon invented hy Dtedalua, an artificer of Athens, to whom also is . 
ascribed the invention of masts and sails fta ships, 1240 s. c. 

AZOEES, OR WESTERN ISLES, supposed to be the site of the ancient Ala- 
lautis ; they were discovered by Vandenburg, i, d, 1439 ; and were settled 
by the Portuguese, in 14i8. Marlin Behem round one of them covered with 
beech-ti«B3, and he called it therefbro Fhyal; another aboimding in sweet 
flowers, and he therefbre called it FUres; and all fiill of hawks, and lie 
therefore named them the Aaores, A violent concussion of the earth took 

6 lace here for twelve days, in 1581. A devastating eartliqualte, in 1767. 
(ere are fbuntains of boiling wat«r. A volcano at St. George's destroyed 
the town of TTrsulina, May, J80S; and in 1811, a volcano appeared near St. 
Michael's in the sea, where the water was eighty fathoms di^cp. An island 
called Sabvina gradually disappeared, Dec. 1812. 


BABEL, THE ToWEH OP, bmlt by Noah's posterity, 2347 n. c. The temple of 
Belus, originaJly tliis Gelcbraled tower, was tlie most magnitlcent in the 
world; it liad lofty spires, aod Visa enriched with mauy statues of gold, one 
"of them Ibrtf foet high. In ilie upper poi't of this tamplo was Uio tomb of 
the founder, Belns (the Nimrod of the sacred Scriptures), who waa deiHad 
after death ; and iu au adjoinius; apartment was a magninceut bed, whither 
tlic priests daily conducted a fomale, who, aa they preteniisd, was there 
honored wifli the company of the god. — Blair. 
BABINGTON'S CONSPIRACY, formed in the cause of Maiy against Elizabeth, 
for which the chief conBpirator, with ttih-tecn others, suffered deaili, Efth- 
ington was a gentleman of Derbysbii'e, and he associated with persons of hia 
own persuasion (the Samau Catholic), with a design to assassinate the 
qiiaen, and dolirei' Mary. He seams to have been principally induced to 
this rusli consphracy by a TomanUo hope that Mary, in gratitude, would 
accept of him as a husband. I5S6. 
EABYXON, Empire op, founded by Belus, supposed to be the Nimrod of holy 
writ, ttie son of Chiis, and grandson of Ham, 2245 b. c.—Lewgkt. Nmus of 
Assyria seized on Babylon, and established what was properly the Assy- 
rian empire, by anlting the two soveicJgnties, 2069 a.c. According to 
Eusobius this empire axiateii 1240 years; aceoi'ding to Justto, ISOOyeai's; 
according to Herodotus, 600 or 600 years. Of these opinions Blan' has 
adopted the lirst, wliich calculates fi'om tha foundsiljon of the empire by 
Niims, u.c. 205!), lo tlic close of the reign of Sardanapnlus, who was de- 
tliroued by his generals, and hi's kingdom divided into the Assyrian, Bahy- 
lynian, and Median kingdoms, 820 e. o. — Sea Assijrin. 

Tha lowBi- or Babel DiiiU - b,0.B54'| ^iirt nam™ lii.<™nitBl a/ler himself, 
The kingdom of BobylooljegiiH -■?.:.:■] .\.„-,-, -.'.:,"::! . - B.c.aWS 

pii-e ovBf the noifli^oriiis elalfs, (Is- Us u iliiven fiDjn ainon« inen - - EG9 

lears tlie Buliyloiiiana, and makea BEibyloE itkeii bj- (he MBdea una Pei- 

thein tribmar;.— Usiier ■ - HIM siEms, uiidoi' Cyrus - - - 63S 

NLiius, BoiioC CelusjieignainAEsyria, 1 T^oabjDarlui— ETsAw - - Bli 

The city of Babylon wais, anciently, the most magnificent in the world ; and 

in later limes femons for the empire established under the Suleticidaj. Its 

greatness was so reduced in succeeding ages, that Pliny says, in his tune it 

was but a desolate wilderuesfl; and at present the place where it stood is 

sooi'cely known lotraTelleis. — RoUin's Aiidsnt IBst. 

BACCHANALIA, gamM oelebratad in honor of Bacohua. They arose in 

Egypt, and were brought into Greece by Blelarapus, and were there called 

Dioiiysia, iili out 1415 n, a.—Diodoms. They were celebrated in Rome under 

till! name of Baccli^noMa. 

BACHELORS, The Roman censors frequently imposed fines on unmarried 

men ; and men of fuB age were obhged to marry. The Spai'fan women at 

certain games laid hold of old fjaohelora, dragged them round their altars, 

and inSicted onthemvarions marts of initimy and disgrace. — Vosmis. After 

twenty-five years of age, a tax was laid upon bachelors in England, 12i. 10s. 

for a dnke, and for a common person, one shiBing, 7 William III. 1G05. 

Bachalora were suhiecled W a double tai on theh' male and flimale servants, 

in 1785. 

BACKGAMMON. Palamedes of Greece Is the reputed inventor of this game 

(decidedly one of the oldest known to our times), about 1224 e. c. It ia 


stated by some to have 110011 iavcnted in Wales in tlio peiiod piucedicg the 
C onquest.— i5fe«n/- 
BADAJOS, SiEQE OP. This important barrier fortress Bad surrendered to thB 
Freneh, March 11, I8H, and was inyested by the British under lord Wel- 
lington en March 18, 1812, and stormed and taken on April 6, fbllowin^. 
Tlv.a victory was not only a glorious militBry acliieyement in itself, but it 
obhged the Frenob, who had entered Portncal for the purpose of plunder, 
to commence a precipitnte retreat than that Kingdom. 
BADEN, JIoVHE OP, descended ftom Herman, son of Berthold I. duke of Zah- 
i-ingen| who died a. d. 107*. J'rom Christopher, who united the branches 
of Hochberg and Baden, and died in 1527, proceed the hranchra of Baden» 
Baden, and Baden-Donrlach. This femily miQceB a moat conspicuous figure in 
the annals of Germauy, and is aliied to aU the principal iUiniliea in tbe empire. 
BADEN, Theatt op, between France and the emperor, when Landau was 
ceded to the former, Sept. T, 1714. Baden was jbrmerly a margravate ; it 
was erected into a grand dnol^, as a member of the Rhenish Confederation, 
in 1806. lis territorial acquisitions by its alhances with Prance, were gua- 
ranteed by the congress of Vienna, in 1815. The grand Dake granted his 
people fteedom of the press, a burgher guard, trilil by jury, and the right 
of public meeting, Feb. 29. Troops revolt at Rastadt.Hay, 18i9. Insm'- 
rection at Carlsruhe ;— the grand Duke flees. May 13, 18i§. Insurrection 
subdued by the i'msslana, Jnue, 1849. 
BAFFIN'S-BAY, discorered by William Baffin, an Englishman, in 1816. The 
notare and extent of tbia discovery were much donbted until the expeditions 
of Ross and Pai'ry proved that Bafiin was substantially accui'ate in his state- 
ment. These voyagers returned home in 1818. See article JVml/b West 
BAGDAD, built by Almansov, and made the seat of the Saracen empire, a. n. 
702 — taken by the Tartars, and a period put to tlia Saracen rule, 1258. It 
has since been often taken by the Persians, and from them again hy the 
Turks.— £iai!-. 
BAGPIPE. This instnitnent is sapposed by some to be peculiar to Ireland and 
Scotland i but it must have been knoivn to the Greeks, aa, on a piece of 
Grecian sculpture of the highest antiquity, now in Rome, is represented a 
bagpiper dressed like a modem higlilander. Nero is said to have played 
upon a hagpipe, a.d. 61. 
BAHAMA ISLES. These were the flrst points of disoovery by Columbus. 
San Salvador was Been by this greatnavigator on the night of the 11th Octo- 
ber, 1492.— Tlie Btdiamas were not kno\vn to the Englisb till 1667. Seized 
for the crown of England, 1718, when the pirates who inhabited them sur- 
rendered to Captiun Rogers. 
BAIL. By ancient common law, before and since Hie Comjnest, all felonies 
were bailable, till murder was excepted by statute ; and hy the 3d Edward 
I. the power of bailing in treason, and in divers instances of felony, waafaken 
away, 1274. Bail was further related, 28 Henry 'VI. ; 2 Philip and Bbry. 
and in later wigna. 
BAILIFFS OR SHERIFFS, are said to be of Saaon ori^n. London had its shire- 
reve prior to the Conqnest, and this officer was generally appointed for 
counnes in Eigland in 1079. SheriSS were appointed in Dublin under the 
name of bailifffi, in 1808 ; and the name was changed to sheriff, 1548. There 
ai'e still some places where the chief-magistrate is called baihff, as tiie high 
bailiff of Westminster. Tbe term Bum-t/alifis a corruption of bound-bailiff, 
every bailiff being obliged to enter into bonds of security for his good be- 
havior. — B!ad:slime. 


bal] bictiokahy of batrs. 187 

BALANCE OP POWER, to aasnre the iEdepeniiency' and integrity of Bfa1«s, and 
control ambition ; tlie principle is said to be a discovery of the Italisn poli- 
tiuiansofthe fifteenth century, on tlie invasion of Charles VIII. ofFi'once— 
EoberUon. By the treaty of Mimster, tho princaple of a bahmce of power 
was first recognized by treaty October 24, 1648. 
BALLADS. They may be traced in British history to the Anglo-SaroDS.— 
Tanii^. Ani^alme, who died i. d. 709, is menUoned ss tho flreS who intro- 
duced ballads into England. "The horp was sent round, that those might 
sing who could," — Bsde. Alfred snng ballads. — Mokii^iry. Cnnute com- 
posed one. — Tama: Minstrels were protect«d hya charter of EdwardlV.; 
but by a statute of Elizabeth they were made punishable ainong rogues, 
vagabonds, and sturdy beggars. — Viner. 
BALLADS, NATIONAL. " Give me the writing of the halladfl, and yon may 
make the laws." — Fielcher of Sidiamt. A British statesman has said, " Give 
. me the writing of the ballads of the country, and while I place at yoni* com- 
mand every ofiier species of composition, I will flx publio qpimon, and rule 
public feeling, and sway the popular Eentimecfc, more powerfuDy than all 
your writers, political and moral, can do by any other agency or influence." 
Tho beautiful and frequently touching baJlads of Dibdin, particularly those 
of the sea, inapu'ad many a brave defender of his country in the hita war ; 
Dibdin died Jan. 20, 1833. 
BALLETS. They arose in the meretricious taste of the Italian courts. One 
performed at the interview l>etween Hen. VIII. of Eng. &PrancJs I. of Fi-ance, 
in the field oftho Cloth of Gold, 1520.— CfKicwBfrfww. In the next centui-y, 
they reached the summit of their glory in the splendid pomps of the eonrts 
of Tuscany and Lon^ne ; and their most aealons patron, Louis XIV"., bore 
a part in one, 1664, 
BALLOON. Gftlien of Avignon wrote on aerostation, in 1766. Dr. Black gave 
the hint as to hydrogen, in 1767- A balloon was constructed in France by 
MM, Montgolfier, in 1783, when Rozier and the marquis d'Arlandes ascended 
at Paris, Pilatre Desrozier and M, Remain peiished in an attempted voyage 
from Bodlogue to England, the balloon having taken fire, June 14, 1785. At 
ttu> b.ittlo of Flcunis, the French made usB of a balloon to reconnoitre the 
crummy's army, and convey the observations by tcbgriiph, June 17, 1794. 
Gftmerin ascended in a balloon to the Jiciglit of 4,000 feet, and descentlcd by 
a paiachiite, Sept, 21. 1802. (Say-Lnssac ascended at Paris to the height of 
2-3 000 feet, Sept. 6, 1804. Madame Blanchard ascended from Tivoli at night, 
and the balloon, being snn'ounded by flre-worka, fool; fli'e, and she was pre- 
cipitated to the ground, and hilled, July 6, 1819. 
BALLOON, The NAsSin. The great Nassau balloon, of Inanenso dimensions, 
and which had Ibr some time previously been exhibited to the inhobitaulB 
of London in repeated ascents from Vanxball gardens, staited from that 
place on an experlroental voyage, having three individuals in the car, and, 
after having been eighteen hours in the air, descended at Weilburg, in the 
duchy of Nassau, Not, T, 1830. 
>"aT.TIMORE, tlie third city in population and fifth in commerce in the United 
States; fouudi^d 172!); named fhim lord Baltimore, the proprietor of the 
M.irylLiiid imtent. Iii 1765 it contained but BO houses ; chartered as a city 
in 17U7. Popnktioii in 1730, 13.503 ; in 1810, 35,583 ; in 1830, 80.625 ; in 
1840, 102,313, including 8,199 shivus. A handsome mocumont in the city 
commemorales its sncces-tful defijncc against the attack of the British under 
general Sosa, Sept. 12, 1814. 
BALTIMORE, BiTiLE op, between tlie British ai'my nndor general Eoss and 
the Americans ; the British in making an attack upon the town were uusuc- 


i88 THE EESS. [ban 

cessFiil, and after n aesperat* g «^n n if re repulaeS. wiili great Imb; 
the gallant general who led h n killed, Sept. 13, 1814. 

BANK, The feat establiBhed a 808, by the LomtoTd Jows, of 

whom Eomo settkd id LomLard tiee L d n, whei'e many hankers still 
reside. The name hank Ie d n d m , a bench,' which was ewctcd 

m the mai kct-placo for tlia eiohange of money The mmt in the towei i f 
London was anciently the depository for morchJinlB' cash, nntil Charlei I 
laid lus hands upon llu iinnci iiid dL>.lnii lJ Oil ' ii rtit iif thomint, in 1040 
The tradu-^nn i i i il i mil loi then eokl 

which when I i mditl iiitlit> 

thearmy In! I ' Il tlio golfl^mjt.ia 

in LomVaid all i i i (km uivniilu 

abJi iiaic? -hilIiI i iI i ^ ^ i „I'iil — 

1346 I Bank at Itoltetdmn 

and lELH 

EAhK OP LiN'tLAKD (Ste pre/xding article ) originally projected by a 
cliant named Patterson. It was incorporated by William iQ. m I09i, m um- 
sideration of 1.200,000^., tile then amount of its capital, beina; lent to gor- 
ernment. The capital has gone on iacreasinfffl'om one period to another np 
to the pieeent time, as the discretion of parhament allowed ; and the same 
authority haa also at different inteiTals prolonged the priTileees of the bank, 
and renewed its chailer. When feat esfahlisEed the netaa of the bank were 
at 20 per cent, disconnt ; and so late aa 1T4G, iOiey were onder par. Bank 
biliswere paid in eilvor, 1746. The flrat bank post-billa were issued 1764 ; 
small notes were iEBued 1759; cash payments ivevo discoiitinaed Febmary 25, 
1797, when notes of ojie and two poiiii'l- ■■ it ■ |i.i nli. cjculation. Silver 
tokens appeared in Januaiy, 1798 ; a'l.l 1. doUai'S, with the 

head of Gcoyge HI. stamped on the n-i :, ■■ i : ,. rcmacIecniTent. 

Ca-sh payments "were resumed pavtL;i!v. . , . .' ■ . . ; id the resti'iction 
had altogether eeaMd in 1821. Foi- ^i ir i i. ■■!■.■■ v ■■ . i:u^ llnanoial mea- 
sures of the .crown hate been largely aidtd hy loiius from this great resei- 
Toir of wealth. The average amo wit of the Bank of England notes in cuv 
dilation ia as follows ; — 


The circulation of notes, in 18iQ, oiceedod 27 millions, and the bulhon in 
the bank fluctuated between 15 and 16 millions. Tlie retuiliB of issues, &o. 
are now made weekly. To ^-h i.^ IIi< iI'M (,:" the Bank it was enacteil, 
"that no other banking coil , ■ ' ' Im of more than six persons, 
6 Anne 1707. There ai-e i;: :■ . . ■ llankof England in many of 

the chief towns of the kiji:,ii' i i .i am, Bristol, Exeter, Glouces- 

ter, Hull, Leeds, Liyerpool f.) niili. ■ r... r.. ■.■. o'sstlb, Norwich, Swansea, &&,. 
all formed since 1828. See funds. 
BANK OP THE DNTTED STATES, first one established 1701. Cap, 810,000,000. 
~A new one with cap. of Sf35,OOO,O0O, 1816. The act of Congress rechar- 
teriiig it vetoed by president Jackson, July 10, 1882, Tho "remyyal cif 
the deposits " of the U. S. government ftom the bftiik, by oi'der of i)i'csi- 
dent Ja«lcaoji, signed by R. B. Taney, secretary of the Ti'easaiy, ^W. J. 
Dnane the late secretary Iiariag refused to sign tho order,) Sept. 23, 1833. 
JResolulJon of the Senate that &e removal was uncalled for, and the reEpOD- 
sihllity assumed by the president unconstitutional, Sw^, introduced by &Ii 



Webster and passed (28 to 20) Maroti 2S, 183t Senate refuaed. to enter on 
their Joimial tie president's protest againat their reaolution, May 7, 1834. 
Noted i-aaolation of Hie Senate "expunging" ftom their jouraala their reeo- 
Intion of 1884, passed 24 to 19, Jan. 16, 1887.— Sub-TreuBury Bill passed 
Jan. 1840, repealed Aug. 9, 1841. The U. S. Bank newly incoi-porated by 
Pennsylvania, Mai'ch 2U, 1886 : Bnspeniied payment Feb. 6, 1841. Bill fbr 
establishing a " Fiscal Bank of the U. S." passed the House of Bepresenfa- 
tives Aug. 0, 1841 ; vetoeii by president Tyler Ang. 16. Another billftir a 
" Fiscal Corporation " vetoed Sept. 0, 1841, folloived by a resignation of s,l] 
the Cabinet, except Mr. Weljster, 

BANKRUITCY. Suspension of specie payments hy the banlrs of New Eug- 
land and New- York, May 10—16, lS!7j— legalized for one year by legisla- 
ture of N. T. Banks of Philadelphia, Baltimore, Sx., aJso suspended samo 
month. tJeneral bankruptcy laiv passed by Congresa Ang. 9, 1841. 

BANKRUPTS, i» England, first law enacted regarding them, 35 Heniy YIIL 
IMS. Again, S of Elizabeth, 1660 i again, I Jamea I. 1602 ; Bgain,]706; 
aud more recently. It was determined by tie King's Benct that a bantmpt 
may be arrested except in going and, coming from any examination iiefbro 
the commissioneTS, May 13, 1780- The lord chancellor (Thurlow) reftised 
a baiilu'upt hia certificate because he had lost five pounda at one time in 
gamiDg, July 17, 1788. Enacted that members of the hoaae of commons 
becoming bankrupts, and not paying' their debbs in ftill, shall vacate their 
seats, 1812. The new baoki'upt bSl, constituting a new bankrupt court, 
passed October 1831. — Staiides at Large. 

1700 - . - - 433 1830 - ■ . 13S3 IMO 

im Bao I laas - - .. sues | ism 


According to a retuin U> pai-Jiament made at tJi9 dose of Febmary 1826, 
there had become bankiiipt in Jie four mimtks precedii^, 69 banking-houses, 
comprising 14* partners; and 20 other banking establishments had been 
declared insolvent. Every succeeding week continued to add fl-om seventy 
to a hundied mci chants trade -s ind mannfacturers to the baubiupt liat. 
This was towever the period of but ble speonlatioo, and of unprecedented 
commercml embarrassment and jam 

BANNOCEBUrN B ttlf et een ting Kobert Bmce, of Scotland, and 

Ed vai 1 r of BiTice consulted of 80,000 Scots, and 

. that of r i^h of whom 52,000 wew ai'chara. The 

Engli ttack, and Bruce having dug pita, which 

he na 1 a and ware tirrown into confusion. The 

rout \i 1 owly escaping, and 50,000 English were 

killed oi t 11 J le 25 1314 —Barbim: 

BANN** In the feudal law banns were a aolenm ^rocIamatioQ of any thing, 
and hence aioaathe custom of asking 1 anus, or giving notice before man'iage. 
The aae of matrimomal banns is said to have been introduced inlfl tlie GaTli- 
can cliurch, about *. n. 1210; and hanns of marriage are proclajmed in the 
churdi of England to this day. 

BAPTISM. The sacrament of admission instituted by Christ and practiaed by 
aJl scots professing Christianity, except Quakers. St. John, the forerunner 
of our Saviour, ia eminently called the Baptist, as being tlie first that publicly 
baptized with a spuituol infentdon. Cliriat came &om Galilee to Jordan, 
and was haptized by John. a. d. 80. Originally the people were baptized in 
rivers ; but in the reign of Constantine, a. d. 319, in great citiea (iiey huilt 
dispels, or places specially to baptJEe in, which In iba eastern countiieswaa 


by dipping tte persott all over. Now, in the weafeim and colder parts, they 
nse sprintlingi at first every chuich liad not ft baptistery belonging to it ; 
our fonts inawer the aamo and — Pardon 

BAFn^rs in 4MiiiPijE,T^ laect diatragnishedfi-om other ChrisHana by their 

[II 1 4 iTOi tegau then doctrina about A. D. 1525, but mncli 

I I lliej BuSeied much perfieoution in England in 

rhode lalaud America, WM settled by Baptists in 

1 I us it may be Sftid that the Moravian bretbreu led 

111 III 1 lit euterpiiaea niioat nS2.—See Anabapiisls. 

S ^RB VDOE^ tlic }ii t Lnglish settlement m tie Weat Indies. This mother 
plantation gaye rise to tho sugai tiade m England about 1605; and HBai 
with other Canbbee islands settled by charter granted to the earl of Mai'I- 
borough 2 Charles I 1027 Baibadora has suffered severely from elemental 
visitettona in a dreadful hurricane in 1780 more than 4000 of the Inhabit 
ania lost their lives A large plantotion with all its buildings waa deatroyed, 
by the laud removing' from its original aite to another, and covering evek^ 
tiling in its peregrination, Oct. 17M. An inmidaOon, Nov. 1795 ; and two 
great flres, May and Dae, 1790. Awful devastation, with the loss of thou- 
aanda of lives, and of injmense properly, by a hurricane, August 10. 1831. 
The history of Inkle and Vanco, which Addison, in his Spcctaior, haa ra- 
cordei ^r the detestation of manMnd, took iia rise, in this island. 

BARBER. This trade waa practised at Rome in the thii'd centmy b. d. In 
England, barbers formerly exhibitecl a bead, or jwfe, at tlieir doors; andUie 
barber's pole until lately used by them was a burlesque imitation of t^e 
former sign, 

BARBER-SURGEONS. Formerly tlie buainesa of a surgeon ivas united to that 
of a barber, and ho was denominated a barber-surgeon. A company was 
formed under this name in 1308, and the Loudon company waa incorporated, 
lat Edward IV. Ii61, This union of profession waa dissolved by a statute 
of Henry vm. 

BARDS, Tlia profeasion of bard appeai'ed with great lustre in Gaul, Britain, 
and Ireland. Demodocus U menlioned as a bard by Homer ; Alexander the 
Great had a bard named Cherylus ; and we find bards, according to Slralio, 
among the Romans before the a^e of Auguatns. The druids among the 
English were philoaophers and priests, and the bards were their poets. 
They were the recorders of heroic actions, in Ireland and Scotland, almosl 
down to our own times. Ossian flourished in the third centitry, Merlin ia 
the fifth. The former speaks of a prince who kept a hundred barda, Irish 
sonnets are the chief foundations of tlie ancient history of Ireland.— See 

8ARNET, Battiji op, between the houses of York and Lancaster, when Ed- 
ward IV. gained a decisive and memoi-able victory orer the earl of War- 
wick, Easier-day, April 14, 1471,— Bi-oois. 

BAROMETERS, TorricelH, a PlorenUne, having discovered that no principle 
of suction existed, and that water did not rise in a pump owing to nature's 
abhorrence of a vacuum, imitated the action of a pump witli mercmy, a'ii 
made the flrat barometer, in 1G48, and Descartes explained the phenomenu, 
Wheel baioraetei-s were conti^Ted in 1668; pendant barometers In 1695; 
marine in 1700. 
IRONS. The dignity of baron ia extremely ancient; its original name in 
England was Vavasimr, which, by the Sasons was changed into T/iaiie, and 
by the Normans into Baron. Many of this rank are named in. the his- 
tory of England, and undoubtedly had assisted in, or had been suramonec' 
to parliament ; but such ia the deficiency of public records, that the Hf' 


created Baron of KidderminBl«r, by Kichard 11., 1387. BaroDB first siun- 
moned to pailiament, 1205. Took arma againet king Joliii, and com- 
pelled liim to sign the great charter of our liberties, anif the charter of the 
Ibresfa, at Kminymode, near Windsor, June 1216. Charles n. granted a 
coronet to harona on hia restoration : thej attended parliament in complete 
ai-mor in the reign of Hemy UI.~Bcatsim. 
BARONETS, the first among the gentry, and the only Itnighthood that is here- 
ditary: instituted by James I., 1611. The baroncta of Ireland were created 
in 1619. Baronets of Nova Scotia were ci-eated, 1625. 
B'ABRISTERS. They are said to liave been first appointed by Edward I. 
about 1291 i but there ia earlier mention of profeaeional advocates in Eng- 
land. There are variona ranks of bari'isfers, as King's Counsel, Ser- 
geants, &o. 
BARKOWS STRAITS. Discovered by Parry, who penetrated aa fhr as Mel- 
ville Island, in lat. 74° 26' N., and long. 118° 47' W. TJie sti'ait iras entered 
OQ the 2d Augnst, 1819. The lowest state of the tkarmomoter was 55" 
below zero of Fahrenheit. 
Bartholomew, MAesiCBG of St. TUIs dreadful maasaci-e in Frnnce com- 
menced at Paris on the night of the festival of St. Bartholomew, August 24, 
1572. More than seventy thousand Hugonots, or French Protestants, were 
muidered throughout the kingdom, by aeevet orders from Chai'les IX., at 
the instigation of the queen-dowager, Catherine de Modicis, his mother. 
The masaacre was attended ■with droumstances of demoniacal cruelty, even 
as regarded the female and the iiifimt. 
SA3T1LE OF PARIS. A royal castle, buUt by Charles V. Mug of France, m 
1869, eiseq. fbr the defence of Paris against the English, completed hi 1888. 
It was afWi-wards used as a state prison, like tlia Tower of London, and be- 
came the scene of the most deplorable safiering and irightfol crimes. It 
was of such strength that HMiry IV. and his veteran army assailed it In 
vain in the siege of Paris, during the intestine war tbat desolated France 
between the years 1687 and 1694 ; yet it was pulled down by the infuriated 
populace, July 14, 1789, and thus was commenced tie French revolation. 
On the capture of this great monument of slavery, the governor and other 
officers were seized, and conducted to the Place de Qriire, and haviug had 
their hands cut oif, they were then beheaded. The furious citizena havmg 
fixed their heads on pikes, canled them in triumph throngh the streets. 
" Tiia man with the iron mask," the moat mysterious prisoner ever known, 
died here, November 19, 1703, — See Iron iltai. 
3ATAVIA. The capital of Java, and of all the Dutcli settlements in the East 
Indies, fortified by that people, 1618. Twelve thoasand Chinese massacred 
here in one day, 1740. Talcen by the English, January, 1782. Again, by 
the British, under general air Samuel Auchmuty, to whom the garrison 
surrendered, Aug. 8, 1811. 
B/,THS, longusad in Greece, and introduced hyMcecenas into Rome, The 
Uiermte cf the Romans and gjnwaaia of the Greeks were sumptuous. The 
marble Laocoon was found in the baths of Titus, and the Fai'neso Hereulca 
intlioae of Caracalla.— FSirafo. 
BATTEL ROIi. Afiter the battle of Hastings, which decided the fkbe of 
England, and subjected it W the Norman yoke, a list was taken of William's 
chie^, amounting to 629, and called tlie Battel-roll ; and among these chiefe 
the landa and distinctions of the followers of the defeated Harold were dis- 
tributed, 1006. 




BATTLE, Waqeh op. A trial ty combat, formerly allowecl bj English laws, 
wiere the defendant In an apnea! of murder might fight with the appellant, 
and make proof thereby of hia guilt or innocence. In a case of appeal of 
mnrder, AMord T. Tkii-ntifa, before the King'a Bench in London, April 1818, 
the oomt aUowed that the law gave tliE detfendaata right to bis wag«i' of 
battle ; hut the appellant, the brotbiw of a lovely girl, whom Thornton had 
first violated and (hen mrafdered, not accepting the challenge, the mwderor 
was discharged. A stitnte was immediately pasised, patting an end to this 
mode of ti'ial, 53 George III., 1819.— Steiufcs ai large. 

BATTERING-RAM. Tistuda Arieti^ria, with otlier military inipIementB, some 
of which are stiU in usOj invented by Artemones, abont Mi 3. o. These 
ponderous engines by their own weight exceeded (he utmost efliicta of bur 
batterioff amaon.—Desagviiers. Sir CMstopher Wren emplojfed a batlei^ 
Ing-ram m demolishing Qie old walls of St. Paul's oharch, previously to re- 
building the new edifice in 1675. 

BATTLES. Palamedes of Argos was the first who ranged aa army in a regu- 
lar line of battle, and placed senUuels round a camp, and excited the sol- 
dier's vigilance by giving him a watch-word.— iwtei. The following are 
the principal and most memorable battles mentioned in general histoiy, and 
aie those also that are most commonly referred to : 

.ctlum (ifie empire of j 


ucre (^ege commBnced) 

ISiv Swiiieu &'mith 

Usy IS, 1311 

Ha". 2l', 1301 
Maj 17, 1799 

April*, ira? 
Aug. 27, ISil 
Aug. 6, ISll 

lulT 2S, 1^9 
tepc. 12, 1B14 
ruueSC, 1314 
Lpril 14, 14n 
Mor. e, ISII 
MnySO, 1S13 
SlBT. 19, UM 

liHoa (British legim) Dei. 24, 1830 

llacKheiuJuCorn'aftiJeiBfcdf/ealed) 1497 
llKckrooli (Amer. t Brit.) ■ Dec S, 1813 
lladaiabutg - - - Aug, M, 1314 

lleiihoim (MarOoraagh') Aug, 2, ITOt 

Inrndtnn . . . SsCI. 7, 1813 

Aug. aa, J4&' 
- . 1679 

, July 1,1690 

ce (Frencli and Qermona) - - jEli 
1 ,- ■ - - Sept. 17, 17M 

lewaler (Aoiericans and Brilish) 

July S6, IE 

t£L Vista (J.iner. and Mexicasta^ 

Feb. SS, If 

IDS Ayies (PopAom) - JunsBl, IE 

— —(.miiOlocki Julyfl, If 

Carlliag8«nAenJmP«6iiii8fit^;o) - I4t 
ChceroDeaCiWrniSos) - ■ ■ 44! 

— ■ iPhiHp) ■ ■ ■ - 338 

(%Ua) - - -80 

Caiioa (I/saonds-MUcd) - ■ - .SH 

— (Ama-.i'Jl 


BATTLES, coiiliimed. 

IpEus (AAtiEwata atatfi) • 
Issus (lU^Oin Peraiata slain) 

L^id^^iu (Pntssiaas at, 


Lalftlill (Duke of Oumherlandt 

mbi/the AiHi 

jmoig; -i 


Mal^Ffusi a 

July 12, 1791 

- sepL 33, iras 

Miy S; 1/96 

Ilau iSwedeo and Huasia 

latB, Hungary - 

' April 1(^ 


- Aug. l« 


scow (iiinu) 

. Ki 



seby - 

J™nB li, 

waSi . 

wbury • 

■ OM, 2^ 


- Jan B^ 

Nlflgara, Fori - 

- Nov. 

Nfefot - 

- May 7, 


[folk (liumlbs 11.! Br 

IM) June 


all!e Bf the 



BATT.KS, amiitmed. 

NonvBlk (iumi bulheB 
Novi (Saltan™; 

OgileuBtiurg (Brilieh and A 

THE world's 

ni (.Chevy Cliaa 


OucJenard ij^arilmrimgl 

PbiilppliSomna Sepv/i nrf 
Pela Alio (Is! e/Amtr. ^ Msx B 

Plausljius (Amei-ici 

Prague - 

Pcmcewn (A^er. * Hrfi.) Jab'. 3; IJ 
Puiwiwa(C;wIssJr//J - Julys,!! 

" '- - Dec-Sfl, 1£ 

- /^J^l^ 
.ff of J-hf-atiam) 

Sept 13, 1! 
— (deoiA eTJWiKK&omwjJDec. El, 1! 

.Baiatoga t,Burgof/n^a surrmder) 
favaimab (lalim by Iks Srilish) 


- < Ttpptm i^'Usd) May 4, 1799 

'" A"*™* 

Vimiera ( Wdlingliin) 


■ Jima IB, IS 

Ina ( J^te>) 

;— (CSor/M /!)• - "''"."llim 

rk (^Tto^d) captured br Anien- 
ana - - - April 37, IBIS 

ti Town (jiHToniif r j/' COmuaJMs) 

Nov. S, ibid 
- Sepl, 8, 1831 

'^"' i 1314 

;. iffll 'iTre 

Nov, 30, tSirf 

ZenlB, Buni 

!ary (Prince Bugent 

BAVARIA, House or. The diikadom fomided in the eleventli eentmy; this 
house bss the same origin as that of Saxonf, and is a branch of tho Guol- 
phian family; Henry GneJpli waa made dtike of Bavaria hy Conrad n., em- 
peror of Germany, who reigned in 1024. Otho, count Witbelpatch, wiis 
made duke in. 1179; anil SlasimiKan I. elector In 1624. Bavaria wai 

■■ 'lliia ballle and ileftat of Cliailea put a poriofl to the ciTll wot in England. 



erectod into a fciigdom by Bonaparte in Decembei' 1805 ; and obtained by 
the treaty of Pcesbnrg the incorporation of the whole of the Italian and 
German Tji'ol, the biAoprie of Anapach, and lordshiva ia Gei-many. This 
kingdom juined the coalition against Franca in. Oct. 1818. Bavarian cham- 
bur recommends freedom of t!ie press, &c., by almoBt unaaimons vote, Oct, 
IT, 18i7. Riots at Munich on acconnt of Lola Montes, the kiog'e mistrees, 
Feb. 9, 1848, Violent movement at Mnnich; the king abdicates inft,voror 
his son, Masimillian n., Mareh 22, 1848. 

KQiDS tw BivJkHljl.. I 1SJ5 Louts, 131h Octaber :— BMlCBled, 

leOG Msaimilian Jtsepli, ilieprceedlnsaioi:- 1 Maieb E3, 1«8. 

lor, ciEaied kiDg. | l&tS MaTimiliiin n. 

B.'IYEUX TAPESTRY. This important historical doeument was wrought by 
Matilda, the qneen of William I., acd reprasenta the ficts of the Conquest, 
from the signature of the will of the Confessor down to the crowning of 
William, l^S.^Ea^n. This curious monnment of antiquity embroidereii 
by Matilda, is 19 inches wide, 214 feet long, and is divided into compart- 
ments showing the train of events, conjmencingwith the visit of Harold to 
the Norman comi;, and ending with his death at Hastings ; it is now presei fed 
in Uie town-hoTiae of Konen.— JgwM Siiixklanii. 

BAYONETS. The short swoi'd or dagger fixed at the end of a muaket. This 
' weapon was invented at Bayonne, in Pi'ance (whence the name), abont 1670. 
According to the abbe Lenglet, it was first used in battle by the French, in 
1603, "with grent sncoess agamst an enemy unprepared for the encounter 
with so fbrmioable a novelty." 

B.\2AAR, OR CovEBED Maiucet. The word is of Arabic 
of Ispahan is moenificent, yet it ia excelled by that c 
several times held 80,000 men in order of battle. 


BEADS. The Druids appear to have used beads. They were early need' by 
Derviees and otter holy men of the East. Tiiey were in general oae in 
Roman Catliolic devotions, a. d. 121S. The bead-roll was a list of deceased 
persons for the repose of whose souls a certain nunil)er of prayers were re- 
cited, which the devout counted by a strmg of beads. — Butler. 
BEARDS. VarionB have been the eustonwi of moat naljons respecting them. 
The Tartars, out of a religions principle, waged a long and bloody war with 
the Persians, declaring them infidels, because they would not cut their 
beards after the rites of Tarfaiy. The Greeks wore thefar beards till the 
time of Alexander, who ordered the Macedonians to be shaved lest the 
board should give a handle to their enemies, 330 n, o. Beards were worn 
by the Romans, 297 n. c. They have been worn for centuries by the Jews. 
In England, they were not fashionable after the Conquest, a. n. 1066, until 
the thh^teenth century, and were dJsconHnued at the Restoration. The 
RoBsiana, even of rank, did not cut Uieh' beards until within these ftw 
years; and Peter the Gfreat, notwithstanding his enjoining them to shave, 
was obliged to keep officers on foot to cut off tlie heard by force. 

BEARDS ON WOMEN. A bearded woman was taken by the Pmsaisns at the 
battle of Pult«wa, and presented to the Czar, Peter 1. 1724: her beard 
measured 1 J yards. A woman is said to have been seen in Paris wiili a bushy 
beaid, and her whole body covered with hair.— iJici. de 'IVevaiuc. The 
great Margaret, govemess of the Netherlands, had a very long stiff beard. 
In Bavaria, in the time of Wolflns, a virgin had a long black beard. 

BKAUVAIS, Heroines of. On the ioivn of Benuvais being besieged by 
Charles the Bold, dnke of Burgundy, at the head of 80,000 men, the women 
under the conduct of Jeanne de la Hachette, or Laine, particularly diatin- 
gulshed themselves, and the duke was obliged to raise the siege, July 10, 
1472. la memory of their noble exploits during the siege, the females of 


196 E at 

Bean a ^all 6 t a a i cession on the anniyersary of their dalirerance 
— H lenaU 
BECKETS MURUEK Th nais rchblshop oF Canterbury, was nrardered a . 
th alta De 9 1171 F o tarona liearing Heiivy II. say, in a mqraeni 
of esa pe alien What im happy prince am I, who have not about me 
one man of spu:it enough to rifl. me of this insolent prelate," resolved npon 
Becket'e asaassination : and rushing with drawn sworda into the eathedJai 
of Canterbury, where he was at vespers, they announced their derfgn, when 
he cried out, " I churge you, in the name of the Almighty, not to hurt any 
other person here, for none of them have been concerned in (he late trans- 
ft ■ " The confedetataa then strove to drag him from the church; buj 
n t b ng able to do so, on account of hia resolute deportment, they kilfed 
h m th spot with repeated wounds, oU which he endured without a 
oan Ih bones of Becket were enshrined in gold and set with Jewels, in 
1220 a d vere taken up and burned in the reign of Hairy YIIl. 1539.— 

BED TI p ctieewasuniversal in theflrstages.formankindtosleepuponthe 
km f be sta.— IfftiiSato-. This was the custom of the etLrly Greeks and 
R IS, d of the Britons, before the Roman invasion. They were after- 
wards changed for loose nishes and heather. Straw followed, and was user" 
in the royal chambers of England so late as the close of the fifteenth ceii-' 
tury. The Bomans were the first who used feathers. 

BEER. See Ate. A beverage of this sort is made mention of byXenophon, hi 
his ftimoos retreat, 401 b. o. Beer was drunk generally in England in the 
thirteenth century. By a law of James I., when there was a kind of duty 
paid on '■ ale called here," one quart of the best thereof was to be sold for a 
penny. Subiected to excise in 1660, In England the number of retailers it 
183i amounted to about 60,000. See Brswers. 

BEES. Mount Hybla, on account of its odoriferous flowers, thyme, and abu..- 
dance of honey, has been poetically called, the " cmpu'e of bees." Hymettus, 
in Attica, is also fitmous for its bees and honey. The economy of bees waa 
admiredin the earliest ages; and Eumelus, of Corinth, wrote a poem on 
bees, 741 b. c. There are 3M species of the bee, or apis gijiius, and 111' in 
Engliuid. Strange to say, bees were not originally natives of New England: 
Ujoy were introduced into Boston by the English, in 1670, and have since 
spread over the whole continent ; the first pliraters never saw s.'oy.— Hardies 

BEET-ROOT. It is of recent cnltivaljon in England- Margraff first producei,. 
sugar from the white beet-root, in 1747. M. Achard pioduced excellent, 
sugar fl'om it in 1799 ; and the chemists of France at the instance of Bo- 
naparte, largely extracted sugar ftom the beet-root in 1800. A refinery Oi 
sugar from oeet-root was lately erected at the Thames-bank, Chelsea. 

BEGUINES. Nnns, first established at Liege, and afterwards at NiveJle, in 
1207. The '■ Grand Beguinage " of Bruges ia the most extensive of modem 
times. — Some of these nuns once fell into the extravagant error that thev 
could, in this life, arrive at the highest moral perfection, even to imp, -^ 
cability. The council of Vienne condemned this error, and abolished .: 
branch of the order in. 1311. 

BEHEADING — or DecoUaiio of the Romans, introduced into England from Nor-.- 
mandy (as a less iguorainions'mode of puttir^ high ci'iminala to deathjiy, 
WiUiam the Conqueror, 1074, when Waltheo^ earl of HvmtiogdOQ, North- 
ampton, and Northumberland, was first so executed. — iSatojore's Cbron. 
English history is filled with instances of this mode of execotion, parljcn- 





krly in Hie reigns of Henry VIH., and Maiy. wben even women of the iioblEst 
Wood, greatest virtues, and most innocent lives, thus suffered death.* 
.EHRING'S STRAIT. Explored by a Danish navigator in the ajwice of Rub- 
aia wlioae name it beam. Behring tlins esfabiished timt the continents 
of Asia and America are not united, but are Uistaot from each other about 
thirty-nine miles, 1728. 
SELGIDM. Late the sonthern portion of the kingdom of the Netherlands, 
and anciently the territory of the Belgte, wiio were conquered by Julivis 
Ciesar, 47 b. o. Under the dominion of France so late as a. d. 1869; formed 


ma OQ ecqujsilion cf Hie house of 

by Uie AlbeiJ PoweiB, anuounceil by 
VmdecWeJer ■ - Der,. 0,', 

Duke de NomVi'B elecr«l king; but 

cmvfQOI Spain - - -1556 

hia father, Uie kineorFfonce, refuaea 

Q pitpvincea, under WiUlam, prince 

hlacooseAl - - 'l^k3, 

Iranae, i-bydIe, ovfing to Uie lyi-anny 

M. Siirlel lie Chokier is eleceed regent 

phiifpiLjfeW- ■ .- 'isro 

ofilejgium - - reb.S4 

cen femoining proviuces aro given 

Lsopold, ponce of Coburg, is elecied 

king - - - JulylG, 

. agaip fall to Spain - ■ -Um 

HeeSsmBrofflaU ■ - July 19 

mencea Che war ■- Aug. 3, 

nanaeicpe ed ba ihatrnoallet 

[Franco Knd= SOflOO tmoia lo assial 

rda rested !B9 

teiiuinalee in llie acceptance of ibe 

S4anic]e3ofpRciacBiiDn - Nor. IS, 


Dl^ljOoisPlUUppa - . Aug, 9, 

^ Oc"^ 13 

Belgian indepsudencs acknowledged 
This lost treaty arose o t of the conference held in London on the Belgian 
quest on , by the dec s on of wh h, the treaty of November 15, 1881, was 
mainlined, and the pecuniary condensation of aisty millions of fianos, 
offered by Belgium for the territories adjudged to Holland, was declared in- 

BELGRADE. Battle of, between the ijermaik and TurMah armies, in which 
Ilie latter was defeated with the loss of 40,000 men, fought 1466. Belgrade 
■was taien by Solynian, 1522 ; aud re-taien by the Imperialiats in 1688, from 
whom it again reverted to the Turka in 1690. Taken by prince Eogene in 
1717 {see next mrUcle), and kept tLl 1739, when it was ceded to the Turks. 
It waa again taken m 1789, and restoved at the peace of Reiohenbach, in 

BELGRADE, Siege of. The memorable siege, ao often quoted, waa undet- 
taken in May, 1717, under prince Eugene, On August 5, of that year, the 
Turkish aimj. of 200,000, a.pproached to relieve it, and a battJe waa thught, 
m which the Turks loat 2OO0O men; after which Belgrade surrendered. 
Belgrade lias been ft-equently besieged. See Sieges. 

• Amon" ollioi' insiancea (liEaidee qnsoni of England), may be menlioned llie Lady Jane Grey, 
nc)io.Ldeil. Feb. IS. 1664: and the veneralile coiinwasof Sallsbuiy— Ilie latter ninarkiilila for hei 
reaiMiceoftKeexeculIoner. Wben iis direoled lievlo lay lierWd on Ilia block, abe refused It 

It aubmiHo dia Ilka a crmdnal. He pur. 

LTj head, and at lengtli look it olT, zf^ 
laiuirtdiyinginfiDnsr. Slie was daiigbrel 



BELL, BOOK, and CANDLE ; an ecclesiostieai ceremony of tlia Koniish 
churclL used in excommuoieation, lelUch see. 

BELtES-LETTRES, oh Polite Leabbibo. We owe the revival of the telles 
lettres in Eui'ope, after tlie dattneas of previous agos to Brunetto, Latini 
and other learned men in diffurent oountriea, about a. d. 1212.— Gen. Hii' 
Learning greatly promoted by tlie Medici fiimily in Italy, about 1550. — Faji 
iaiia. Literature began to iouriah in France, Gformany, and England, al)8ut 
this time. The beUes-lettres oommenced in England in the reign of Elim- 
beth, and flourished in that of Anne. 

BELLOWS. Anaoharsis, the Scythian, is enid to have boen the inventor oi 
them, about 569 b. c. To him is also asciibed the invention of tmdcr, tlv 
potter's wheel, anchors for ships, See. Belloivs were not uaed in the fiima. 
ces of the Romaus. 

BEXLS. TJsed amoiw; the Jews, Greelcs, Roman Catholics, and heathens. The 
responses of the DoctoncBan oracle were in part conveyed by bells. — Strata. 
The monument of Porsenna was decorated by pinnacles, each aunnounted 
by bells. — Pfeii), Intiodnced by Paulimia, bishop cf Nole, in Campagna, 
about i. D. 4.^. First known in France in 660. The aimy of Clothair 11., 
king of France, was IMghtod &om the siege of Sens hy tlie ringing of th" 
bells of St. Stephen's church. The second Excerption of oni- kmg Egbt 
commands every priest, at the proper honra, to sound the beHs of ilia churcli. 
Sells were used in churches by order of pope John LX,, as a defe^ice, bi^nng- 
ing Iheai, against Ihwader and Hgitn/mg, about 900. First east in England 
by Turteytol, chaucellor of England, under Edmund I. His successor im- 
proved the invention, and caused the first tunaWe set to be put up at 
Croyland abbey, 960. — Stowe. 

GraaHlellofSl. Paul!i,woiBhs - lie. S^ffl) I SI. Pelor'a, at Roma - - Ita. 1B,6(,. 

Oraal Tom of LioeolQ - ■ 9,8M Greall^llalErfmlli - - M^ 

B™oflli8PalaiM, Floreiica ' - l^/Bo] BalloflhoKMmliii ■ • M3,Vli! 

The last is the great unauspeuded bell, the wonder <!f travellers. Its meti,, 
olooe is valnad, at a very low calculation, at i;66,56(> sterling. In its fiisiou 
great quantities of gold and silver were thrown in as votive oflfermgs hy.the 

BELLS, Baptibm op. They were early anointed and baptized in churches.— 
Dvi Presnoy, The bells of the priory of Little Dunniow, in Essex, wer'O 
baptized by the name of St. Michael, St. John, Virgin Mary, Holy Trinitv, 
&o m 1501 —Weeoei The giaat bell of Notre Dame, in Paris, was U- • 
tiaed by the name of Duke ot AngoulSme, in 1816. On the Continent, , 
the Catholic atates they baptize bella as we do ships, but witli religious 
solemniiy —Ashe 

BENEDICTINES An order of monks founded by Benedict, who was.thu 
first that mtrodnced the monastic hth mto the weetein part of Europe, in 
the begmmng of the sixth century No raligioua order has been so remark- 
able for extent wealth and men of note, as the Eenedictina. It spread 
over a large [juilii n c t Euiopt but was superseded in tJie vast influence iv 
possessed ( i i 1 mmnnities, about a.d. 1100. The Bt 

dictmcs 1) I I I and William I. built them an abbey i 

the plain i I I lings was fought, 1066. 

William d \^ uren built Siem a convent at Lowes, iii 

Essex in H I I r[i IS ^ nunnery, whose inmates are denomi- 

nated Bi nc li til L duniLi —l,i "h Of this order, it is reckoned that tlieit 
. have hten 40 popes ^00 cardinala 50 patriaichs, 110 archbishops, 460C 
biihop^ 4 emperors 12 empresses 46 kmgs, 41 queens, and S6O0 saints, 
Tbeir founder was canonized —Biwimitts 


BENEFICES. Clerical LefleficeB originated in Hie twelfth century; till then 
the priests were anpported bj alms and oblations at mnas. All that should 
b^joma vacant in the space of six montha were given by pope Clement VH. 
to Mb nephew, in 1534.— Woiito Mimasiica. The number of benefices in 
England, aceoriline to pavlianicatary retnma, is 10,633, and the number of 
glebe-houses 5,627 ; theae are esdnaive of hishoprioa, deaneries, canonries, 
prebendariea, priest-vicacB, lay-vicoi'H, aeeondariea, and similar chureh pre- 
ferments. ITie numhar of panahes is 11,077, and of oharohes and chapels 
about 12,000. The number of benefices in Ireland is 1456, to which there 
are not more than about 900 glebe-houses attached, the rest having no 
glebe-bonsea. — See Chv/rch of England. 

SENEFIT OP CLERGY. A privilege first enj<rred only by clergymen, but 
aft^r^vards extended to lettered laymen, retotmg to divers crimes, and par- 
tieularly manalaaghter. The ordinary gave the prisoner at the bar a liitin 
book, in a black Gothic cliaracter, from which to read a verae or two ; and 
if the orduiary aaid " Legii ut dsrious," the offtoider was only burnt in the 
hand, otherwise he Buflered death, 3 Edward I., 1274. This privilege was 
abolished with respect to murderers and other great criminals, na alao the 
claim of sanctoary, by Henry Vm.. 161S.—-Slowe. Benefit of clergy waa 
wholly repealed by statute 7 and, S George IV., June 1827. 

States. The linown voluntary contributiona by citizens of Boston alone, 
during 45 years, ending 1845, was ascertained to be (see details in American 
Almanac, 1846) as follows ; 

Wat theological educadon and olher | Foi' iniacellsiieoiis objecis (each as 

roligiQuTobiectB - - flflM,%6 monumenls, &c.> - - . 433,831 

ForpurpofflBofiMlniolioQ - l,09S,SO4 — 

For charilable pui-poses ■ ■ 2,162,113 1 Tolal - t4,761S93 

piscluaive of the contributions in clrarchea, for the poor, &c. The popula- 
feon of Boston, in IBOO, waa about 25,000; in 1845, about 114,000, Few 
cities can boast of such munificence, in proportion to the number of in- 
B2KEV0LENT SOCIETIES— some of the principal in the United Si 

BENGAL Of the eustenca ot Bengal as i sepi-ate iingdom (here la n 
rLCO 1 It was ruled by govemora deiSnited by the sovereign'' ol Delhi i 
1810 when it beoi ne ndependent tint 1 1500 It afteiwuda feU to th 
Mogul en p re — See Ida 

The Engli* were firm pennilfed la r and 

iraile lo Bepgal - - A. d. 1534 Ion IK 


200 TIIU WOliXu'ti Pli-OGKESB. [ B£r 

BEKESINA, Battle op. Total defeat of the French main armj by the Rus- 
sians on the bants of the Beresina, followed by their disastrous paeaage oi 
it when escaping out of Kiissia. The Frenoli lost 20,000 men in the hattit; 
andmtheirretreat the career of their glory was closed, Nov. 28, 1812, 

BERGEN, Battlb ov, between fho French and allies, the latter defeated, April 
14, 17d9.- The allies again defeated by the French with great loss, Sept. 19, 
1799. In another battle, fought Oct. 2, same year, the alEes lost i.OOO mec-j 
and on the 6th, they were again defeated before Allanaer, losing 6,000 meiL 
On the 20th, the dufce of York entered into a eonventjon by which he 
exchanged his army for 6,000 French and Dutch prisoners in England. 

BEK.GEK-OP-ZOOM, whose worlta wgre deemed impregnable, taken by the. 
French, Sept. 16, 1747, and again la 1794- Here a gallant attempt was 
made hy the British, under Graham, to cavry the fortress hy stonn, but it 
was defeated; afler forcing an entrance their retreat was cut off, and a 
dreadful slaughter ensued ; nearly all were cut to pieces or made priaonera, 
March 8, 1814. 

BERLIN. Founded by the margvave Albert, sumamed the Bear, in 1163. Its 
five districts were united under one magiatracy, in 1714 ; and it ivas subse- 
quently matte the capital of Prussia. This city was taken by an army of 
Eusaians, Austrians, and Saxons, in 1760, but they were obliged to retire ia 
a few tlays. On Oct. 27, 1808, thirteen days after the battle of Jena, the 
French entered Berlin, and from its palace Napoleon issued his femons 
Berlin decree. — See iiexl arteife, 

BERUN BECREE, a memorable interdict against the commerce of England, 
It declared the British islands to be in a state of blociiade, and all English- 
men found in countries occupied by French troops were to be treated as 
prisoners of war ; the whoje world, in fket, was to cease from any comnin- 
nioation with Great Britain : issued by Bonaparte from tlie court of the 
Prussian king, shortly after the tiattle of Jeua^which, for the time, decided 
the iiite of Pi-ussia), Nov. 21, 1806,— See Jena. 

BERMUDAS, on SOMMERS' ISLES, diacovered by Joao Bermudas, a Spaniard, 
in 1627 i but they were not inhabited until 1609, when sir Gborge Sommers 
was cast away upon them. They were settled by a sbitute of 9 James I,, 
1612. AwM and memorable hurricane here, October 31, 1780, Another, 
by which a third of the houses was destroyed, and all the shipping driven 
5Bhore, July 20, 1813. 

BERNARD, MODNT St. Hannibal, it is said, conducted the Carthaginian 
army by this pasa into Italy; and it was by the same route that Bonaparte' 
led his ti'oops to the pUins of Lombai'dy, before the batlle of Marango, 
fought June 14, 1800. 

BERNARDINE MONKS. This order was founded by Robert, abbot of Mo- 
leme, in the twelfth century. On the summit of the Great St, Bernard is a 
large community of mono, who entertain in their convent all travellers 
gratis for three days. — Sroake. 

BERWICK. This town was the theatre of many bloody conteata between the 
English and Scots; and while England and Scotland remained two kin«- 
doma, was always dimmed by the ScoIb as belonging tc tbem, because it 
stood on their side of the river. Berwick was bnrned in 1178, and again in 
1216. It was taken from the Scots, and annexed to England, 1888; and 
after having been taken and ratalten ma^ times, was flnaUy ceded to Eng- 
land in ISlfi, The town surrendered to Cromwell in 1648, and aftcrwai'da 
to general Monk. Since the uhion of the crowns (James I. 1303), the forti- 
fications, which were formerly very strong, have been much neglected. 

BETHLEHEM, the bli-fh-place of Chkiet. The Bethlehemite monks, who 



hud an order in England in 1257, are named Stom this once distinguislied 
city. It cow contains a church, erectBd by the famous St, Helena, in the 
form of a cross ; also a chapel, called the Chapel of the Nativity, where 
they pretend to show the manger in which Christ was laid; another, called, 
UiG Chapel of Joseph ; and a thii'd, of the Holy Intiocenlf. Bethlehem is 
much Tisited by pilgrims. — Ashe. 
BEYKODT. This oily, which was colonized from Sidon, was destroyed by an 
uarthqualie, A, n. 569. It was rebuilt, and was alternately possessed by the 
Christians and Saracens ; and after a &egu«nt change of masters, f&H into 
tlie power of Amurath iV., aince when it remained with the Ottoman em- 
pire up to the revolt of Ibrahim Paeha, in 1882. Total defeat of the Egyp- 
liaa army by tlie allied British, Turkiab, and Austrian forees, and evacua- 
tion of Beyront, the Egyptians losing 7000 in MUed, wounded, and prisoners, 
aud 20 pieces of cannon, Oct. 10, iBiO. 
BIARCHY. When Aristodemus, king of Sparta, died, he left ;wo sons twins, 
Euryathenes and Proolesi and the people not knowing to whom precedence 
should be ffiven, plstoed tiiem Ijoth upon tlie throne, and tlius eatabliahed 
the first biardiy, 1102 a, c. The descendants of ealch reigned alternately 
for 800 years.— .^j-fldoiit!. 
3:blE. The first translation ftom the Hebrew into the Greek waa made by 
Kuventy-two interpreter8,bytheorder of Ptolemy PhiladelphuB; it is thence 
called the Septuagint yersion, and was completed in seventy-two days, at 
Alexandria, 277 e. c— Joseph/as. It was commenced 284 b. c.—LeiigUt. In 
2S3.— Blair. The Jewish sanhedrim consisted of seventy or seventy-two 
luerabers; and hence, prohabiy, the seTentyor seveniy-two translators of 
Josephus.—ifewfeM. The sevenly-two were shut up in thirty-sis ceEs, and 
cai'li pair translated the whole; and on subsequent comparison, it was 
found tliat the thirty-six copies did not vaiy by a word or a letter. — Justijt 
BIBLE, Anoibnt canEH of the. The oldest version of the Old and New Tes- 
lament belonging to the Christians, is (hat in the Vatican, which waa writ- 
ten in the fomth or fifth oentmy, and published in 1455. The nest in age 
is the Alexandrine MS., in the British Musemn, presented by Uie Greek 
patriarch i/a Charles I., and said to have been copied nearly about tlie same 
time. The most ancient copy of the Jewish Seriptnres existed at Toledo, 
about *.D. 1000: and the copy of Ben Asher, of Jerusalem, waamade about 
EliiLE, Bishops'. Bishop Alley prepared the Pentateuch ; hiahops Davis and 
Sandys, the Historical Books: bishop Benthani, the Psalms, &c.; bishop 
Home, the prophets ; hlshop Grindal, the Minor Prophets ; bishops Park- 
hurst and Barlow, the Apocrypha; bishop Cox, the Gospels and Acts; and 
archbishop Parker, the remainder, Pi'inted a. d. 1508. 
BIBLE, DiviaioH op the. The Bible was divided into twenty-two boolcs by the 
Jen's, the namber of Iatt«rsintheiraJphabet. The Christians divided the 
Bible into thirty-nine hooks. The Hebrew division into chapters waa made 
by the rabbi Nathan, about 1445. Our Bible was divided into chapters, and 
a part into verses, by archbishop Laogton, who died in 1228; and this 
division was perfected by Robert Stephens, about 1534. 
BIBLE, Editioks op the. The rulgate edition, in Latin, was made by St. Je- 
rome, A. D. 405 ; and is that acknowledged by the Catholic church to be 
iiHthEutic : it was first printed by Gnttonberg at Maycnce, 1450—55. (See 
Baeks.) The first perfect edition in English waa finished, as appears fl-om 
the colophon, by Tinlal and Coverdale, Oct. 4, 1586. A revision of this 
edition was made, 1638-9, This last waa ordered to be read in churches. 


1549. In 160i, at the conference at Hampton-court (aee Conference), b. new 
translation was resolTed upouf which was executed 1607-11, and is that now 

feneraDy used in Great Britain. J, Eliot's Indian Bible, one of the firsl 
ooka printed in NorOi America, at Cambridge, 1668. The Bible waa firat 
Erinted in Ireland, at Belfiist, in 170i. Permitted by the popa to be trans- 
_ ited mto the language of the Catholic states, 1759. T!ie Bible was printed 

_.__ _:anks- - -mi 

Duich ■ -1660 Ponuguaeo 

Editions of the Old and New Tratamant, separately, appeared in several in- 
stancea at earlier dates, particularly in European languages. Tlie Polyglot 
Bible, edited by Walton, bishop of Chester, in the Hebrew, Sjriac, Chaldee, 
Samaritan, Arabic, Ethiopia, Persic, Greek, and Latin languages, 1667,-— 
Wood's Fasti. Oxon. 
BIBLE SOCIETIES. .Amoiw; the prindpal and oldest societies which hare 
made the dissemination of the Scriptures a collateral or an exclusive olyect^ 
are the fbllowing :— The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge wua 
ibrmed 1698 : Society for PropagaHng: the GJospel in Foreign Parts, 1701 ; 
Sooiely, in Scotland, for PromoUng Christian Knowledge 1709 ; Fi'enob 
Bible Society, 1792; BriHah and Foreign Bible Society. 1801; Hibernian 
Bible Sodety, 1806 ; City of London Auiillary Bible Society, IS12 ; American 
Bible Society (which now has numerous branches), founded 1816; Ameri- 
can and Foreign Bible Society (Baptist), founded at New-York, 1888. A 
bull iVom the pope against Bible Societies appeared in 1817. 
BIGAMY. The Romans branded the guilty parties ■with an infemouB mark; 
with ua, the punishment of this flffenee, formerly, was death. The first act 
respecting it was passed 5 Edward 1. 1276.— FiWi StaMes. Declared t« 
be felony, without benefit of clergy, 1 James I. 1602. Subjected to the 
same punishments as grand or petit larceny, 35 George HE. 17^.-— Statutes 
at large. 
BILL OP RIGHTS. One of the great foundations of the British constitution, 
waa obtaund from Charlea I, by pailiament, 1628. Tliis bill recogniaed the 
legal privileges of the subject; and notwithstanding the employment of aU 
manner of arta aud axpedienta to avoiii it, Charles was eonskained to i«is3 
it into a law. The Bill of Rights, declaiatory of the rights of British subjects, 
passed 1 WiUiam and Mary, February 1689. This is the only imittea law 
respecting the liberties of the people, except Magita Ckai-ta. — Yiner's 
BILLS OP EXCHANGE. Invented by the Jews, as a means of removing their 
property from nations where they wei'c peraecnted, a. o. lWi.-~Anderson. 
Bills were used in England, 1807-— Ttie only legal mode of sending money 
flom England, 4th Richarii H., 1381. Regulated, 1698— first stamped, 1782 
— duty advanced, 1797 — again, June 1801 ; and since. It waa made capi'al 
to counterfeit bills of exchange in 1734. In 1825, the year of disastrous 
speculations in bubbles, it was computed that there were iOO millions of 
pounds sterling represented by bills of exchange and promissory notes. 
The present amount is not supposed to exceed 50 millions. The many 
statutes regarding bills of exchange were consolidated by act 6 Geoi^e IV. 
1828. A new net regulating bills of exchange, passed 8 Victoria, July 1839. 
BILLS OP MORTAUTT poe Lokoon. These bills were firat compiled about 
A. D. 1536, but in a more formal and recognized manner in 1598, after the 


great plague of that j;ear; and Jiowevei- impcrfact thoy sfill are, they yet 
afibrd yalimble mitterlals for computation on the doratiou of lifk no com 
plet« series of them haa been preaerrafl. The followmg are returns show 
lag the niunbers at decemual distances, ivithin the last sixty yeare — 

■" "■ ■ jejS3tl lii the year ITSO Bunale 33607 

18,9S0 1!90 Bunala IS IBS 

10,930 1810 BMsla 19 SB' 

S6,158 IfaO Bu ala 19,3)8 

IMO, ciirielemiys 30^ I 1340 Burt^ Sb 774 

BILLIARDS. larented by the French, by whom, and b^ the Germans Dnteh 
and Italians, they were brought into general rogus throughout Europe — 
N/ni/>!. Dint. The French ascribe their invenfion to Heniique Devigne an 
aitist, iu the reign of Charl^ IX., about 1571, Slate billiard tables woie 
introduced hi England in 1827. 
BIRDS. Divided by Linnteus into aix orders; by Blumenbach into eight; and 
by Cuvier into six, Man is especially eiijoined not to harm the neet of the 
bird ; " If a bird's nest cliamt'e to be hefore thee in the way in any ti'ee, or 

young."— Oti^cnomy, xsii. 6. 

BIRMINGHAM, Engljnu. This town existed in the reign of AliVed, a. d. 872 ; 
bnt its importance as a manufhcturing town commenced in the reign of Wil- 
liam HI. Birmingham was liesieged and taken by prince Rupert in 1618. 
The great works of Soho were established by the illustrioua engineer, Mat- 
theiv Boulton, in 1764. 

BIRTHS. Pariah regiaterB of them, and of marriages and burials, were Insti- 
tuted by Cromwell, earl of Essex, 28 Henry "TUI. 1586. The birtha of chil- 
dren were taxed in England, viz. ; birth of a dnie, 3W.— of a common 
person, 2s,— 7 William IH. 1806. Taxed again, 1788. The inatanees of 
four children at a birth are numerous ; bnt the most extraordinary doliveiy 
recorded in modern tames is that of a woman of Konigebcrg, who had Sve 
diildren at a birth, Septembers. 1783.— Piiffips. The wiib of a man named 
Nelson, a journeyman tailor, of Oxford-market, London, bad fiye children at 
a birth, in October ISQO.—Amtak of Zumdoa. 

BISHOPS. The name was given by the Atheniana to ihoaawho had the in- 
apeotlon of the city. The Jews and Romans had also a like officer; but 
now it means only that person who has the government of church afBiua iu 
a certain district. In England, the dignity is coeval with Christianity. St. 
Peter, the fii'st bishop of Rome, was martyred a.d. 65. The bishops of 
Rome asaumed the title of pope in 188, the rank was anciently assuroed by 
all bishops ; but it was afterwards ordained that the title of pope ahould 
belong only to the occupant of St. Peter's chair, — Want^. 
BISHOPS OP ENGLAND. The first ivas appointed in a, p. 180. See Yorlc, 
London. TJiey were made barons, 1072. The CongS d' EUre of the king 
to chooae a bishop originated in an arrangement of king John with the 
clergy. Bishops were elected bv the king's Om^i d' EUre, 26 Henry VHI. 
1585. Seven were deprived fbr being married, 1554. Several suffered mar- 
lyrdom under queen Mary, 1655-6. See Cramaer. Bishops were excluded 
from voting in the house of ■peers on temporal concerns, 16 Charles 1. 1840. 
Twelve were committed for higli treason, in protesting a^inst the legality 
of all acts of parliament pasaed while they remained deprived of their voles, 
1641. Regained their seats, Nov. 1661. Seven were sent to the tower for not 
reading flie king's declaration fbr liberty of conscience, contrived to hriag 
tbe Catholics into cccleaiastical and civil power, and were tried and acqult- 



fed, June 29-^0, 1688. The arclitiisliop of Cantwliiuy (Dr, Sanoroft) and 
five 1)1811003 were suapended for refliBing to take the oatlia to William and 
JOaiy, 168S, and were deprived 1690.— Warmer's Eccles. Hist. The aeea oC 
Bristol and Gloncester were united, and that of Bipon created, in 1888. An 
order in council, in Oct. 1888, direeied the sees of Bangor and St. Asapli to 
lia united on the neit Tacancy in either, and Manchester, a new eeo, to be 
created thereupon. This order, as regarded the nnion of the sees, rescinded 
in 1816. — See ManchesUr. 
BISHOPS OP IRELAND. Bishops are said to have heen eonaeorated in this 
country as earJy aa the second century. The bishopric of OsiSory. flist 
planted at Saiger, was founded a.c. 402, thirty years before the arriTal of 
St. Patriot. 
BISHOPS OF SCOTLAND. They were constituted in tie fourth century. The 
see of St. Andrew's was founded by Heraustua, king of the Picta. who, 
according to a legendary tale of this prelaoy, encouraged the mission of 
Eegulua.aGreekmonkof Patrte, ahoutA.D. 870. Thebishops were deprived 
of their sees, and episcopacy abolished in Scotland at the period of the revo- 
lution, 1688-9, Wamm-'s Eccles. ffisS,— There are now, however, six bishops 
belonging to the Scotch Eplecop^ Church, viz : Aberdeen, Brechin, Edinr 
burgh, Glasgow, Moray, and St. Andrew's, 
BISHOPS, Phecsdenot op, was settled by statute 81 Henry YHI. to bo test to 
viBOonnts, they being barons of the realm, 1640 ; and they hare the title of 
Lord, and 'Right See. Father in Qod. The archbishops of Canterbury and 
York, taking place of all dukes, have lie title of Grmx. The bishops of 
I«ndon, Durham, and Winchester have precedence of all bishops i the 
others rank according to the swiiority of consecration, A late contest in 
Ireland between the bishops of Meath and Kildare for precedency was de- 
cided in favor of the forraer, who now ranlta after the arehbiahop of Dublin. 
The others rank according to consecralion, 
BISHOPS IN AMERICA. The first was the Right Rev. Doctor Samuel Saa- 
bury, consecrated bishop of Connecticut by four nonjuring prelates, at 
Abeideen, in Scotland, Nov. 14, 1784. The bishops of New- York and Penn- 
sylTgnia were eonaeorated in London, by the archbishop of Canterbury, 
Fel)."4?"1787 ; and the bishop of Virginia in 1790, The first CathoUc bishop 
of the TTnited States was Dr. CarroU of Maryland, in 1789. 
BISSEXTILE OB T.EAP YEAH. An intercalary day was thrown into every 
fourth year to adjust the calendai-, and make it agree with the sun's course. 
It originated with Julius Csssar, who ordered a day to be counted befor.i 
the 24th of Fehruary, which amon« the Romans was the 6th of the calends, 
and which was therefore reckoned twice, and called Mssexiile : this added 
day we iiame lie 29th of February every fourth year, 45 b. c— See Cafen- 
daT and Leap Year. 
BITHYNIA, Conquered by Crresua, about 660 b. c. ; and again by Alexander. 
832 b, c. ItaHfirwards recovered ita liberty; but its last king bequeathed 
it to the Romans, 40 b. c. In modem history Bithynia makes no figure, 
except that fiotti its ruins rose the Othman Tnrks, who, in a. d. 1327, took 
Pi'U8ij|. its capital, and made it the sent of their empire before they possesst J 
BLACK BOOK, a book kept in the English monasteries, wherein details of the 
scandalous enormitiea practised in religious hoases were entered for the 
inspection of visitors, under Henry Till., 1535, in order to blacken them ani 
haaten their dissolution ; hence the vulgar phrase " I'll Bet yon down in the 
black book." 
BLASPHEMY. This crime is recognized both by the civil and canon law of 


Erg'lttnd. JnstiiiiaD adjudged it the pnnislmient of death. In Scotland, the 
tongae was amputated. Visited by fine and imprisonment, 9 & 10 Wiillara 
in., 1698-7.— Staiufes ai large. In Englanil this offence has been subjected, 
□□ some late occasions, to the TJsitation of the laws. Daniel Isaac Eaton 
was tried and convicted in London of blasphemy, 13th Marcfi, 1B12. A pro- 
ieetant clergyman, named Roiert Tm/lor, was tried in London twice for the 
same crune, and as often convicted. Taylor was last broiight to the bar, 
and sentenced to two years' imprisonment, and largely fined, for (among 
other things) reviling the Redeemer in his diseourses, July, 1881. Even as 
late as in I>ec. 1840, two prosecutiona against publishers of blasphemous 
writingB, subjected the oifenders to the sentence of the court orQueen'a 

BLAZONRr. The bearing coata-of-arnis was introduced, and oecame heredi- 
tary in families in France and England, about j.d. 1192, owing to the 
knights painUng their banners with different figures, thereby to distinguish 
them in the crusades. — Dugdak. 

BLEACHING. This art was Itnowa early in Egypt, Syria, and India. Known 
in ancient Gaul. — PKmj. In the last century an improved chemical system 
was adopted by the Dutch, who introduced it into England and SootJaud in 
1768. There are now unmense bleachflelda in both couDtrlea, particularly 
in Lancashire, and in the counties of Fi&, Forfkr, and Eenfiirew, and iu the 
vale of the Leveo, io Dumijarton. The chemical process of BerthoUet was 
introduced in 1705.— Btow^imejji des Toiles. 

BLENHEIM, Bittlh or ; Tjetween the English and conEiderates, commanded 
by the duke of Marlborough, and the French and Bavarians, under mai'sbal 
TaUard and the elector of Bavaria, whom Marlborough signally defeated 
with the loss of 27,000 in killed, and 13,000 prisoners, TaUard being among 
the latter : the electorate of Bavaria became the prize of the conquerors. 
The nation testjfled its gratitude to the duke by llie ^fts of the honor of 
Woodstock and hundred of Wotton, and erected for him one of tlie finest 
seats in the kingdom, known as the domain and house of Blenheim. 
Fought Aug. 2, 1704.— fiame. 

BLINDING, by consuming the eyeballa with lime orscaldingvinegar, apunish- 
ment inflicted ancient^ on adulterers, perjurers, and thieves. la the mid- 
dle ages they clianged the penalty of total blindness to a diminution of 
sight. Blinding the conquered was a practice in barbarous states ; and a 
whole array was deprived of their eyes by Basilius, in the eleventh century. 
See BiHgaiians. Several of the Eastern emperors had their eyes torn ftom 
their heads. See article Eashni Bmjdre. 

BLISTERS. They were first made, it is said, of cantharides.—fVeiW. Blisters 
are said to have been first introduced ialo medical practice by Aretseus, a 
physician of Cappadooia, about 50 b. o. — Le Core's Hisl. of Pk^sie, 
BLOOD, CiHCULATioN OP THE, through the lungs, first made public by Michael 
Servetus, a Spanish physician, in 1553. Cisalpinus published an aceount of 
tlie general ch^iulation, of which he had some confused ideas ; unproved 
afterwaids by experimente, 1569. Paul of Venice, commonly called Father 
Paolo, whose re£d name was Peter Sarpi, certainly discovered the valves 
which serve for the circulation; but the honor of the positive discovery of 
the circulation of the blood belongs to Harvey, an English physician, by 
whom it was fully confirmed, 1628. — Preind's Hist, of Physic. 
BLOOD, DBiNKina of. Anciently a mode was tried of giving vigor to the ays- 
tarn by administering blood as a draught. Louis XI., in his last illness, 
drank the warm blood of influits, in the vrin hope of restoring his decayed 


Btrengtli, liSS.—Hemndi. Eating blood 
and to the Jowa, I^ev. svii. 11:e prohiMtiott 
the council of Jerasalera, jlcts xi". 
BLOOD, TjiANSPireioN op. In tlie flfteenth century nn opinion prevaiied that 
tlie declining strength, and vigor of old people mi^M be repaired by trans- 
fusing the blood of jonng persons, drawn ftora them veins, into those of the 
infirm and aged. It was countenanced in Trance by the physicians, anC 
prevailed for many years, Ul! tbe raiwt flttal effects ensued from the opera. 
Won. Some of the principal nobility having died, and others tamed raving 
mad, it was suppressed by an edict. Attempted in France in 1797. Pmc- 
tised more recently there, in a few eaisea, wiHi auecera ; and in Englaol 
(but the instances are rare) smce 1828.— Aferf. Jbiw. " Chie English physi- 
cian, named Louver, or Lower, practised in tikis way ; he died in 1691."— 
PraMd's Hist, of Physie. 
BLOOD'S CONSPIRACY. Blood, a discarded officer of Oliver Cromwell's 
household, and his confoderatea, seized tiie duke of Ormoiid in his coach, 
and had got him to Tyburn, in1«nding to hang him, when he was rescued 
by his friends. Blood afterwards, in Uie disguise of a clergyman, stole Hie 
regsJ crown fl'om the Jewal-ofSce in the Tower ; yet, notwithstanding these 
and other ofeices, he was not only pardoned, but had a pension of £50l> 
per aimwm. settled on him by Charles n. 1673. 
BLUE STOCKING. This term is applied to literary ladies, and was originally 
conferred on a society of literary persons of both sexes. One of the moat 
active promolers of the society was Benjamin Siillingfleet, the distinguished 
naturahst and miscellaneous writer, who always wore bltie worsted stock- 
ings, and hence the name : the sodety existed in 1760, et seq. — J.««c. tif 
Bovnjer. 'The beautiful and fesoinaUng Mrs. Jemingham ia said to have 
woi-Q blue stockings at the ecHJicraoaifMies of lady Montague ; and this pocu- 
liailty also Ihstened the name upon accomplished women. 
BOARD OF TRADE and PLANTATIONS. Charles n., on his restoration, 
established a council of trade for keeping a control over the whole com- 
merce of the nation, 1960 ; he afterwt^ds instituted a hoard of trade and 
plantations, wliich waa remodelled by William UL This board of superin- 
spection was abolished in 1782 ; and a new council for the af&irs of ti'ftdo 
was appointed, Sept. 2, 1786. 
BOATS, Their Wrention waa so early, and their use ao general, the art cannot 
be traced to any age or country. Flat-bottomed boats were made in Eng- 
land in the reign of the Conqueror: the flat-bottomed boat was again 
braught into nee by Barker, a Dutchman, about 1690. The lif^-boat waa 
flrst suggested at South Shieids ; and one was built by Mr. Greathead, the 
inventor, and was flrst put to sea, Jan. 30, 1790. 
BOCCACCIO'S BOOK, II DBCiMsaoKB, a collection of a hundred stories or 
novels, not of moral tendency : feigned io have been related in ten days, and, 
as is said by Petrarch, "posieesing many oharma." A copy of the first 
edition (that of Valdatbr, in 1471] was knocked down, at the duke of Rox- 
burgh's sale, to the duke of Marlborough, Ibr £2260, June 17, 1812. Thr; 
identical copy was afterwards sold, by public auction, for 876 guineas, 
June 5, 1819. 
B(EOTIA, the countiy of which Thehes was the capital. Thehes was equally 
celebrated for its antiquity, its grandeur, and the exploits and misfortnneH 
of its Mn§s and heroes. The counfry ivas known successively as Aonia, 
Messapia, Hyantis, Ogygia, Cadmeis, and Bteotia ; and it gave birtli to Pm- 
dar, Hcsiod, Piutai'cU, Democritua, Epaminondas, and the accomplished 
end boautifnl Corinna. 


^Fbea besi^ed and takett ■ 
■be TlielJiins abolMh myaKy, ai 

tslUs Qf Cbsronea, in tihich II 
Ui Alh ara 
L ill im aSmy, cmifliiuiiiE Gie " 

' ]o his dsam by ibe bands of 

LOtunccrB Iha Sphinx, aiid I'e- 

Heie tlio greatness of thia country ends A 
capital, 3H5 s. c, when the house of Pi aj 
the uihabitaata were either killed or e da 
BOGS. Commonly the remains of fWleu forests, coTOi'ed with peat and loose 
soil. Moving bogs are slipa of land carried to lower lerela by accumulated 
watisr. Acts relating to Ireland, for their drainage, caseed, March, 1830. 
The liog-land of Ireland tae been estimated at 3,000,000 acres : that of Scot- 
land, at upwards of 2,000,000 ; and that of England, at near 1,000,000 of acres. 
liOH, a fterce barbarian general, son of Odin, lived 60 b, c. The exclamation 

of bis name petriSed bla enemies, and is yet used tofi'igbten ohildrcu. 
BOHEMIA. Tliis country woa originally govemetl by dakea : the title of king 
was obtained &om the emperor Henry IV. The kings at flrat held thefr 
territory of the Empire, but they at length threw off the yoke ; flie crown 
was elecliye till it came into the house of Austi'ia, in which it ia now here- 
ditary.— See GerwuMsp. 

TSiB Sclavonliiia, Beiilng Bolismia, at 
ruled by dukeB ' - A- 1 

CilJ Df Prague ftninderi - 
muuduclimiof Cbcfsdanily - 

The regal ti^ ia laftheE ccmfirmed to 

OlUiocro I. H 

Heign of Octnacre H., who cflmea bis 

Ol[oaire» reJueijiE to do haoiage to the 
frmj«ror IlodoJpbus, ie by wm van- 
quished, and deprived of Auelfla, 
Styrio, and Coxniola - - - 15 

Winc^BB IV. b 

Joim, CQiinl of Luiombutgh, 

Slerfa iB made e pravmM ol 
King Jchn elain at the b^ttie 
fought ^vith Ihe £ng1i&li . 

!ili=ia onil Glaii ceded to Fni^iE 
'i-agoe Mken by die Pmeslana 
The memorable siege of Prague 


BOILING TO DEIATH. A capital punishment in England, by statute 28 Henry 
vni., 1582. Thia act was occasioned by seventeen persons having been 
poisoned by Kousa, the bishop of Rochester's cook, when the oftence of 
poisoning wna made treason, and it was enacted to to be punished by boil- 
mg the criminal to death ! Margaret Davie, a young woman, suffered in the 
same manner for a aimilai- ci'uue, in 1541. 



BOLOGNA. Distinguislied for its many rare and magoificent Epeciraeiis ot 
arcMtectlire, Ita ancient and celebrated university was fonnded by Theo- 
doaius, i. D. 488. Pope Julius n,, aflar besieging aod taking Bologna, loaiis 
hia triumplml entry into it with a pomp and magniflcence by no means fittii^ 

i^a & obsorTes) for the vic^erent of the meek Redeemer, Nov. IC^ 
506. kere, In the church of St. PatrouiuB, which is remarkable for ita 
pavement, Casaini drew his meridian line, at the close of the seventeenth 
century. Taken bythe Frendi, iTSS; bythe Austrians, 1799| again bythe 
EVenoh, after the battle of Marengo, in 1800 : restored to the pope in 1815 ; 
Austrians expelled by the people, Angoat 8, 1848. 

BOMBAY, India. Given m part of the marriage-portion of the princess Cafli- 
erine of Portugal, on her marriage with Charies IL, 1661. Granted by Wil- 
liam in. to the East India Company in 1688, and it now forms one of the 
three presidencies. An awful Are raged here, and a number of lives were 
lost, Feb. 27, 1808.— See India. 

BOMBS, invented at Teolo, in 1495, but according to some authorities nsac a 
century after. They came into general uae in 1634, having been previously 
used only in the Dutch and Spamsh armies. Bomb-vessels were invented in 
France, in 16SI.— Voltaire. The Shrapnel shell is a bomb filled with balls, 
and a lighted fuse to mate it explode before it reaches the enemy ; a thirteer.- 
inch bomb-shell weighs 198 Iba. 

BONDAGE, OH VILLANAGE, waa enforced under William I. A villain in 
ancient times meant a peasant enslaved by his lord. A release from this 
species of servituda waa ordered on the manors of Elizabeth, in 1574. Sea 

BONE-SETTING. This branch of tlie art of surgery cannot he said to have 
been practised scientifically until 1820, befijre which time it waa lather im- 
perfecHy uiiderstood, — Bell. The celebrity obtained by a practitioner si 
Paris, about 1600, led to the general study of bone-sotting ae a science, 
-—f^mwfs aisl of Physic. 

BOOKS, Ancient books were originally boards, or the inner bark of trees ; and 
bark ia still used by some nations, as are also skins, fbr which latter parch- 
ment W33 substituted. Papyrus, an Egyptian plant, was adopted in that 
country. Books whose leaves were vellum, were invented by Attains, king 
of PerOTmus, about 198 b. c, at which time books were in volumes or rolls. 
The MSS. in Horoulanenm consist of napyrus, rolled and charred, and matted 
together by the fire, and are a,bout mne inchea long, and one, two, or fhrej 
inches in diameter, each being a separate freatiaa. The Pentateuch of 
Moses, and the history of Job, are the most ancient in the world ; and in 
profltne literature, the poems of Homer, though the names of others still 
more ancient are preserved, 

BOOKS, Phices of. Jeroraestates that he had ruined himself by buying a copy 
of the works of Origen. A large estate was given for one on cosmography, 
by Alfred, about a. q. 973, The Rovtan de la Base was sold ibr above 3W.; 
and a Homily was exchanged for 200 sheep and five quarters of wheat ; and 
they usually fetched double or treble their weight in gold. They sold • ;t 
prices varying li'om lOJ. to 40i. each, in 1400. In our own times, the value 
of some volumes is very great. A copy of Macilin's Bil/k, omameuled by 
IWr. Tomkins, bas been declared wortti 600 guineas. — Butler. A yet mora 
superb copy is at present hisnred in a London office for 3,O0W. — Times. E 
Decamerone of Boccacio, edition of 1471, was bought at the duke of Rox- 
burgh's sale by the duke of Marlborough for 226ffl,. June 17, l?,l2.—PhiliLps. 
A copy of the " Maaarin Bible," being the first edition and fii'at book ever 
printed (by Gnttemberg at Ments in 14S5) was sold at auction in London 



in April 1816 for 50CW. This copy, the only one known to esiet eEoept 19 
in pnblie libraries, is now in a private library in Hew ITork. 

JJOOKS, PsiNTED. Tiie first printed books were trifling hymns and psalters, and 
being printed only on one side, tlie leaves were pasted back to back. The 
firat printing was, as a book, tlie Bosk of Psalmts, by Faust and Schieffer, hia 
son-in-hiw, Ang. 14, 1467. Several works wei'e printed many years before; 
hut aa the inventors kept the secret to themselves, they sold their first printed 
TCorks as mannscripts. lliia gave rise to an adventare that brought calamity 
on Faust ; be began in 1450 an ediUon of the Bible, which was finished in 
1460. See article Devil and Dr. Fmtsliiu. The second printed was Cicero de 
OgUiis, 1466.— £toir. The first book printed in England was 7S* Gtmie and 
Plem of the Ckesse, hy Caston, 1474. The first in Dublin was the laiwrgy, 
in 1650. The first dassical work printed in Russia was Cons. N^oUs Vit/s, 
in 1762. JJacian's Dia^gves was the first Greek boob printed in America 
(at Philadelphia), nS9. Boots of asb-onomy and geometry were all de- 
stroyed In Engl(^ »3 being infected with magic, 6 Edward VL 1562. — 
SUrw^s CAreaielsi. 

The above, Is from Sm/iin; hut according to Petiigrem, (Ei&lu). Siissex.') 
the fltst book prinWd wiSi movable types was the Jjitin Bible, printed by- 
John Gnttemberg at Mayence, about 1455. It was in two folio volumes ; 
and BO excellent was the workmanship, hotli in type, ink, paper, and press- 
work, that it has scarcely been surpassed since. The succeeding editions 
fbr 200 years were much inferior, "fliis edition is called the Mazarin BibU, 
OS a copy was first found in the library of cardinal Maaarin. Onl^ 20 copies 
are now known to exist — all but one heing in pnblie libraries in Europe. 
[See previous article.] Specimens of the bhck iaiiib, printed with engraved 
wooden blocks, instead of type, are now very rare. Of the BUHa Pampenao,, 
done in this way, only two copies eiiat, one of which belongs to a citizen of 
New York. 

BOOK-BINDING. The book of St. Cuthhert, the earliest ornamented book, is 
snpposed to have been bound about a. d. 650. A Latin Psalter in oak boards 
was bound in the nhith century. A MS. copy of the four evangelists, the 
book on which our kings from Henry I. to Edward YT. f<Jok their corenation 
oath, was bound in oaken boards, neatly an inch thick, a. d. 1100. Velvet 
waa the covei-ing in the fourteenth century ; and silk soon ailer. VbUoiii 
was indoduced early in the fifteenth century; Itwsa stamped and orna- 
mented about 1510. Leather came into use about the same time. Cloth 
bmding superseded the common boards, generally, about 1831. Caoutahouc, 
or India-rubber bacfes to account-boolts andlai'ge volumes introduced ISil. 

BOOK-KEEPING. The system by double-entry, called originally Italian book- 
keeping, was taken from the course of algebra wliich was published by 
Burgo, at Venice, then a great commercial stoie, in the flftaenth century. 
It was made known in England by James Peele, who published his Book- 
keeping in 1569. — Andasim. 

BOOK TRADE of Great Britain, Prance, and Gei-many. The number of new 
works published in siioeessive years is thus stated : 

Gt Brit, France. Qerwtami. t QL Brit. JVoBca. Gsrmariy. 

laas - BK - — - 6,654 1836 . 1,333 . ~ . 7,891 

ISM - 1,142 - — - 6,ffifl 1849 - — . — . — 

ISM - l,aaO - — - 6J)74 I 1860 - — . 7S0S - — 

The number of printed books received from 1814 to 1847 inclusive, under 

the copyriglit acts, fram the trustees of the British Museum, amount ia 

55,474, or 1681 each year. 

England.— Tiie whole number of books printed in England during 14 years, 
from 1666 to 1680, was 8,550; equal to 253 yeaily;— but deducting the 


210 THE woeld's raoGRKss. [ bo^.- 

reprinta, pamphlets, Gingle sennoms, and maps, tie aimual average of new 
books may be compated at muot less than 100. 

Tbe nnmber of new works, eiclusive of " all pampMets anci otter ttacta;'" 
issued duiing 56 yeais, as appeara from a " Complete Catalogue of Modern 
Books published from the teghming of tie ccntiuy (1700) to 1756," was 
6,280 i eqiial to a yearly average of 94. 

The number of new works, exclusive of reprints and pamphletfi, issued, 
durhig eleven jears, from 1792 to 1802 ineliiBive, was 4,093 i equal to 372 
each year. 

The number of new publications issued in 27 years, from 1800 to 1827, in- 
cluding reprints altered in siee and price, but exeludmg pamphlets, was 
according to the London Catalogue, 19,860 :— deducing one fifth for reprints, 
we have 15,888, equal to 588 each year. 

Mr.McCulloch estitnatea the number of volumes of new publications pro- 
duced annually in Great Britain (exclxislva of reprinta, pampUete, and 
periodical publications not in volumes) at about 1|600; and the average 
impression of each volume at 760 copies ;— annual total, 1,125,000 volumes; 
— value at 9s. a volume, £606,250. "TTie number of reprinted volumes, 
particularly of school-boolts, is very great; and if to these we add the 
reviews, magazines, pamphlets, and all other publications, exclusive of nevL"- 
papers, the total publication value of file new works of all soils, and new 
copies of old works that are annually produced, may be estimated at abont 

JJVBnjM.— The activity of the ^French press has been very greatly increased 
since the downiiiU of Napoleon. The count Dam, in a veiy instrucUve 
work (WiJfe'ons Slatistiques sw la Librarie), published in 1827, estimated the 
number of printed sheets, exclusive of newspapers, produced by the French 
press in 1816 at 69,852,883: and in 1825, at 128,011,483 ; and we believe 
that the increase from 1825 down to the present period has b.een little if £>:/ 
thing inferior. 

The first sis months of the year 1837, as stated by the " Foreign Quarterly 
review," there were printed in France, 3,413 works, in French and other 
languages ; also 671 engravings and lithographs. 

Ctemoray.— The book-trade of Germany ia greatly facilitated by the book- 
fiiirs held at Leipsic at Easter and MichiBlmas, which are attended by the 
booksellers of Germany, and by many of those of the neighboring countries, 
as France, Switzerland, Denmark, &c. This trade began to flourish in 1814 ; 
the number of works then annually offered for sale was about 2,000; uiit 
the number has been gradually increasing, having for tlie first Urae exceeded 
6,000 in 1827 ; and it now exceeds 7,000. 

"An Augsburg paper states," (says the "Foreign Quarterly Eeview," 1836,) 
"that, on a moderate calculation, 10,000,0(XI of volumes are annually printud 
in Germany, and aa every half-yearly fair catalogue containa the names of 
more than 1,000 German writers, it may be assumed, that there are now 
living upwards of 50,000 persona who have written one or more books. The 
total value of all the books puhlished annually in Germany is estimated 
from 6 to 6,000,000 dollars." 

Russia. — In the year 1836, 874 original worlta, and 124 translations wore 
published in Russia, exclusive of 46 periodicals. 
Sioci^CT..— There are only 28 or 30 printing presses in Sneder 
holm. 3 in Gottenburg, 2 in Upsal, 2 in Norkoping, and 1 in 
BOOE-TEADE of the UNITED STATES. The number of ne 
appeared in the United States, ia 1834 and 1S35, amounted t* 


1.800 Yolnmea, and tho cost of which may be 
■""16, the number was considerably increaaed 

bliehed in that year cannot beeompnted at , _, , 

w Yoric, Philadelphia, and Hartford furnished 19 20ths of tlie a: 

Another statement for the years 1833, 183i, and 18S5. is as follows :— origiuala 
1,080, reprints, 85* ; total, l,88i ;— nnmber of volumes pnnted (1,000 for 
each edition), l,88i,OO0. 

In most cases the editions of one and the sameivork are larger and more 
fteqnent in the United States than in any other country. Many reprinted 
Englieh ivorka have here paeaed three or four ediUons, while tlie publishers 
of the original in England have hut one. In one instance, the salo -cf a 
book in America amounted to 100,000 copies, whereas in England only four 
eiiitions, of 1,000 copies each, were disposed of 

The amount of literary pvodnctions In America has more than doubled 
during the last ten years. The sales of five book-selling establishmenta 
amounted in 183Q, to ffi 1,850,000. 

The following statement will show the relatiye propoi-tion of native and im- 
ported literary productions in 1834 ; 

OtigiiiaL Jiepriitt. . ^ginai. Rept-int^ 

DirinitJ - 

Hletory on^ Bio^aphy - 



Thus it appears in American literature the stuentific and practically useful 
predomhiate, and that works of imaginaUon are chiefly derived from 
foreign sourees. The school-books are ahnost all written or compiled in the 
United States ; and some idea of the extensive bnsiness done in them may 
be formed from the wromnstanca, iliat, of some of the most popular com- 
pihtions in geography, ftom 100,000 to 800,000 copies have been sold in ton 
years ; so that, in many instances, works of this kind prodnca a permanent 
income, as well to the author as Uie publisher. During the last five years, 
the number of American original works in proportion to reprints, has nearly 
[The preceding pamgraph Is deti^ed from ataLiBTJca in llie BooRsell^a' A^itsiiiser, ediLsi 

m tlie Ijiterari/W^lil.] 

implied fiMoi llie semi.mi 
KS—Janwny to Jwte, ISiS. 

Oii^tucL HeprirU, 

Foreixmonllis - 300 - 128 
Tolai, 358. 

The number of new puMicfitiona for the year 1810 would thus be 056, exclu- 
sive of law and juvenile hooks, and occasional pamphlets and periodieols. 
BOOTS. They ai'e said to liave been the invention of the Carians, and were 
made of iron, brass, ov leaflier ; of the last material some time after their 
invention, boots were known to the Greeks, for Homer mentions them about 
BORODINO OR MOSKWA, Batti-e op, one of the most sangninary in the 
records of the world, fought Sept. 7, 1812, between tlie French and Russians; 
commanded on the one side by Napoleon, and on the otier by Kntusoff, 


212 'i-HE world's pa grg [ bot 

240,000 mon teing engaged. Each pa y daim d lie ctory, because the 
loss of the other was so immenae ; bu waa ah □ fovor of Napolaoiij 
for the Ruasia,n3 subaequeatly retreat d avin Moboo v to its fiite. The 
road being thus left open, the French en re M w Sept. 14, with little 
. opposition. But a signal reverse of fo un n w to k p n e, which preserved 
the Huaaian empire from ruin, and i a d tl a,y he downfall of the 
French mililary power over Europe. See Moscmo. 
BOROUGH. Ancieutlj' a company often thmilies living together. The terra 
baa been applied to such towns as send members to parliament, sinwa the 
election of bureoKes iu the reign of Henri M. 1265. Burgeasca were first 
admitted into tne Scottish parliament by Rohort Bruce, 1326— and into the 
Irish, 1366. 
BOHOTIGH ENGLISH. This was an andent tenare by which the younger son 
inherits. Its origin is thus espla,ined ; in feudal timea the lord is swd io 
have clamed (he privilege of spending the flrat night with the vassai's bride, 
and on such occasions the land was made to descend to the next son, in con- 
seqnence of the supposed iBegiUmacy of the elder. This kind of tenure is 
mentioued as occmTing i. n. 834, It existed iu Scotland, but was abolished 
by Malcolm m. in Ifm.— Haydn. 
BOSPHORUS, now called Okaasia. The history of this kingdom is involved 
in obscurity, though it conUnned for 530 years. It was named Cimmerian, 
from the Cistsmeri, who dwelt on its borders. The dcKcendanta of Archean- 
aetes of Mytilene settled in this eonnljy, bnt they were dispossessed by 
order of the emperor Spartacus, in 488 a. c. Mithridates conducted a pris- 
oner to Rome, by Claudius, and bis kingdom soon aflcnvai'ds made a pro- 
yinceof theempire, i.D.40. The strait of the Bosphorus was closed by the 
Turks, Sept. 8, 1828. It was blockaded by the Rusaian squadron under ad- 
miral Greig, Deo. 31, same year. See Dardanelies. 
BOSTON, the capital of Massachusetts, founded in Aiigust 1630. Here com- 
menced the Ainerican Revolution. British soldiers fired on the people. 1770. 
The celebrated "Tea-paity" here, took place 1773, The port oloaed by par- 
liament 1774, British a,rmy evacuated Boston in March 1776, (See i^eciiig'- 
, ton and Bunker Hill.] The cause of American fteedom was nowhere more 
actively suisiained than by the people of Boston. Benjamin Franklm was 
bom here, Jan. 17, 1706. John Hancock, the first signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, was a Bostonlim. Boston incorporated as a city, 1822. 
Population in 1700, 7000; in 1790, 18,088; in 1810, 33,250; In 1820, 43,298j- 
in 1880, 61,391 ; in 1&I5, 114,366. Tonnage of vessels m 1840, 220,243 tons. 
BOSWORTH FIELD, Battle op, the thh'teenth and last between the Louses 
of York and Lancaster, in which Richard IU. vras defeated by the earl of 
Richmond, afterwards Henry VII., the former being aWn, Aug, 22, 1485- 
The crown of Richard was tbund in a hawthorn busb, on the plain where the 
battle was fought, and Henry was so impatient to be crowned, that he tiad 
the ceremony performed on Qie spot with that very qtowd. In the civil con- 
tesls between the "Koses," many of the most ancient fiimiJies in the king- 
dom were entirely extinguished, and no less than 100,000 human beings lost 
their lives. 
BOTANY. Aristotle Is considered the founder of the philosophy of botany. 
The tUsioria Flaniarum of Theophrastus, written about 820 i. c. Authors 
on botany are nmnerona from the earlier agoa of the world, to the close of 
the 15th century, when the science became better understood. Tlie study 
was advanced by Fuclisiua, Bock, Bauhin, Ci^alpinns, and otheis. between 
1685 and 1600. — MdcMor Adam. The system and arrangement of Linnseus, 
tjie first botanist of modem times, made known about 1760. Jussieu's sys- 


you] DICTIONARY 0¥ D4TEIS. 213 

tem, in 1158. At tha time of timiiciis's death, a.d. 1778, tlie species of 
plants actually described amounted in number to 11,800. The numlser of 
species of all denominationa now recorded cannot fell short of 100,000. 

BOTANY BAY, originally fixed on for a colony of convicts fWim Great Britain, 
The first goTCriior, Phillips, who sailed from Engla^id in May, 1787, arrived 
at the settlement in Jannavy, 1788. The bay had beep discovered by cap- 
tain Cook in 1770, and tie place took its name ftom the great variety of 
herbs which abounded on (he shore. The colony was fixed ut Port Jackson, 
about thirteen miles to the north of the bay. See New Simt& Wales and 

70TTLES, of glass, were fii'st made in England, about 1658.— See Glass. The 
art of mailing giasa bottles and drinking glosses was known to the Romans 
at least before 79 A. D., for these articles and other vessels have been found 
in the Ruins of Pompeii. A bottle which contained two hogsheads was 
blown, we are told, at Xeith, in Scotland, in Januaiy, 1747-8. 

BOULOGNE, FRiNOB. Taken by the British in 1542, but restored to France 
opon the peace, 1550. Lord Nelson attacked Boulogne, disabling fen vessels, 
and sinking five, Aug, 3, 1801. Pdnoe Louis Napweon made a descent here 
with about fifty followers, ^^g. 6, 18i0. — See me^ nriirfeand J^Viotkk. 

BOULOGNE FLOTILLA. This celebrated ammraent against England excited 
much attention for some years, but the grand demonstration was made in 
1804. In that year, Bonaparte had aasemMed ISO.OOO men and 10 000 horses, 
and a flotilla of 1300 vessels and 17,000 sailors to invade Enghind. The 
coasts of Kent and Sussex were covered with raartello towers and lines of 
dei^nce; and nearly half the adult population of Britain was formed into 
volunteer corps. It is supposed that fliis French armament served merely 
for a demonstration, and that Bonaparto never seriously intended the inva- 

EODNDARY QUESTIONS, in the UNrrEO States. Award of the king of the 
Netherlands on the bonndary between Maine and the British possessions, 
Jan. 10, 1881 (rejected by both parties). Collisions between the people of 
Maine and New Brunswick in the disputed territory on the Aroostock, 1838-B, 
suspended by a mutual agreement l>etween sir J. Harvey, Governor of New 
Brunswick, governor Fairfield, of Maine, and general Scott, f tl US 
army, Marcli 21, 1889. This boundary settled by the Treaty f Wa 1 ng 
ton, 1842. Oi'egon Ijonndary— 49th parallel agreed upon as h n rth m 
boundary of the United States, in Oregon, bj tieaty signed at W h o t n 
June 1816. 

BOUNTIES. They were first granted on the exportation of Brit h mmodi 
ties— a new principle introduced into commerce by the EritisI p 1 am nt 
The first bomities granted on com, were in 1688. First legally p nt d n 
England for raising naval stores in America, 1703. Bountie ha b n 
granted on sail-cloth, linen, and other goo&a.— Elements of Cort ce 

BOUNTY, MUTINEERS OP THE Ship. Memorable mutiny on board th B ti/ 
armed ship returning from Otaheito, with bread-fruit. The m n -s put 
"" ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ' ■ ■ \a, 

their captain, Bligt, and nineteen men into an open boat, 

one of the Friendly Islands, April 28, 1789, and they reajjneu tne usianu oi 

Timor, south of the Moluccas, in June, after a perilous voyage of nearly 

BOURBON, House op. Anthony de Bourbon was tlio chief of the brancli of 
Bourbon, so called from a fief of that name which feB to them hj marriage 
with the heiress of the estate. Henry IV. of France and Navarre, justly 


styled tie Great, was sod of Anthony, and came to the throne in 1689. The 
crown of Spain waa aettled on a younger branch of thia family, andguaraii- 
teed by the peace of Utrecht, niZ.—Eapin. The Boarbon Family Coinpacl 
took place, 1761, The Bourbons were expelled France, 1791, and were 
restored, 1814. -Re-expelled, and again restored, 1816. The elder branch 
was expelled once more, hi the peraona of Charles X. and his a,mlly in 1880, 
a conaegnence of the lovolution of the memorably days of July In that 
year. — See Fmnc£. 

BOUEBON, Iblb op, discovered by tlie Portuguese, in 1545. The French 
firat settled here ia 1072, and built several towns. The island surrendered 
to the British, July 2, 1810. It is near the Isle of France, and the two are 
styled the Mauritius. There occurred an awful liurrioane here in Februaij' 
1829, by which Jmmenae mischief was done to the shipping, and in the 
Island. See Mamritiiis. 

BOUKDEAUX (or Bordbadi) was united to the dominions of Henry n. of 
England, by his marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine. Edward the Black 
Prince brought his royal captive, John, king of France, to this city after the 
batUe of PoiUevs, in 1358, and here held hia court during eleven years : his son, 
Richard II., (of Ei^.) was bom at Bourdeanx, in 1832. The fine equestrian 
statue of Louis XV. was erected in 1748. iBourdeaux waa entered by the 
victorious British army, afl«r the battle of Orthes, fought Feb. 25, 1814. 

BOOHIGNONISTS, a sect founded by Madame AtUoiaette Bimri^nrm, a. fimatio, 
who, in 1658, took the habit of St. AiigusMn, and travelled into France, 
Holland, England, and Scotland. In the last she made a strong parly and 
some thonsands of aectariats. about 1670. She maintained thatChrifltiani:,y 
does not consist in Mth or practice, but in an inward Ibelmg and supernatu- 
ral impulse. This visionary TiuhllBhed a book entitled the Ldght of the 
World, in which, and in several other Tvorka, ahe maintained and bwght her 
pernicious notions. A diaoiple of hera, named Court, left ber a good eslate.. 
She died in 1680. 

BOWLS, OB BOWLING, an English game, played as early aa the thirteenth 
century, and once in, great repute among the higher ranka, Charlea I. 

K' yed at it. It formed a dai^ share In the diveraions of Charles n., at 
abridge. — IMSatoires de GrammoiU. 

BOWS AMI ARROWS. See Archer;/. The invention of fhem ia ascribed to 
Apollo, Known in England previous to a. d, 450, The use of them waa 
again Introduced into Enghind by the Conqueror, 1066 ; and greatly encour- 
aged by Richard I., 1190. — Baker's Chromde. The usual range of the ion, 
bow waa from 300 to 400 yards , (he length of the bow waa si^ leet and 
the arrow three Crosa-bowa were flied to a stock of iron or wood and 
were discharged by a tj igger 

BOXING, on PRIZE-FIGHTJNtT th i,^iW^oH\i li maii-, ii 1 t fiiior te 
sport with the Bntiah \\ I im an 

advantage which giTe>- 1 1 I I ifcid- 

eii by the bayonet A I i ind 

a theatre was erected t IiljItp 

behind Oxford road bn 1 I I I I r tea,,i 

boxing aa a science m 17 ill Oninfrt fh di^liom st 1 1 i ti ls, m fhi rine," 
selling the victory, and o 
the flghts have been fewer ol 
have declined. 

BOYLE LECTURES. Instituted by Robert Boyle (son of the great earl of 
Cork), an exceedingly good man and philosopher, distinguiabed by his 
geniua, virtues, and nnbounded benevolence. He inistituted eight lectures 
in vindication of the Christian religion, which were delivered at St. Mary-' "■ 


bra] BtCTlOKAEY OP DATES. 215 

Bow church, fln the first Monday in each month, from January to May, and 
Septembev to Noyembec — endowed 1601. 
BOYNE, Battle op, between king William III, and his flit!ier-iii-low, James 11,, 
foiiglit July I, 1690. The latter was signally defeated, his adherents losing 
loOO men, and the Pi-otastant army about a third of that numher. James 
immediately aflerwards fled to Dublin, thenee to Waterford, and escaped to 
France, The dulco of Schomberg waa MUed in the battle. 

RABANT, It waa erect«d into a duchy a. d. 030, and devolved upon Lam- 
bert I. connt of Lonvain, in 1006, and from Mm descended W Philip 11. of 
Burgundy, and in regular succession to the emperor Charles V, In the 
seventeenth century it was held by Holland and Austria, as Dutoh Brabant, 
and Walloon, These proviuces underwent many changea in most of the 
great wars of Europe. The Anstrian division was taken by the French. 1716 
—again in 1794 by theu^ Republic ; and ft now forms part of the kingdom 
of Belgium, under Leopold, 1831. See Belgium. 
iEACELETS. They were eorly worn and prized among the ancients ; weread 
of them in almost all nations ; those that were called aiinMlis ware usually 
distributed aa rewards for valor among tlie Roman legions.— JVoim. Diet, 
Those of pearls and gold wei-e worn by iJie Roman ladies ; and armlets are 
female ornaments to the present day, 
BE.AGANZA, House op, owes its elevation to I'ojalty to a remarkable and 
bloodless revolution in Portngal, a. d. 16i0, when the nation, throwing off 
the Spanish yoke, which had become intolerable, advanced John, dake of 
Eragamea, to the thrcaie, on which this femily conljnues to leign.— JSfie 
BRAHMINS, a sect of Indian philosophers, reputed to be so ancient that Py- 
thagoras ia thought to have leai'ned from them his doctrine of the Metemp- 
S'Juisis; and it la afflrraod that some of the Greek philosophers went to 
dia on purpose to converse with them. The modern Brahmins derive 
their came from Brahme, one of tlie three beings whom God, according to 
their theology, created, and with whose assis^nce he formed the world. 
They never eat flesh, and abstain from tlie use of wine and all cai'nal enjoy- 
ments,— Sirofe, The modem Indian priests are elill considfired as the de- 
positaries of the whole learning of India. — Holwdl, 
BRAMDENBUKGH, Family of, is of great anUquily, and some historians say 
it was founded by the Solai'onlans, who gave it the name of Banber, which 
signifies Gnerd of (*e Poreds. Hemy I., sumamed the Fowler, fortified 
Brandenburgh, a, d, 928, to serve as a rampart against the Huns. He be- 
stowed the goTemment on Sifroi, count of Ringelheim, with the title of 
Margrave, imich signifies protector of the marches or fronliers, in 927. 
The emperor Sigismund gave perpetual inrestitureto Frederick IV. of Nm'em- 
berg, who was made elector in 1417. See Prassia. 
BRANDTWINE, Battle of, between the British royalist forces and the Ameri- 
cans, in wliich the latter were defeaWd with great loss, and Philadelphia fell 
to the possession of the victors, September 11, 1777. 
iiKASS. Its formation was prior to the Flood, and it was discovered in the 
seventh generation from AAaia.-^BiMe. Brass was known among all the 
ear!^ nations.^ — Usher. The Britons from tbe remotest period were acqu^ted 
with its use. — miltaker. When Lucius Mnmonius burnt Corinth to the 
ground, 146 i. c, the riches he found were immense, and during the confla- 
gration, it is said, all the metals in the caty melted, and running tt^ether, 
formed the valuable compoaitJon since known under the name of Coriidh- 
ian Brass, This, however, may well be doubted, for the Corinthian artists 
Lad long before obtained great credit for their method of combining gold 


216 THI WORIO'S PmOllE!!. ^UI 

and silver with copper ; and Ha Syriao iranslation of tlie Bible sajs tha 
Hiram made tlie veesela for Solomon's Semplfl of Corintliiin brass Artiel 
made of tliia brilliant composition, thongh in themEeives trmal and insig 
niflcant, were yet highly valued.— £*!!. tVesttay, 
BRAZIL. It was discovered by Alvarez da Cahral, a Portugueae who ViHt 
driven upon its coasts by a tempest in 1500. He called it tne Land of th' 
HolyCi'oaa; but it was subsequently called Broail on account of ils rw 
woddi and was carefully explored by Amerigo Vespncci, about 1504. Tt 
gold mines were first opened in 1684 ; and tha diamond mines were diseov 
ered 17S0 (see Diammifis). The French having seized on Portugal In 1801 
the royal Cimily and most of the nobles embai'ked for BittziL A revolnlj'" 
took place here in 1821. Biazil was' erected into an empire, when Do 
Pedro assumed the title of emperor, in November 1825. He abdicated tb 
throne of Portugal, May 2, 1826 ; and that of Brazil, in &vor of his infer 
Son, now emperor, April 7, 1881, and returned to Portugal, where a civ. 
war ensued.— See Portagai. 

BREAD. Ching-NouDg, tha succeasor of Fohi, is reputed to have been th 
first who taught men (the Chinese) the art of husbandiT, and the metho 
of making bread ftom wheat, and wine from rice, 1998 b. c. — Univ. Mist 
Baking of bread was Itnown in the patriarchal ages; see Exodui xii. !■! 
Baking bread became a profession at Rome, 170 s. c. During fjie siege of 
Paris by Henry IV., owing to the famine which then raged, bread, which 
had been sold whilst any remained for a crown a pound, was at last made 
from the bones of the chamel-houae of the Holy Innocents, a. d. 1594, — 
HenwuU. In the time of James I. the nsnal bread of the poor was made of 
barley ; and now in Iceland, cod-fish, beaten to powder, is made into bread ; 
and the poor use potato-bread in many parts of Ireland. Earth has been 
eaten as bread in some parts of the world: near Moscow is a portion of 
land whose clay will ferment when mixed with flour. The Indians of Lcii- 
isiana (1) eat a white earth with salt ; and the Indiana of the Oronooko eat 
a white unctuous earth. — Greig ; fhiUips. 

BREAKWATER at PLYMOUTH. The first slone of this stupendous work 
was lowered in the presence of the army and navy, and multitudes of tde 
great, Augnst 12, 1812. It was designed to break tha swell at Plymouth, 
and .stretches 5280 feet across the Sound ; it is 860 feet in breadth at the 
bottom, and more than thirty at the top, and consumed 3,666,000 Ions of 
granite blocks, from one to five tons eacii, up to April, 1841 ; and cost * 
million and a half aterlmg. The arehilect was Rennie. The first stone ■y/ 
Vae lighthouse ou lis weatem extremity was laid Feb. 1, 1841. 

BEEAST-PLATBB. The invention of them is ascribed to Jason, 937 x. c. The 
breast-plate formerly covered the whole body, but it at length dwindled in 
tha lapae of ages to the diminutive gorget of modern times. See AmuiT. 

BREDA. This city was taken by prince Maurice of Nassau in 1590 ; by tha 
Spaniards in 1625 ; and again by the Eutch in. 1687. Charles II. resided 
here at the time of the Restoration, 1660. See RestoTtdion. Breda was 
taltenby the French in 1793, and retaken by the Dutch thasame year. Tjjt 
French gan'ison was shut out by the burgesses in 1813, when the power of 
France ceased here. 

BEEECHES. Among the Greeks, this garment indicated slavery. It was 
worn by the Dacians, Parthians, and other northern nations; and in Ita'y, 
it is said, it was worn in tho time of Augustus Cfflaar. In the reign of Ho- 
noriua, about a , d. 394, the braccain, or breeches-makera, were expelled il'om 
Rome ; but soon afterwards the use of breeehea wi^ adopted in other comi- 
tries, and at length it became general. 


' DATES, 217 

TREMEN, a venerable HoriEe town, and duchy, soW to Geoi^ I. as elector of 
Hanovar, in 1710. It was taken by the Frencli in 1157; they were driven 
uutby the Hanovoriana in 1758; and it was again seiiied in 1806. Bi'emen 
was anDexed by Napoloon to the Froncli empire in 1810 ; but its iadepOE- 
denoe was restored in 1813. See Haitse Towns. 
RESLAtf. Batti^e of, between the Austiians and Prnssiana, the latter nnder 
prinee Bevern, who tma defeated, bnt the engagement was most bloody on 
both sides, Nor. 22, 1767, when Breslau was taken : bnt woa regained the 
same year, Thia oily waa Ibr Home time besieged by the French, and sur- 
rendered to them January 6, 1807, and again in 1818. 
lESr, It was besieged hy Julius Ctesar, 64 a. c— poseessed by the Englieh, 
a, a. 1878— given up to the dnke of Brittany, 1391. Lord Berkeley and a 
BTJtish fleet and army were repulsed here with dreadful lose in 169i 
Tlie magazine burnt, to the amonnt of some niiUions of ponncts sterling, 
1744. The marine hoapitalfl, with My galley-slaves, bnmt, 1766. The 
mogazine again destroyed by a Are, July 10, 17^. From this great depot 
of the French navy, numerous sqnadrons were equipped aghast England 
during the late war. 
RETHREW IN INtQUnr, The designation arose from persons covenanting 
formerly to share each other's fortune, in any expedition to invade a coun- 
try, as did Robert de OUy and Robert de Ivery, in William l.'s invasion of 
England, 1066. 

BRETIGNY, Peace op, concluded with Prance at Bretigny, and by which Eng- 
land retained Gascony and Gnienne, acqnired Suintonge, Agenois, Perigoitl, 
Limousin, Bigorre, Aiigoumois, aud Eovergne, and renounced her preten- 
sions t« Maine, Anjon, Tom'alne, and Normandy; EM:land waa also to 
receive 8,000,000 crowns, and to release king John, who had been long 
prisoner in London, May 8, 1860. 

B KEVJAEJES. The breviary is a book of mass and prayer used by the church 
of Rome. It was first called the CTtsios, and afterwards the breviary ; and 
both the clergy and laily use it publii^ and at home. It waa in use among 
the ecclesiastical ordera about i. n, 1080 ; and was reformed by the councils 
I of Ti'ent and Cologne, and by Pius V., Urban Till,, and other popes. The 
quality of type in which the breviary whs (irat printed gave the name to the 
type called brevier at the present day, 

BREWERS. The first ate faaced to Emt, Brewing was Itnown to onr Anglo- 
-Saxon anc^tots, — TiihdiU. "One WiUiam Murle, a rich maultanan or bvuer, 
'of Dunstable, had two horses all traped with gold, l41^."~Stowe. There 
are about 1700 public brewers in England, about 200 in Scotland, and 260 in 
Ireland ; these are exclusively of retell and Intermediate brewers, of which 
there are in England about 1400; there are, besides, 28,000 victoallers, &c., 
ivho brew their own ale. In London, there are ahout 100 wholesale brewers, 
many of fhom in immense trade, Tarioaa statutes relating to brewers and 
the Side of beer have been enacted from time to tune, See Beer. 

Bi7IBERT. In EnglandSn mdicteble offence to bribe persons in the adminis- 
tration of public instice. Thomasde Weyland, aiudge, was banished the 
land fiir bribery, m 1283 ; he waa chief justice of uie Common Pleas. Wil- 
liam de Thorpe, chief justice of the King's Bench, waa hanged for .bribery 
in 1851, Another jndge waa fined 20,000J, for the like offence, 1616, Mr. 
Walpole, secretary-at-war, was sect to the tower ibr bribery in 1712. Lord 
Stcangford waa suspended ftom voting m the Ii-ish House of Lords, for soli- 
citing a bribe, January 1784. 
RIBERY AT ELECTIONS, as in the preceding oases, made an indictable 
iflfenee. Messrs. Sykes and Bumbold fined and imprisoned for brii>ery at 


218 THE woeld's pkoukess. (.bk 

an election, March li, 1776. An elector of Durham convicted, July 1803 
and Heveral similar instances have occurred since. 

BRICKS, for building, were neeil in tlie enrlieEt times in Babylon, Eeyp 
Greece, and Rome, ttscd in England by the Romtina, about a. d. 44, SCad' 
under tlie direction of Alfred the Great, ahout 886. — Saxen Chrou. Tb 
size regulated by order of Charles!. 1625. Taxed, lT8i. The nnoibcr t 
briokB which paid duty in Englnnd in 1820 was 949,000,000 ; in 1830, th 
cumber exceeded 1,100,000,000; and in 1840 itamountedtol4,000,000,00l 
See SiiUding, 

BRIDAL CEREMONIES. Among the more rational ceremonies obsovvcd 1 
the ancients, ivaa the practice of conducting the bride to the house of hi 
spouse on a chariot, which was afterwords bni'ned ; it originated with tl 
Thebans, and was intended aa a symbol of the bride's fiiture dependence i 
her hnaband, from whom there was no chariot to convey her back to h 
parents ; it is mentioned 880 e. o. 

BRIDEWELL. OrUinallythe name of a royal palace of king Join, ne: 
Fleei^ditch, Lonifon: it was built anew by Henry Vm. in 1622, and m 
given to the city by Edward VI. in 1553. There are several prisons of th 
name throughout England. The first London Bridewell was in a localil 
near to Bride's well ; hut tliia is no reriBon, as is jnatly observed, why siui 
W prisons, not in a similar locality, should have this name. 

BRIDGES. So early and general, and the expedients for their construction so 
various, their origin cannot be traced ; they were first of wood. The ancient 
bridges in China are of great magnitude, and were built of stflne. Abjdos. 
is femouB for the bridge of hoata which Xerxes built across the Hellespont. 
Trajan's magnificent stone bridge over the Danube, 4770 Ifeet in length, was 
built in A. D. 103. The Devil's bridge in the canton of Uri, so called from its 
frightful situation, was built resting on two high rocks, so that it could 
Ecai'cely. ire conceived how it was erected, and many febulona stories wore 
invented to account for it. At Shaffhausen an extraordinary bridge was 
built over the Rhine, which ia liiere 400 feet wide ; there was a pier in the 
middle of the river, hat it is doubtfU whether the bridge rested upon it ; a 
man of the lightest weight felt the bridge totter under him, yet wagons 
heavily laden passed over without danger. This bridge was destroyed by 
the French in 17B9. Suspension bridge at Niagaia Falls completed July 
29, 1848. 

BRIDGES IN ENGLAND. Tbe ancient bridges in England were of wood, and, 
were fortified with planks and merlined ; the first bridge of Stone was br' 
at Bow, near Stratford,- a. □. 1087. Westminster bridge, then the finest 
erected iu these realms, and not snrpasaed by aiiy in the world, except in 
China, wna completed in twelve years, 1750- The other London bridgea are 
Blaokfiiais, c<impUtedl770; London, (rebuilt) 1881; Southwark, of iron, 
1810. 'The first iron bridge, on a large scale, was erected over the Severn, 
in Shropshire, 1779. The finest chain suspenaion bridge ia that of the 
Menai Strait, completed in 1825. Htmgerfoitl suspension bridge, 1845. 

BRIDGEWATEE CAWAL, the first great work of the kind in England, was 
begun by the duke of Bridgewater, styled the thther of canal navigation lU 
that coimtry, in 1768 ; Bfr. Brindley was the architect. The canal com- 
mences at Worsley, seven miles from iHancheater ; and. at Barton-bridge is 
an aqueduct which, for upwards of 200 yards, conveys the canal across the 
navigable river Irwell; its length is twenty-nine miles. 

BRIEF. A written instrument in the Catholic church, of early but uncertain 
date. Brie& are the lettsra of the pope dispatched to princes and otiiei's on 
public afiairs, and ai'e usually written short, and hence the name, and ar 
without pre&ce or preamble, and on paper; in wliich pai'ticulars they-", 


a J 



distingaiahed from 6iiUs. The latter are ample, and always written on 
piii'chmant i a brief ia sealed with red was, the seal of tlie fi^ierman, or St. 
Peter in a boat, and always iu presence uf tie pope ; tiie j are used for graces 
aud diEpcnsatioiis, as well as business. 

IRIENWE, Battle op, between the allitd armies of Russia and Prussia, and 
tlie French, fought on the let, and resumed on the M February, 1814. The 
allies were defeated with gieatloss; this waaoaeof the la«t battles in which 
till; Frencli achieved victory, previonsly to the fell of Napoleon. 

iKISTOL. This city, one of tiia principal in England, was built by Brennns, 
a pvinca of the Britona, 360 b. c. It was granted a charter and became a 
distinct county in the reign of Edward ifl. Taken by thp earl of Glouoes- 
tev, in his di^nee of his sister Mande, the empress, against king Stephen, 
1138, Bristol was attacked with great fUiy by the forces of Cromwell, 1655. 
Riot at Bristol, on the entrance id' sir Charles WethereH, the < ecorder, into 
the d^, attended by a lar^ police and special force, to open the flessions. 
He being politically obnoxious to the lower order of the citizens, i> riot en- 
sued, whidi waa of several days' continuance, and which did net termiaate 
until the mansion-house, the bishop's palace, several merchants' stores, some 
of the prisons (the inmates liberated), and nearly 100 houses were burned, 
and many Hves lost, Oct. 29, 1831, Tilal of the rioters, Jan. 2, 1832 : four 
were executed, and twenty-two transported. Suicide of col. Brereton during 
his trial by court-mai'tial, Jan. 9, same year. 

KRITAIN. The earliest records of the history of this island are the manu- 
scripts and poetry of the Cambrians. The Celts were the ancestors of the 
Bi'itons and modem Welsh, and were the first inhabitants of Britain, Bri- 
tain, including England, Scotland, and Wales, was anoienfly called Albion, 
tlia name of Britain beine- applied to all" tlie islands collectively— -Albion to 
only one. — PUm/. The Romans Erst invaded JBritam under Julius Ctasar, 
55 B. o., but Oyer made no conquests. Tho emperor ClaudiuB, and his ^n- 
erals, Plautius,' Vespasian, and Titus, subdued several provinces after tliirty 
pitched battJes with the cativos, a. d. 43 and 4i. The conquest was com- 
pleted by Agrioola, in tlie reign of Domitian, a. d. 85. 

The Eomana itefeaicfl bj Boadices 
7O,O0aBlein, and Lniiloii IiuiDl 

RBltfT.ofLirciua.rhefji'BtCliiisdaii Jfir 
Carausiuq, b t^iaDl, nsu^pa Ihe Ihror 

in bj llio de- 

Tlist Britain ftmnerlj joined the C is rr h mil 

lar cliffs of the opposite coasts of the English Channel, and from the coa- 
■ut encroachments of the sea in still widening the channel. For inatunce, 
.. mrga part of the cliffs of Dover fell, estimated at six acres, Nov. 27, 1810. 
PMtlips's Awnals. 
lITISH museum. The origin of this grest naUonal insMtnlJon was the 


220 THE world's TKOORESS. [ UltB 

grant by parliament of 20|00ffl. to the danghtera of sir Hana Sloane, in pay- 
ment jbr Lis fine library, and vast collection of tlio productions of natare 
and art, wiioli bad cost him 50,000i. The library contained 50,000 volumes- 
and valnable MSS., and 69,362 avtiolBS of yerti were enumerated in tie cat- 
aiogua of cnriositieB. The act was passed April 5, 1T5S ; and in the same 
year Montagu-house woa ohtaiued by govermnent as a place ftir tlie recep- 
tion of these treasures. The lanseum lias ainoe been gradnally increased 
to an immense extent by gifts, beqnBsta, tbe puTchaee of every apeeies of 
cariosity, MSS,, sculpture and work of ait, and by the transference to its 
rooms of tbe Cottonian, Harleian. and other libraries, the Elgin marbles, 
&c. George IV. presented to the museum the libraiy collected atBuckiDg- 
ham-house by George III.- — See Collrmian Liln'ai'y, and othsr coUectiim). 
BKOAD SEAL op ENGLAND, first affixed to patents and other gi-ants of the 

crown, by Edward the Conffessor, a. d. 1048.— BoAct-'s Chron. 
BROCADE. A sUken stuff variegated with gold or silver, and raised and en- 
riched with Sowers and various sorts of figures, originaJly made 'by the Chi- 
nese.- — Johason. The trade in this article was oari'ied on by the Venetians. 
— Anderson. Its jnanufootura -was established ivith great success at Lyons, 
in 1757. 
BROCOLI: an Italian Plant.— Pari*™. The white and purple, both of which 
ai'B varieties of -Hie cauliflower, were brought to England from the Isle of 
Cyprus, in the seventeenth ceaiacj .^Andersen. About 1608. — Bii/ms. Tbo 
cnltivation of this vegetable was greatly improved in the gaidens of Eng-J 
land and came into gi'eat abundance about i.%W.—Aiulerson. 
BROKERS. Those both of money and merchandise were known early in Eng- 
land. See Appraisers. Their dealings were regulated by law, and it wat 
enacted that they should be licensed before transacting business, 8 and B 
William 111. 1605-6. Tlie dealings of stodc-brokers were regulated by i t 
6 George I. 1719, and 10 George 11, ITSB.- Statofes at Targe. See Pavtn- 
BRONZE, known to the ancients, some of whose statues, vessels, and vai'io-i 
other articles, made of bronze, are in the British Museum. The equestria - 
alatuo of Louis XJY., 1699, in the Place Venddme at Paris, (demolished An^; 
10, 1792,) was the most colossal ever made ; it cohtained 60,000 lbs. weie > 
of bronze. Bronze is two parts brass and one copper, and the Greeks adae.i 
one fifteenth of lead and silver. 
BROTHELS, were formerly allowed in London, and considered a necessary o^ J, 
under the regulation of a good police. They were all situated on the Bank- 
side, Southwark, and subject to -tiie jurisdiction of the bishop of Winches- 
ter ; and they were viMted weekly by the Sheriff's offlcors, and the severesi 
Ssnalties being enacted against keeping infbcted or marned women, 8Hem~ 
. 1162.— Sbjtwt/ of L/nidan. Brothfls tolerated in Fiance, 1280, Por 
SixtuB TV. licensed one at Rome, and tlie prostitutes p^d him a weekly ta.- 
which amounted to 20,000 ducats a year, lill.—Ilal. C/non. 
BROWNISTS, a sect ftjunded by a schoolmaster in Southwark, named Robert 
Brown, ahout 1616. It condemned all ceremonies and ecclesiastical distinc- 
tions, and affirmed that thero was an admixture of corruptions m all oth'jr 
communions. But the thunder subseqnently recanted his doctrines fot- a 
bonaflce in the church of England, — CoHiiii's Ecdes. Hist. 
BRUCE'S TRATELS. undertaken to discover the source of the tftle. IT 
illustrious Bruce, the " Abyssinian Tiaveller," set outiii June 17C8, and ])r. 
ceeding first to Cairo, be nsivigated the Nile to Syene, thence crossed the 
desert to the Red Sea, and, arriving at Jidda, passed some months in Arabia 
Fells, and after various detentions, reaobed Gondar, the capital of Atj,. 


177S, and died in 1704. 
BRUNSWICK, House op. This lioiise owes ita oiigin to Azo, of Uie femily of 
Este, Ako died in 1035, and left, by hia wiBs Ciinegonde (the lieiiysa of 
Guelph in., duke of Bavaria), a- son who was Guelpli IT., the great-grand- 
Ikther of Henry the Lion. lliia Isat married Maude, daoghfed of Henry 11. 
of England, and is always looked upon as being the fhundcr of the Bruna* 
wide femiJy, Tlio dominions of Henry the Lion, were tte most extensive of 
any prince of hia time ; hut ha-ricg Wifitsed to assist the empuror Fredurick 
Barharosaa in a war against pope Alexander m., he drew the empero:r's re- 
sentment on him, and in the diet of Wnrl^hnrg', in 1179, he was proEcribed. 
The duchy of Bavaria was giTon to Otho, from whom is descended the family 
of Bavaria ; the dnohy of Sexony, to Bernard Asoaniua, founder of the 
honse of Anhalt ; and his other territories to difiereut persons. On this, he 
retired to England, but on Henry's intereossion, Brunswick and Lunenburg 
Hererestorod to him The bouse of Brunswick has divided in-to several 
bi'anchM The present duke of Brunawick-Wolfbnbuttel is sprung fVom the 
tldost, the dufee of Bmikswick Zell mas &oni the second; and from this 
Inst sprang the royal fumily of England, A revolution took place at Bruns- 
Ti ick, when the ducal palace « as burnt, and the reigning prince obliged to 
letire and seek shelter in England, Sept. 8, 1830. 
BPTISSEL' foiiiidi il hi &t Gery of Cambray, in the seventh century. The 
iinnmi I il li iiiiini liinntof this cily by Marshal Villeroy, when lii churches 

iiid 4(1(111 lnju s well, destroyed, 16B6. Taken by the Frendi, 1746. 

\ nil 1] Unniiiiiii/ 1702 The revolution of 1830 commenced here, Aug. 
_ ^ / Ihii tonn ia celebrated for its fine lace, camleis, and 

I ' 1 1 noble bniiding, called the Bdiel lie ViMe, whose tur- 

I I jit and on its top ia a copper figure of St. Michael, 17 
] II \Mth the wind. Riot in Bmssele, in which the costly 
li II I] al houses was demolished, in consequence of a dis- 

II I I I I t tiia house of Orange, 5tb April, 1834. 

bUBLLE LO^IPAMEb in oommerce, a name given to p jects f g 

money upon false and unaginaiy g«>unds, mudi praoti ed fit h di s- 
tious consequences in Trance and England, in 171E> and 1 21 My h 
Ijiojpcts wpre foimed m England and Ireland in 182B. S Coup n. nd 
Law s BiMle 

BIjCCAWEERS Tlieso piratical adventurers, chiefly F h E gl h nd 
Dutch commenced their depredations on the Spaniard f A on 

after the lattei had taken posBOision of that continent d th West I di s. 
The principal commanders of the first expedition were M tb j L 1 ia, 
Basoo, and Morgan, who murdered thousands, and plundered millions. The 
espediljon of Van Horn, of Ostend, was undertaken m 1608 ; that of Giamont, 
in 1085 ; and that of Pomtis, in 1697. 
L.UCHAKTTES. Hundriida of deluded fenaties, followers of Margaret Buchan, 
who promised to conduct tlium to the new Jerusalem, and prophesied tho 
end of the world. She appeiired in Scotland in 1779, and died in I7Q1, when 
her followers dispersed. 
BUCHAKESr, Thbatt op. The preliminarira of peace ratified at this place 
between Russia and Turkey, it lieing stipulated that the Prath should he 
the ftontier limit of those empires, signed May 28, 1812. The subsequent 
war between tliose powers altered many of the provisions of this treaty. 
BUCKINGHAM PALACE, LoNooK. BucMngham-house, bnUt 1703, waa 
'pulled down in 1825, and the new palace commenced on ita site ; and after 


222 'i'HE world's PUOGILESa. [ Eiji, 

expenditure which, mast have approached, a million sterling, it waa com- 
pleted, and was taken possession of bj queen Victoria, July 13, 1837. 

BUCKLERS. These used in sing-le combat were invented by Prcetne and Acri- 
Bius, of Avgos, about 1370 b. o. When Lucius Papirius defaated tie Sam- 
niWs, ha took fVom them their bucMorB, wMch were of gold ajid silver, 309 
B. c. See article Ar^tor. 

BUCKLES. The wearing of huckles oommanced in the reign of Charles H. ; 
but people of infeiior rank, and such as affected plainnesa in their gavb, 
wore Eteings in their shoes some yeai's after that pei'iod : these hist were, 
howeyer, ridiculed fbr their siagijarity in nsiag them. 

BDDA; ones called the Key of Christendom.' Itw 

and 200,000 of his anbjoota were earned away captives, 1520, Buda «' 
sacked a seooud time, when the inhabitants were put to the aword, and Hun- 
gary was anncKed to the Ottoman empire, 1540. Retaken by the Imperial- 
ists, and the Mahometans delivered up to the fury of the soldiei-s, 1686. See 

BTIENA VISTA, Batti.e op, between the American force, of about 5,000 men, un- 
der general Taylor and geueral Wool; and the Mexicans, about 20,000, unuC 
Sante Anua : the latler defijated with the loss of 2500 killed and wounded, 
AmerIcan!osa,264kil]ed, 460 wounded. TMe victory aecuring to the Ameri- 
cans the whole of the northora provinces of Mexico, Peh. 22, IM^T. 

BUENOS AYRES. The capital was founded by Pedro Mendoza, in 1585, It 
waa tolcen by the British luider sir Home Popham, June 21, 1806 ; and wen 
retaken, after an attack of three days, Aug 12, the same year. The BritisJ 
snffured a gi'eat repulse here under general Whiteloek, who was disgi'aced, 
July 6, 18OT, De»3aration of IndBpendence of this province, July 19, lpl6 ; 
the treaty waa signed February 1822. To pnt a stop to ft war botiveen Bue- 
nos Ayrea and Montevideo, Engl8t>a and France bloiiaded the port of Bue- 
nos AyreE, Oct. 34, 1845 ; the troops of Buenos Ayrea under general Rosas, 
■defeated by the combined forces, Nov. 20, 18d5. 

BUFFOONS. These were originallr monntebanks in the Kcman theatres. Xha ■ 
shows of the buffoons were discouraged by Domitian, and were finally abol- 
ished by Trajan, a. d. 98. Our ancient kings iad jesters, who are desoiihed 
as being, at nrst, practitioners of indecent raillery and antic postures ; they 
were employed under the Tudors. Some writers stats that James I, ran- 
verted the jesters into poet-laureates ; bnt poet-lam'eates existed long before i 
Selden traces the latter to 1261. — Wartim. 

BUILDING. The first stmoturea were of wood and clay, then of rou^h atone 
and in the end the art advanced to polished marble. Building with stonb 
waa earl7 among the Tyriansj and as ornaments and taste arose, evert 
nation pursued a different system. The art of building with stone may bt- 
referred in England to Benedict, or Benet, a monk, about a. d. 670. The first 
brli^e of this material mEnglandwasatBow, iQl087. Building with hncX 
was inti-oduoed by the Romans into their prorincea, Alfred encoomged it 
iu England, in 888. Brick-building was generally introduced by the onrl p. 
Arundel, about 1608, London being then flmost bnilt of wood. Tlie increase 
of building iu London was prohibited within three miles of tlie city gates by 
Elizabeth, who ordered that one ihniily only should dwell in one house, 1580. 
!7; aud are subdued by tht 
1, this emperor having taken 
16,000 Bulgarians prisoners, he caused their eyes to be put ont, leaving or« 
eye only to every hundredth maa, to enable him to conduct his country—. 



home. Bulgaria -wiis goveraed by Roman dukes till 1180 siblaed by 
Bajazet, 139B.— (/liiu. Hut ^ui xm 
BULL, OK EDICT op the POPD T! la it an apostolical leBCiipt of anoiant 
uae, and gtinerallj wrlitsn on pai cLmEnt 1 he hull la properly the seal, 
deriving its name ftom HU i and his boon made of gold ailvei lead and 
wax. On. one Bide ore the heads of Peter and Paul and on the other the 
name of Qie pope, and the year of bis pontificate The celebrated golden 
bnU of the emperor Charles IT was eo callfd lecause of ils golden s^al 
and was made the fundamental la v of tlie Gc man empire at the diat ol 
Nurembui'g, a. n. 1B66 Bulla denounung queen ElizalLtli and liei alet- 
iora, and consieTiing them to hell fire accompnraod the Snanisl Armada 
BDIX-BAITING, OH BDLL-F1(tHII\ 11 it ci usly cruninal spo t of 
Spain and Portugal is sonH-wli t ntries to ihe fights 

of the gladiatora among the V = being an amuse 

iQcnt aC Stamford ao ea ly as t ! Bull runmng was a, 

sport at Tntbnry in 1874 In t leadofthe Easter 

fierce hnnfa, when foami i^ b 11 I and luaty bnhs and 

huge bears were baited, inth d g i I lA I k ! London, was the 

Paris, or Bear Garden so oelebiated m the time of Elizabeth for the exhl 
bition of bear-baiting' then a f ishionable amnsement A bill to abolish 
buh-baitaiie was thrown out m the Commons chiefly through the influence 
of tlie late Mr, Windham who made a ainenlar speech m fevor of the cus- 
tom. May 24, IWS.—Builer. It has smoe been declared illegal. See Ciit- 
eUy to Ammrds. Boll-flghta wei'e introdnoed into Spain about 1280 : abol- 
idied there, " except fbr yawM and patriotic jixapoaes," ixiVISi. Hiere was 
a bull-fight at Lisbon, at Campo de Santa Anna, attended by 10,000 apecta- 
tors, on Svmdaa/, June 14, 1840. 
BULLETS. Tliose of stone were in use j.d. 1514; and iron ones are fiist 
mentioned in the Padcra, 1550. Leaden bulleta were made before the close 
of the sixteenth century, and continue to be tliose in use in all nations for 
muskatiy. The cannon-ball in Home East«am countriea is still of stono, 
instead of icon,^— JijAe. 
BUNKER HILL, Battle of, (near Boston,) between the British under Howe, 
and the Americans under Prescott and Putnam, June 17, 1775. British IoS9, 
1054 killed and wounded,; American., 453. Tlie latter obliged to retreat for 
want of powder. But this, the first important battle of the revolution, has 
always jastly been regarded as a great victory for the American cause, and 
is so commemorated by the granite obeliak on the battle-ground, of which 
the comer-stone was laid by general La Fayette, in 1825. It was finished 
July 23, 1842, at the coat altogether of about ^100.000, raised by voluntary 
contributions. The height is 220 feet. Its completion celebrated by a pro- 
cession, &c,, and aa oration by Daniel Webster ; president Tyler and 50,000 
people present^ Jnne IT, 1848. 
BUONAPARTE'S EMPIRE of FRANCE. Napoleon Bonapai'te, the moat 
extraordinary man of modem times, ruled over France, and subdued most 
of the nations of the Continent, in the early part of the present centmy. 
See his various military and other aohievemente under their respective heads 
throughout the volnmc : — 

Qlejfl bom at Ajaccio, in llslvj 

]rat illslinsuisliin biiuself in the 
nunand ofihe onilLsiT at Toulon ■ 1! 

ch directoTT, anil b& 
11 - "nov. B,17! 

'peace to the kitg of 



N p 60 mil 




BUBGESS from he Free h Bmi ms a dist a anE adwh 

ts 00 H oa B gease wrecaled pa a inE and 2 5 

B So lanii in 6 a tl m and h 865 Bnrges^e h d 
inttpceawhhhjBre ted peen np a a, HujV 
mZ.— yiner's Statutes. See Bermigh. 

BURGLARY. UntU tbe reigu of Geoi-ge lY. tliia crime, in England, was pun- 
ished with death. 

BURGOS, SiEOE OP. Wellington entered Burgos after tlia battla of Salamanca, 
which was Ibnght July 22, 1812, and the castle was besieged by tlie Bvilish 
and allied army, and several attempts nere made t-o caiTy it by assaiUt, liut 
the siege was ahandoned in October, same year. The cattle and fortifica- 
tiona wore blown up hy tlie I'l'ench in June 1813. 

BXJRGUWDY. This kingdom begins in Alsace, a. d, il3. Conrad II. of Gei- 
many being dedared lieir to tlie kingdom, is oppoeed in hia attempt to an- 
nex it to the empire, when it is dtemembered, and on its ruins are formed 
the tour proTineea of Bm'gundy, Provence, Viennea, and Savoy, 1084. Bnr- 
g;andy becomes a circle of the German empire, 1521. IE falls to Philip L'. 
of Spain, whose tyranny and religious peraeeutiona cause a I'evolt in the 
Batavian provinces, 1666. Alter various changes, Burgundy annexed to 
France, and foi-med into departcoenta of that kingdom. 

BURIAL. The earliest and most rational mode of restoring the body to eartb. 
The flrat idea of it was formed by Adam, on hia obaerviag a live bird cover- 
ing a dead one with leaves. Barrows were the most ancient graves. See 
BmroKS. Places of bmiaJ were consecraled under pope Calixtns I. in 310.— 
BSuitbioi. The that Christian burial-place was inatituted in 606 ; bm'ial in 
cities. 742; in consecrated places, 760; in cirarch-yai-ds, 768. VanltB wero 
erected in chancels flrat at Canterbury, 1075. Woollen ahrouda uaed in Eng> 
land, 1666. Linen scarfe introduced atftuierala in Ireland, 1729; and woollen 
shrouds uaed, 1733. Burialawei'etaxed.lGBB— again, 1073., S^e CejneLfries. 

BUBIALS. Paroahial registers of them, and of births and marriages, were it 



sUtaled in England by Cromwell, Lord Esaex, about 1536. — Sioice. A tax 
was exacted on burials in England: (br the burial of n duke, iSO, and foi 
that of a common person 4s., under WUliam m., 1S95, and Quo, m. 1783.— 
Stages. See BiUs of Mm-Caliiy. 
BUREING. A new and horrible species of murder committed in England. It 
was thus named from tie first toown ci'iminal by wtom the deed was perpe- 
trated being called Bwke. His Tictims were atcangled, or made lifeless by 
pressure, or other modes of Buffocatioa, and the bodies, which eihibited no 
marks of violence, were afterwards sold to the sargeons for the purpose 
of dissection. Burke was execuled at Edinburgh 3d February, 1839. The 
crime has been more recently pei-petrated by a gang of omrderers in London. 
The monater named Bishop was apprehended in November 1881, and exB' 
cnted with Wiiiiaios^ one of his accomplices, for the mmdei' of a poor Italian 
boy, named Carlo Ferrari, a friendlets wanderer, and therefore selecied as 
being leas likely to be songht after (tbej" confessing to this and other similar 
murders), December 5, same year, 
BURMESE EftfPIRE. Founded in the middle of the last century, by Alom- 

pra, the flrat soTereign of the present dyjiasty.— See I-adin. 
BURNING ALIVE. This punishment was inflicted amon^ the Romans, Jews, 
and other nations, on the betrayers of councils, incendiaries, and for incest 
in the ascending and descending degi*ees. The Jews bad two ways of burn- 
ing alive ; one with wood and jkggots to barn the body, the other by pour- 
ing scalding lead doivn the throat of the criminal, comSiiaHa aniiaie, to bum 
Hie aoul.— See SiUlees. 
BURNING ALIVE, in England. Even In England (see preceding arUde) burn- 
ing alive was a punishment upon the statute-book. The Britons punished 
heinous crimes by bnming alive in wicker baskets. See Btonekenge. This 
punishment was conntenanaed by bulls of the pope ; and witches suffered 
in this manner.— See Witches. Monypersons have been burned ahve on ac- 
count of religious principles. The first sufferer was sir William Sawtree, 
parish priest of St. Osith, London, 8 Henry IV., Febmary 9, 1401. in the 
reign of the cruel Mary numbers were iramed, among others, Ridley, bishop 
of London ; I.atimer, bishop of Rochester ; and Craiimer. archbishop of 
Canferbnry, who were bumod at Oxford in 1E55 and 1656. Numerous otJiers 
suffered this dreadful death in Mary's reign.* 
BORNING THE DEAD. The antiquity of this custom rises as high as the The- 
ban war ; it was practised among the Greelts and Romans, and tiie poet Ho- 
mer abounds with descriptions of such fmieral obaeqnies. The practice was 
very general about 1325 n. c, and was revived by Sylhi, lest the relics of the 
dead m graves should be violated i and to this day the bnming of the dead 
is practised in many parts of the East and West Indies. 
BURNWGf-GLASS iND CONCAVE MIRRORa, Their power waa not unknoivn 
to Arehimedes, hnt the powers of these instmmentB are rendered wonderfli! 
by the modem improvements of SettaUa: of Tcbimhanaen, 1680; ofSuftbn, 
]7''7 i and of Parker and others, more recently. The following ai'e esperl- 
-.u'eutB of the fusion of substances made with Mr. Parker's lens, or burning 

na Ueffl Ejueen were the tuBhoTH^lar. 
cha ficcer, vrha eeemed lo deriv« a 



SubslsMesfuted. Weighl. Tbm, Sidislances fused. Weight. Time. 

Sii™" . ' . ' - 30 fraiiis 3 Scoiuli An emBinld - . 3 graina 2B Beconda; 
Copper - - - 33 grains 20 secmida. A ctyetal pabble - 7 gi-aiiis fi aecdiulB, 

Sleel ■ • - 10 fcaitiH la MCflrtde, Pumice elone - • 10 giaina 34 seconds, 
Gi'een wood takes Are inetanfeuieonaly ; water boils immediately ; Ijouea oiii 
calcined ; and tliinga, not capable of melting, at once become red-hot Ijke iron. 
BDHTING ALIVE. A mode of death adopted in Boeotia, where Creon ordered 
Antigone, the sister ofPolynices, to be bnried alive, 1225 B.C. TJie Roman . 
vestals were subjeotel to thia horrible kind of execution for any levity in dress 
or condnet that could excite a suspicion of their virtue. The vestal Minutia 
was buried alive on ■the charge of incontinence, 887 b. c. The vestal Sexfjlia 
was huiled alive 2T4 b. c. The veslai Comelia a. d. 92. Lord Bacon gives 
instances of the resurrection of persona who had been buried alive ; the 6- 
mous Duns Scotua is of the nunfber. The aasassius of Capo dlstria, Presi- 
dent of Greece, were (two of them) sentenced to be immured in brick walls 
built around them np to their chins, and to be supplied with food in this 
apecica of torture until they died, October, 1831.— ^ee Greea. 

BUSTS. This mode of preserving the remembrance of the human ffeatures is 
tha same with the h^mce of the Greelts. Lysfelratus, the statuary, was the 
inventor of moalds from which he cast wax figures, 328 b. c.—Piin^. Busfa 
from the face in plaster of Pai'ia were first taken by Andrea Ten'oohi, about 
A. D. 1466.— Kwari. 

BUTCHERS. Among the Romana there were three elates: the Saani pro- 
vided hogs, the Boarii oxen, and the jLomi, whose office was to kill. The 
butchers ti'ade is very ancient in England; so is their company in London, 
although it was not incorporated uutjl the second year of James 1. 160i.- 
AnntUs of landim. 

BUTTER. It was laic before the Greeks had any notion of butter, and by the 
early Romans it was used only as a medicine — never as fbod. The Chris- 
tians of Egypt burnt butter in their lamps, instead of oil, in the third cen- 
ttiry. In 1675, there fell in Ireland, during the winter time, a thick yellow 
daw, which had all the medicinal properties of butter. In Africa, vegetehle 
butter is made fl'om the fruit of the sheatroe, and is of richer taste, atiCebba, 
than any butler made from cow's milk.— -Afwi^o Park. 

BUTTONS, of early manufacture in England; those covered with cloth were 
prohibited by a statute, thereby to encourage the manuiiioture of metal but- 
tcna, 8 Gieoi^o 1. 1721, The manufecture owes nothing to encouragement 
from any qnarfer of kte years, although it has, notwithstanding, much im- 
proved. —PhiUips. 

BYRON'S VOYAGE. Commodore Byron left England, on hia voyage round 
the globe, June 21, 176*. and retunied May 9, 1766, In his voyage he dis- 
covered the populous island in the Pacific Ocean which bears his name, An- 
gusfia, 1765. Though brave and intrepid, such was hia general ill fbrtuh"" 
-'■ ~i, that he was cdled by the sailors of the fleet, " Foul-weather Jack."— 

BYZANTIUM. Now Constantinople, fbnnded by a calony of Athenians, 715 
B, c— Eisseiiuj, It was takon by the Romans, a. d. 78, andwaslaidinruiaa 
by Severua in 198. Byzantium was rebuilt by Consfantine in 338 ; and after 
Mm it received the name of Constantinople. Seo CmislantinopU 



CABAL. A Hebrew woi'd, used itiTavioas Beases. The rabbins wave cabalista, 
and the Christians EO called tbose whp pretended to magic. In English his- 
toiy, the Cabal was a coimGil which conBiated of five loi3a in admipistralion, 
supposed to be pensioners of France, and dlstingnislied liy the appeJlatiou 
of the Cabal, fWtm the initialH oftheir names: Sir Thomaa Clifford, the lord 
Ashley, the duke of Bncluugham, lord Arlington, and the duke of Lauder- 
dale, 22 Churles II. 1Q70,— Hujne. 


and in other reigns of the Heptareh}'. The cabinet council, in which secret 
deliberations were held by the king and a few of hia chosen fl'iends, and the 
great officers of state, to be afterwards laid before flie second council, now 
styled the privy council, waa instituted by Alfred the Great, about i. n. 896. 
Speintan. The modem cabinet council, as at present constitute, was recon- 
structed in 1070, and osuaily consists of the fallowing twelve niembera :* 

Lord ch^jicellor. PYerduentonhe board ofcon'rol. 

PIrel Foriof Ihe tteasuty. M^e ™r Sib rainl, " ™ "' 

Ctiancdllot of the entbequer. I Fim lord of ths admiially. 

In 1841 the number was 14, and included the Secretary at War, the Woods 
and Forests, and Chief Secretary for Ireland, the Mint and the Board of 
Trade being united in right hoc H. Labouchere. The cabinet ministers of 
the various reigns will be fbund under the head AdmmisiraliaJii of England. 

CABLES. Their use was known in the earliest times: a machine for mBking 
the largest, by which human labor was reduced nine-tenths, waa inTeated 
in 1792. This machine was set in motion by aisteen horaea, when making 
cables for ships of Urge size. Chain cables- were introduced into the British 
navy in 1812, 

CABDEE, OHLsir.ue of GonVHonsE. The celebrated leagae of Independence 
in Switzerland, fbrmed by the Grisons, tfl resist domestic tyranny, a. d. 1400 
to 1419. A second league of the Grisons was called tie Grise or Gray 
league, 1424. 

CADE'S nsrSDRRECnON. Jack Cade, an Irishman, a fugitive from his eoun- 
iiy on account of his crimes, assumed the name of Moilimer, and headed 
20,000 Kentish men, who armed "to punish evil ministers, and procure a 
redress of grievances." Cade entered London in triumph, and for some time 
bore down all opposition, and beheaded the lord treasurer, Lord Saye. and 
several other persons of consequence. The inaurgenla at length losing 
ground, a general pardon was proclaimed ; and Cade, finding himself de- 
serted by his followers, fled; but a reward being offered for bLe apprehen- 
sion, he was discovered, and refusing to sm'render, was slain by jUeiander 
Hen, sheriff of Kent, 1^1. 

leleini cofiinsf coHiicii io of oompaiallselj modflm flBle-ead origddaled Uius: Ihaaflltirs 

, ill ibe reim of Charlea I. wore princlpajly manoged 67 lie avchbishop of Cainetbijrj, (ha 

Straffui-d. and the lord Cottingtoii; lolliese wen added iho Bart of Nonhuialjerland, Br 0^ 

"' Q bloJiop ailMaiaa fot Ms place, baiog lord, traaaurflr^ the two eecrecariee, Vaje am 

, for service ™d fnlslllgmca ; onlj Ihe msrqulB of iTamillon, by hia Btill and bilMBal, 

mbuued just w ^, and na t\inher, dum he had a miod. Tbsae ponooB made up tbe comraiueB or 
BlalB, reproaebfidr^ called die ^(m^, and aA^W4Tda, enTiaiul;, Ilia cobmet' ctwiiiL—liOBJi Cij^^ 


gainst Englantf, were destroyed in the port by sir Francis Dralte, 1587. 
dadia was iaken by the English, under the earl of Eases, and plundered, 
September 15, 1693. It was attempted 'bj sir George Rooke in 1703, bat he. 
fiiiled. Bombarded by the British in 1797, and bloclaided by thoic fleet, 
under lord St. Vincent, for two years, ending in 1790. Again bombai'dad by 
the British, on boai-d whose fleet were 18,000 land fiii'ceB, October 1800. 
Besieged by the Trench, but the siege raised after the battle of Sahimanca 
in 1812. Massacre of- the inhabitants by the soldiery, March 10, 1820. 
Cadiz was declared a &ee poi't ia 1S29. 
C^SARS, ERA OP tub ; on Spanish Eha, is reclioned from the first of January 
8S 3. c, being the year IbUowing the conquest of Spain by Augustus. It was 
mucli used iu Aft'ica, Spain, and the sonth of Prance; but by a synod held 
in 1180 Its use was abolished in all tlie churches dependent on Barcelona. 
Pedro IV., of Arragon, abolished the use of it in his dominionB in 1350. John 
of Castile did the same in 1383. It continued to be used in Portugal till 
li66. The mouths and days of tliis era are identical with the Julian calen-. 
dar, and to turn the time into that of our era, suhtract thirty-eight flom ttie 
year ; if before the ChiieHan era subtract thirty-nine. 
CAI-FONG, in China. This city being besieeed by 100,000 rebels, the com- 
mauder of tJie forces who was sent to its icdief, in order to drown the enemy, 
broke down its embaokraents ; his stratagem succeeded, and eyery man ol 
the besiegeis periahedj but the city was at the same time overflowed by 
the waters, and 800,000 of the citizens were drowned in the overwhelming 
flood, A. n. 1642. 
CAIRO, oa GRAND CAIRO, The modern capital of Egypt, remarkable fin 
the minarets of its mosques, and the splendid sepulchres of its caliphs in 
what ia called the city of the dead : it was built by the Saracens, in a. d. 
fl69. Burnt to prevent its occupation by the Chrisljan invaders, called Cru- 
saders, in 1220. Talten by the Turks from the Egyptian sultans, and their 
empire subdued, 1517. Ruined by an eai'tliijuate and a great Are, June, 
17m, when iO,000 persons perished. Set on flre by a lady of the beglerljeg, 
Dec., 1765. Taken by the French under Napoleon Bonaparte, July 28, 179S, 
Taken by the British and Tiirlis, when 6000 Fi-cneh capitulated, June 27, 
CALAIS. Taken by Edward IH. after a year's siege, Aug. 4, 1347, and lield 
by England 210 years. It was retaken in the reign of Maiy, Jan. 7, 1558, 
and the loss of Calais so deeply touched the queen's heai't, historians say it 
occasioned her death, which occurred soon afterwards, Calais was bom.- 
barded by tlie English, 16B4. Here Louis XViU. landed after his long 
exile from France, April 2i, 1SI4, See Fraace. 
CALCUTTA, The flrstsettlement of the English liera was made m 1689. It 
was purchased as a Zemindary, and Fort William built in 1693. Calcutta 
was attacked by a large army o( 70,000 horse and fi)ot, and 400 elephants, 
in June, 1766. On the capture of the fbrt, 146 of the British were crammed 
into the Black-hole prison, a dungeon about 18 feet square, &om whence 
twenty-three only came forth the next morning alive. Calcutta was re- 
taken the fbllowjng year, and the inhuman Soubah pat to death. Suprem ■ 
court of Judicature estai>liahed 1773. College founded here 1801.— See 
Bsngal and lihdin, 
CALEDONIA, Now ScotUmd. The name is supposed by some to he derived 
ftom Oad or GaelTiien, or Sadd-dimie, corrupted by the Romans. Tacitus, 
who died 1. D. &9, distinguishes this portion of Britian by the appellation of 
Caierfffnia; but the etymology of the word seems undetoiminMl. Vener- 
able Beds says, that it retained this name until i.B. 268, when it was invaded 
by a tribe tlTOn Ireland, and called SceUa. The ancient inhabitants appear 


■AL ] racrioKAKY OF DATES, 229 

to Iiave been the Caledonitme and Flcts, tribes of the Celts, who passed 
over ftom tlie oppcaite.coasia of GauL About tlio beginning of Uia fiiurth 
cantuiy of the ChriBtian era, they were invaded (as stated by Eome a\itho- 
ritieal, by tlie Souytbs or Soythiaas (sinee called Scota), who, having driven 
the Picts into the north, settled in the Lowlands, and gave their name to 
tlie whole country Hence (he origin of that distioction of language, habiie, 
customs ai d peraooa which is BtiJl bo remarltable between f lie H ghlanders 
1 Itl 1 h li lit f th 5 II in In 1 

T \ J leSpujUis, 

, Cja!ida,ole,K™. 

Be u< a ^oll; defealed b; the fotcea of lui lea U e whfijD couDLry imder one 

Cotli -ed 80 moDEirchv and gires » (he name of 

C Biau lTi9mtroduc9^ulaC&edoia Scotland . E33to843 

m Lbe r igoorDooiill 1 Sai\ SeeEocTi^HD 

Tl n ot the Scots it alionld be stated la very 1 1 eertira and the hia- 

loij of tliu country until the elevanth century, when Malcolui HI,, sumamed 

Ciiiimore, ruigned (1057) is obsenre, and iutennixed with many and iinprob- 

CALEDONIAN CANAL, aom tiieKorth Sea to the AHanticOcean, Bymean* 
of this, niagnlflcBot canal, tlie nautical intercourse between the western 
ports of Great Britain, and those also of Ireland, to the North Sea and Bat- 
tic, ia shoitoned in some instances 600, Bind in others, 1000 miles. A sum 
exceeding: a miUiOD sterling was granted by parliamant tmm time to time;, 
and this satb navigation for ships of nearly every tonnage was completed, 
and opened in 1S22. 

CALENDAR. The Roman calendar, which has in great part been adopted by 
almost all nations, was introduced by Romnlns, who divided tlie year into 
ten montliB, comprising 304 days, a. e. 7S8 b. c. The year of Romulus waa 
of fifty days less duration than the lunar year, and of sisty-ona less than 
the solar year, and its commenceipent did not, of course, correspond with 
any fixed season. Numa Pompilius, 713 b.g. correctod this calen<kir, by 
adding two months; and Julius Cajsar, deairous lo make it mora coiTect, 
Sxed the solar year as being 366 days and six hours, 46 b. c. This almost 
perfect arrangement was denominated the Julian style, and prevailed gener- 
ally throughout the Chritifian Xrorld till the time of popa Gregory XIII. 
The calendar of Julins Ceesar was de&ctive in this jiarticiilar, tiiat the solar 
year consisted of 366 days, five hours, and forty-nine minutes : and not of 
865 days sis hours. This difference, at the time of Gregory XDJ. had 
amounted to ten entire days, the vernal ec[uinox falling on the 11th, instead 
of the 21st of March, To obviate this error, Gregory ordained, in 1582, 
that that year should consist of 366 days only ; and to prevent further ivregu- 
Jarity, it was determined that a year beginning a century should not be bis- 
sestile, with the exception of that beginning each fourth eentnry: thus, 
1700 and 1800 have not been bissextUe, nor will 1900 be bo ; but the year 
2000 will be a leap year. In. this manner three days are retrenched in 400 
years, because the ^pse of eleven minutes makes three days in about that 
period. The year of the calendar is thus made as nearly as possible to 
correspond with the true solar year ; and future errors of diranology ate 
avoided. See Nem Sh/k, 
CALICO. TliB well-known cotton cloth, ianamedfl'omCalicut, acityof India, 
which waa discovered by the Portuguese, in 1498. Calico was first brought 
to England hy the East India Company, In 1881. Calico printing, and the 


Dutch loom engine, were first used in 1676. — Andetsim. Calicoes wei'u pro- 
hibited to be printed or worn, in 1700; and again, in 1721, They were lirst 
made a brandi of manufacture in Lancaaliire, in 1771. Sea Cotton. 
CALIFORNIA, Loweh, discorered by Grigalon sent by Cortea, the conqueroi 
of Mesico, 1534 ; explored by Cortes lumsel^ 15S6, and by liia Bubordinate 
UUoa, 1688. Pirst settlement l)y Tiac^no and a email colony sent out by 
Pliilipn. of Siiain, 1690. Viscaino explored the coast and founded St. Diego 
and Monterey, and was tlie first Spmiiard in Upp^ California, 1602. 
CALIFORIHIA, Upper, discovered by sh- Francis Dralce, and named New Al- 
bion, 16B6. The Spanish colonistfl haying- been expelled by the ill-used ' 
natiTes, the country was granted by CbarJea n. of Spain to (he JeHuits, \ii 
1697. Jesnit missions and Pifsidigs eslabliBhed In New '.'"aliforoia 1769. 
Eighteen missions established iip to 17B8. Califbrnia a province of MejLico, 
Ifiai ; fbe Mexican goveraor expelled &om Monterey, 1838. California ex- 
plored by the Unital States expedlHon, under Wilkes, co-operating wilTi 
that of Fremont overland, in 1841-8 Another expeditiomindcr Fremont, 
1845-6 Mexican war began 1S16 San FianoiECO taken poeaosBion of by 
Com. MontgoDiLn Iul\ S lMi> Cum Sttcl ton takes poBseasion of Upper 
CalifoimaBh\ n "■ [ i 1 i TTmtcd St*tes military govem- 

ment. Moheh intEmory, fte.,1846. Cai;- 

fomiasecmul I i il ih mth Mexico, 184a Gold 

placets first ' i t an Snter, February, 1848. 

Great emigi it 1 m i il n l i i i i u ritcd November, 1848. Con- 

vention at Monti.i V Joi lomiKiK isliti' LI i]-.titution, Aug. 81, 1849. Con- 
stitution adopted by popular vote, and P H Buinet chosen first governor, 
Dea 1849 
CALIPir In Arabic vicii, or apostle, the title assumed by the Sophi ol 
Persia, m tbe succession of Ah, and by the Giand Seigniors as the succes- 
Gora of Maliomet. The calipbat was adopted by Abubeker, the ather of 
the Prophet's second wife, in whose arms he died, a. d. 631. In process of 
time the Boldans or sullans engrossed all the civil power, and little bnt the 
title was left to tlie caJipha, and tJiat chiefly in matters of religion.— Sir. T, 
CALLI,GHAPHr. Eeautiftil writing, in a Email compass, invented by Calliera- 
tes, who is said to have written an elegant distich on a seeammn seed, 472 
B. c. TTie modem specimens of this art are, many of them, astonishing and 
beantiiUl. In the sixteenth century, Peter Bales wrote the Lord's Praypr, 
creed, decalogue, two short Latin prayers, his own name, motto, day of the 
month, year of our Lord, and of the reign of queen Elizabeth, to whom he 
presented it at Hampton-court, all within the circle of a silver penny, 
encliaaed in a ring and border of gold, and covered with crystal, so accu- 
rately done as to be plainly legible, to the great admiration of her majesty, 
the whole of the privy council, and several ambassadors then at court, 1674, 
— Holmshed. 
CALLAO, IN Peru. Here, after an eai-fbquafce, the sea retired from the shore, 
and riitnmod in motmtainous waves, which des&oyed the city, a. u. 168"; 
The same phenomenon took place in 1740, when all the inhabitants perished, 
with the exception of one man, who was standmg on an eminence, and to 
whose succor a wave providentially threw a boat. 
CALOMEL. The mercurial compound termed calomel ]a first mentioned by 
Crolliua, early in the seventeenth century, but must have hcen previously 
known. The first directions given for its prepai'ation were tliose announced 
by Begniu, in 1603. It is said that corrosive subliinal« vras known soma 
centuries before. 



CALVAKY, Mount. The place wbeve the KEDEEMEa Euafered death, a, d. 33, 
Calvary was a small eminence oi- hill ai^acent to Jerusalem, appropriated 
to the execution of malefactors. Sao Ijulie xsiii, 83. Adrian at the time 
of his persecution of tljo Chriatiaiss erecled a temple of Jupiter on Mount 
Calvary, and a tample of AdooiB on the manger at Bethlehem, *.. n. Ii2. 
Here is the churoh, of the Holy Sepulchre, whither pilgrims flock fi'om all 
Ghristian countries. 

CALVINiSrS. Named aflor theU- founder, John Calvin, the celebrated re- 
former of tiiB Christian church from the Romish supersHtiou and doctrinal 
errors. Calvin waa a native of Noyon, in Pioardy ; but adoplang the princi- 
ples of tho Reformers, he fled to AJieDul6me, where he composed his lasH- 
MioClii', in 1688, published ftbotit two years afterwards. He 
subsequeuHy retired to Basie, and next settled in Greneva. Although he 
diffiired fnta Luther in essential points, still his foUowera did not consider 
themselves as different on this account fl-om the adherents of Luther. A 
formal separation first took place after the conference of Poissy,:io 1561, 
whore they eipr^sly r^eeted the tenth article of the confession of Augs- 
burg, besides som/i others, and took ilie name of Calviniats. 

CAMBRAY. The town whence the esteemed roanufiicture called camliric 
fakes its name. This city was taken by the Spaniards by a memorable sur- 
prise, in 1695. Cam.brfty was taken und retaken several timeg. In the war 
of the French rovolulion it was invested by the Austriana, August 8, 1798, 
when the republican general, Deolay, replied to tlie Imperial summons to 
snn-ender, that " he knew not how to do Ikai, but his soldtera knew how to 
fight." In the late war it was seized by tlie British under general sir Chas. 
Colville, June 24, 1816. The citadel surrendered the next day, and was 
occupied by Louis XYIII. and his conrt. 

CAMBRAT, Leaodb op. This was the celebrated league against the republic 
of Venice, compriaing the pope, the emperor, and flie kmgs of Frauce and 
Spain; and whereby Venice was forced to cede to Spain her possessions in 
the kingdom of Naples, entered into Deo. 10, 1508. 

CAMBRICS. A fabric of fine linen used for rufBes. — Shakspewre. Cambrics 
were first -worn in England, and accounted a great Iuxutt in dre^, 22 Eliza- 
hea, Wm.—Stmee. The importation of them was restricted, in 1745 ; and 
was totally prohibited by atatntfi of 82 George U. 1758, Readmitted in 
1786, but ftfiarwardfi again prohibited ; the importation of cambrics is now 

CAMBRIDGE, once called Granta,, and of most ancient standing, being fte- 
. fiuentV mentjoned in the earliest accounts of the oldest British historians. 
Roger de Monteomery destroyed It with Are and aword to be revenged of 
Iring William Rnfus. The uniTersity is said to have been commenced by 
Sigebert, king of East Angles, about i. n. 681 ; but it lay neglected during 
the Danish invasions, from which it suffered much. Cambridge now contains 
thirteen colleges and four hoUs, of which first, Peter-honse is the most 
ancient, and King's College the noblest foundaUon in Europe, and the 
ohapd. one of the finest pieces of Gothic architecture in the world. 

CAMERA LUCIDA, Invented by Dr. Hooke, flhout 1B74.— WiWii's Alh. Ox. 
Al an nstniment invented by Dr. Wollasfon, in 1807. The camera ob- 
a dai-fc chamber, waa invented, it is believed, by the celebrated Roger 
Ba n 1297 ; it was improved by Bapttsta Porta, the writer OE natural 
na a out 1500.— Mireri. Sir I. Newton remodelled it. By the recent 
of M. Daguerre, the pictures of the camera are rendered perma- 
n t last was produced in 1889. 

CAMERONIANS. A sect in Scotland which separated from the Presbyterians, 
and n nued to hold their religious meetings in the fields.— fiantet. 


CAMP. All Uie eai'ly ivarlike natious had eampa, wliich ai'e eoDsequeufly 
most andont. The diaposltion of the Hebrew encampment was, we are 
told, at fi'Et laid out b; God himself. The Rooians and Gaula had ix.' 
trenched camps in open plaina ; and restiges of auch Roman encanspmenta 
are existing to lliia day in numerous phices in England and Scotland. The 
last camp in England' v/tts formed at Hyde Park in 1745. 

CAMPEACHY-BAY. Discovered ahont a, d. 1520 ; it was taken by the Eng- 
lish in lesa ; and was taken by the Baccaneers, in 1678; and by tlie fi'eo- 
booWrs of St. Domingo, in 1685. These last bnrnt the town and blew up 
the citadel. The English logwood cutters made theii' settlement hei'e, in 

C AMPERDOWN, Battle op. Memorable engagement off Camperdown, south 
of the Tesel, and signal victory obtained by the British fleet under admiral 
Duncan, over tlie Dutch fleet, commanded by admiral de Winter ; the latter 
losing fifbeen ships, which were either taken Of destioyed, Oct. 11, 1T97. 

CAMPO FORMIO, Thbatt op, concluded between France and Aufltria, tlia 
latter power yielding the Low Countiies and the Ionian Islanda to France, 
and Milan, Mantna. and Modena to the Cisalpine republic This memor- 
ahie and humiliating treaty resulted from the illauoooss of Austria on the 
Rhine. By a secj'et article, however, the emperor took possession of tl'g 
Venetian dominions in compensation for the Netherlands, Oct. 17, 1797. 

CANADA, This country was discovered by John and Sebastian Cabot, a. n. 
1499, and was settled by the French, In 1608. bnt it had been previously 
visited by them. Canada was taken by the En^ish, in 1628, but was re- 
stored in 1681. It was again conquered by the English, in 1769, and was 
confirmed to them by the peace oriT68. This country was divided into two 
provinces, Tipper and Lower Canada, in 1791 ; aud it was during the debates 
on this bDl in the British parliament, that the quarrel between Mr. Burke 
and Mr. Fox arose. 

CANADIAN INSURRECTIOrT. The Papineau rebellion commenced at Mon- 
treal. Dec. 6, 1887. The Canadian rebels came to an engagement at St. 
Eustace, Deo. 14, following. The insurgents surrounded Toronto, and were 
repulsed by the governor, sir Francis Head, Jan; 5, 1838. Lord Durham, 
goyernor general, Jan. 16, 1888. Louut aad Mathews hanged as ti'aitora, 
April 12, fias. Lord Darham resiened, Oct. 9, 1838. Rebellion again man- 
ifested itself in Beauharoais, Nov. 8, 1838. The insra'genta concentrated at 
Napieiville under oommanil of Nelson and others, Nov. 6; some skirmishes 
toolc place, and they were routed with the loss of many killed and several 
hundred prisoners. Sir JohnColbome announced the suppression of the re- 
bellion m hia dispatches dated Nov. 17, 1838. Lord Goaford, eovernor of 
Lower Canada, proclaims martial law, and a reward of :Sl,000 for Papi- 
neau, Dec. 6, 1837. M Leod (charged with the destruction of the Caroline, 
American steamer, at Schlosser, Deo. 80, 1887) acquitted at Ulaoa, Oct. 12, 
1841, President Van Buren'e proclamation warning citizens of the United 
States against meddHng with ftie Canadian insurrection. Sir Charles Met- 
calfe, governor-general, 1844. Eail of Elgin appointed governor-general, 
took the oath, Jan. 80, 1847- Riots at Montreal, and bummg of the ParlL.- 
ment Houae by a mol> f caused by the disaatisfeotion about the act for paying 
losses by the (ate rebellion to some of the rebels themselves), Aug. 15, 1849! 
Movements in lUvor of annexation to the United States. Warning against 
such movements as high treaaon, proclaimed in the dispatch of oarl Oroy, 
the British colonial aecretary, Feb. 1850. 

CANALS. The moat stupendous in tlio world ia a canal in China, which pasaea 
over 2000 miles, aud to 41 cities, commenced in the tenth century. The 
canal of Languedoc which joina the Mediterranean with the Atlantic Ocean 


That of OrleanB, from the Loire to the Seine, cpm- 
menoecl in 1075. Tl:at iietween the Caspian Sea and the Baltic, commenced 
1709. Thiit from Stockholm to Gottenbnrg;, commenced 1761, That between 
the Baltic and North Soa at Kiel, opened 1786. That of Bourbon, between 
the Seine and Oise, commenced J790. The first canal made in England was 
,._ TT T __.. __ .L _ _.__.. ,^.__. — ^ joined to iiie Witham, *, d. 1134. 

length of those only that are navigable— total, 5300 miles. In Ireland, ther 
are bnt 300milea of canals j 150 of navigable vivers, and 60 miles of the 
Shamion, navigable helow Limericli, malting in all 610 miiea. — WiUiams. 

CANALS IN THB UNrrED STATES. Act for commencing the gi'cat Erie canal 
inNewTorS:, passed chiefly through the influence of DeTTitt Clinton, 1817. 
The canal ^3 milsB long) >M)mpleted; a grand celebration, 1B25. ChesO' 
peake and Delaware canal opened, &e., Jnly 4, 1820. 

C.iKARy ISLANDS. These islands were Xnown to the andents as the Forht- 
nettsMes. The first meridian was referred to the Canary islee by Hipparchus, 
about 140 b. c. They were re-discovered 'by a Norman, named Bethencourt, 
A. D. 1402; and were seized by the Spaniards, who planted vines, which 
Hotirish here, about 1420. The canary-bird, sa much esteemed in all parts 
of Europe, ia a native of these isles ; it was bronght into England in IHMD. 

CAKDIA, the ancient Crete, whose centre is Mount Ida, bo flunons in history. 
It wasseiKed bytheSaracei!S,A.D. 808, when they changed its name. Taken 
by the Greeks, in 96! ; sold to the Venetians, 1194, and held by them till the 
l^ivks obtained it, aiter a 34 years' siege, during which more than 200,000 
men perished, 1669. 

CANDLE. The Roman candles were composed of atrings surrounded by wax, 
or dipped in pifch. Splinters of wood, fetted, were used for light among the 
lower classes in England about *, d. 1300. At this time was candles were 
little used, and esteemed a luxury, and dipped candles usually burnt. The 
wax-chandlers' company was incorporated, 1184. Mould candle ore said 
to be (he invention of the sieur Le Brez of Paris. Spermaceti candles are of 
modem manufiieture. The Chinese candles (see Caiidleberry Mi/rtle) a 

year. It is kept in the reformed church in memory of the pmiflcaWon of 
the Virgin Mary, who, aubmittjng to the law under which she lived, pre- 
sented tlie infent Jes\H in the Temple. Owing to the abundance of l^ht, 
this festival was called Candlemas, as well as the PiirificaUou. The practice 
oi' lighting the churches was discontinued by English Pi'Otestanta by an order 
of councif 2 Edward TI. 1548 ; but it is still continued in the church of Eimie. 
JANNjE, Battle op. One of the most celebrated in history, and most fetal to 
the Romans. Hannibal commanded on one side 60 000 Africana. Gauls, and 
Spaniards; and Paulas .^niilius and Terentiua Varro, 88,000 Romans, of 
whom 40,000 were slain, — Idvy. The victor, Hannibal, sent three bushels 
of rings, taken itom the Roman Itnights on the field, as atrophy to Carthage. 
Neither party perceived an awftil earthquake whii:h ocoarred during the 
battle, nie place is now denominated the field of blood ; fought May 21, 
216 B. c.~Bossjiei. 



American tribes and natives of file South Sea, lalaads eat liumaii flesh at the 
priisont day, and the propensity for Jt prevaiis more or less in all Eavaso 
naHoDS. St. Jerome Bays, that soma British tribes ate human fleah ; and tho 
Seofs from Galloway killed and eat the English in tho reign of Henry 1 
Tlie Scythians were drinters of human bh)od. Columbus found canuibala in 
.iiiBrica. See AnthTopophagi. 

CANNON. They are said to have been nsed as eoi'ly as a. d. 1BB8. Acoording 
to some of our historians they wore nsed at tliebattJe of Cressy in 1346; but 
this Voltaire disputes. They a™ said to have been used by the Eogliah at 
the siege of Calais, 1317. Cannon were first used in the English sei'viee by 
the governor of Calais, 6 Richard II. 1883.— .^njut's Ftedera. Louis XIV-,, 
upon setting out on his disasti'ons campaign against the Dutch, inscribed 
npon his cannon, " The last argument of Itings." See ArtHiery. 

CANNON, Remahkablb. The lai'gest known piece of ordnance is of brass, cast 
in India in 1685. At Ehrenbreitstein easUe, one of the strongest forts in 
Germany, opposite Coblentz on the Ehine, is a prodigious camion eighteen 
Ibet and a half long, a foot and a half in diameter in the bore, and three feet 
four inches in the breech. The ball made for it weighs ISOlbs. and ifa charge 
of powder 941bs, The inscription on it shows that it.was made by one Simon, 
in 1520. In Dover castle is a brass gun called qneen Elizabeth's pocket- 
pist^, which was presented to her by the States of Holland; this piece is 24 
feet long, and is heautiflilly ornamented, having on it Hie arms of the States, 
and a motto in Dutch, imporliag thus, 

" Ohai-gQ me ^vBll, and spome me d&sn, 

CANON. Tho first ecelesiMtioal canon was promulgated, a. n. 380.— rfti^/. 
Canonical hours for prayers were institnted in 891. The dignity of Canon 
existed not previously to the rule of Charlemagne, about 'li&.—Pasehiei: 
Canon law was first introdnoed into Europe by Gratian, the celebrated canon 
law autJior, in 1161, and was introduced mto England, 19 Stephen, 1154. — 

CANONIZATION of pious men and martyrs aa saints, was institnted in the 
Romish cliurch by pope Leo III. in ZWi.—TaUe^ii's Tables. Saints liave so 
accumulated, er^ day in the calendai' is now a saint's 3ay.—Seiiaiilt. 

CANTERBURY. The Diwovei^mm of the Romans, and capital of Etheiburt, 
Jdngof Kent, who reigned i.e. 560. IW early cathedral was erected during 
the Heptarchy, and was several tjmes burnt, and rebuilt. It was once famous 
for the shriae of Becket (see Beatet) and within it are interred. Henry IV. and 
Edward the Black Prince. 

CANTERBURY, Ahohbishopeic op. This see was settled by St. Austin, who 
preached tiie gospel in England a. d. 596, and converted Ethelbert, king of 
Kent. The king, animated with zeal for his now religion, bestowed great 
Ihvors upon Austin, who fixed his residence in the capital of Ethelljert's 
dominions. The church was made a cathedral, and consecrated to Christ, 
alttiongh it was formerly called St. Thomas, from Thomas ti Becket, mni> 
dered at its altar, Decemher 1171. Tho archbishop is primate and metropo- 
lilan of all England, and is the first peer in the realm, having precedency of 
all officers of state, and of all dukes not of the blood royal. Canterbury had 
foimerly im'isdiction over Ireland, and the ai'chbishop was styled a patriarch. 
This see hath yielded to the church of Rome, 18 saints and 9 caidinals; and 
to the civil slate of England, 12 lord chancellors and 4 loid treasuveis. St^ 
Austin was the first bishop, 696. The see was made superior to York, 1073. 



—Se& Ym-lc. Tlie revenue is valued iu the king's boots at £2816. 11 s. 9d. — 
CANTHARTOES. A veuomous kind of insects ivhieli, wlieii dried and pulvei'- 
izud, are used principally to raiee Kisters. Tliey were lirst inti-oduced into 
medical practice lij Aretsus, a physician of Cappadocia, about 60 b, c.— 
Freiiul's History of PAj/sic. 
CtNTOB". The on^ city iu China with whidi Europeans have been allowed 
up to the present time to trade. Merahants first amved here for this pur- 
pose in 1617, Nearly every nation has a factoryat Canton, but that of Eng- 
land Bnr;paBBes all others in elegance and extent. Various particulare relaljng 
to thifl^ty will be ibund nnder the article China. In 1823, a flm desttoyed 
15,000 houses at Canton; and an inundation swept away 10,000 houses and 
more than 1000 persons in October 1833. 
CAOUTCHOUC, or InniAH Robbeb, Is an elastic resinous subaUnce that exudes 
liy incision from two plants that grow in Cayenne, Quito, and the Brazils, 
called HiEvia ca&ulchaitc and Siphonia elasHca, ami vulgarly called syringe 
tiees. It was first bronght to Europe fiom South America, about 17S8. — 
See India Rubber. 
CAP. The Romans went ibr manyages, without regular covering for the !>ead, 
and hence tlie heads of all the ancient statnes appear bear. Btit a; one 
period the cap was a sjmbolof liberty, and when the Romans gave it to their 
slaves it entitled them to freedom. The cap was sometimes nsed as a mark 
of infamy, and in Italy the Jews were distinguished by a yellow cap, and in 
IFrance those who had been haakrupts were tbr ever after obliged to wear 
a green cap. The general use of caps and hata is referred to the year 1449 ; 
the first seen in these parts of the world beibg at the entry of Charles Vn. 
into Rouen, from whiiJi time they took the place of chaperona or hoods. A 
statute ^vas passed that none should sell any hat above 2fid. (40 cts.) nor cap 
above 2s. 8^. (69 cts.) 5 Henry YH. 1489. 
CAPE BRETON, discovered by the Englisli in 1684. It was taken by the 
French in 1632, hut was afterwards restored; and again ta^en in 1745; and 
i-e-iaken in 1748. It was finally possessed by the English, when the gai'rison 
and marinesLCOnaislJng of 6600 men, were made prisoners of war, and eleven 
ships of the French navy were captured or destroyed, 1758. Ceded, to Eng 
land at the peace of 1763. 
CAPE COAST CASTLE, setUed by the Portuguese, in 1610 ; but it soon fell to 
the Dutch. It was demolished by admiral Holmes, in 1661. All the British 
settlementa, ihctories, and shipping along the const were desti'oyad by the 
Dul«hadmiial, de Buyter, in 1665, ThisCape was confirmed to the English 
by the treaty of Br^da, in 1667, 
CAPE OJ GOOD HOPE; the geographical and commercial centre of the East 
' ' IS discoveied by Bartholomew Diaz in 1486 and was originally 

^nne of Temnnfits ' arrl wan n.Iso named the Lion of the Sea, 
s changed by John II , king of 
juiuug.. 11.1.^ i..,j;...,n ,i.ji...i> ^.. .jiun, di5fiiniies l\i.m Diaz hiving 
reached th i li n i li i Tl i 1 i n 1 rfn piasage 

to Indi I 1 ^ I d by thu 

Dutch 1( I iilgcneral 

Clatkc I I II taltenby 

sn Daijl I I II I II I I I I I III icdPil to 

England m 1 il4 run nuta h „ in lo umL h- u f imi B itaiu in Maich, 
1820 The Calfrea haie made several irruptions On the Butish settlements 
here, and they committed dreadful lavages at Grahimstown, mOct 1834. 
BatUe between the English and the Boors, Aug 26 1848 



CAPE DE TEKD ISLANDS. These islands were known to the ancieots unief 
the nttftie of Govgades; but were not visited by the moiieriia tall discovered 
by Anlonio duNoli, a Genoese navigator in the eervioe of Portngal, a. d. 14i6. 

CAPE ST. VINCENT, Battles op. Admiral Roota, with twenty ships of war, 
and tlie Turkey fleet under hia convoy, was attacked by admiral Tourvilie, 
with a force vastly stipenior to bis own, off Cape St. Tincent, when twelve 
English and Dntoh men-of-war, and eighty mercliantmen, were captured or 
destroyed by the Prenoh, June 16, IQHS. Battle of Cape St. Tmcent, one of 
the most gloricuB achievemanta of the British navy. Sir John Jervis, being 
in command of the Mediknanean fleet of flfEeen sail, gave Lattle to the 
Spanish fleet of 27 ships of the line off this Cape, and signally defeated the 
1, nearly double in strength, taking four ships, and destroying several 

CAPET, House of, the third race of Uie tings of France, Hugo Capat, count 
of Paris and Orleans, the flrat of this race (which was called from him Cape- 
Tigiaus), was raised to the throne for his mUitaiT valor, aM public virtues, 
i. D. 987.— ffiMiaiiffl. 

CAPITOL, the principal fortress of ancient Rome, in which a temple was buili 
to Jupiter, thence oaUed Jupiter Capitolimis. The foundation laid by Tar- 
qniniuB Priaens, 616 b. c. The Roman Consuls made large donations to 
this temple, and the emperor Augustus bestowed 2000 pounds weight ef 
gold, of which precious metal the roof was composed, whilst its thresholds 
were of brass, and its interiorwaa decorated with shields of solid silver. De- 
stroyed by lightning, 188 b. c; by Are, j. n. 70. The Capitoline games in- 
stituted by Domitian, i. d. 86. 

CAPPADOCIA. This kingdom was fbunded by Pharaaces, 741 n. c. The suc- 
cessors of Phaniaces ai-e almost wholly juiknown, until about the time of 
Alexander the Great, aftflr whose death Eumenes, by defeatmg Ariaratlics U. 
became king of CappiwJocia. 

PhamncraisdKlarsflHog ^- a.o. 744 

re unknown fb 

Peffliccaa !&keg GippadMia, ai 


I of n 

cluld ia svfici, ami Ihe qu 




111 ssina Icmgdom ta 

CAFRL The Caprete of the Romans, and memorable as the residence of Tibe- 
rius, and for the debaucheries he committed in tliis once delightful retreat, 
during the seven last years of his life : it was embellished by him with a 
sumptuous palace, and most maguiflcertt works. Capri was taken by air 
Sidney Smith, April 32, 180G. 

CAPUCHIN FRIARS. A sort of Franciscans to whom this name was given, 
from their wearing a great Cafmchen, or cowl, which is an odd kind of cap, or 
hood, sown to their habit, and banging down upon their backs. The Capu- 
c3iins were founded by Matthew Baachi, about *. d. 1625. Although the 


rigors of this order liaye abated, still the breiJiren are remarkable for tbeit 
extreme poverty and privations. — AsAe. 
CAR. Its inyentioii is ascribtid toEvicthonius of Afcliena, about 1486 e. c. Tlie 
covered cars (cv/ims wcaaSi) ivere in use among tlie Romans, Triuraphal 
cars were introduced by Romulus, accoi-ding to some ; ondby Tarq.olu tlie 
Elder, acuording to otlien. 
CARACCAS. One of tlie early Spanish discoveries, a. d. 1408. Tlie province 
declared ita independence of Spain, May 9, 1810. In. 1812, it was visited by 
aviolent convulsion of nature; thousandsof human beings were lost; rocks 
and mountaina flplit, and rolled into valleys ; the rivers were blackened or 
their courses changed ; and many towns swallowed up, and totally destroyed. 
CARBONARI. A dangeroas and powarftil society in Italy, a substitute for 
freemasonry, which committed the most dreadful oulrages, and spread terror 
in several states ; they were suppressed, however, by the Austrian govern- 
ment in Sept. 1820. 
CARDINALS, They are properly the council of the pope, atd constitute the 
conclave or sacred collie. At first they were only the principal priests, or 
incumbents of the parisnes in Rome. On this footing Hiey continued till the 
eleventh century. They did not acquire the eiclusive power of electang the 
popes till i. D. 1160, They first wore the red hat to remind them that they 
ought to shed their Mood, if required, fbrreligion, and ware declared princes 
of the cliurch. by Innocent IV,. 1243. Paul IE, gave the scarlet habit, 146i ; 
and TTrhan Vlli. the title of Eminence in ISSO ; some say in l?SZ.—Da Ca^ige. 
CARDS. Their invention is referred to the Romans ; but it is generally supposed 
tiiat they were invented in France about the yeaf 1390, toamuae Charles VI. 
during the intervals of a melancholy disorder, which in the end brought 
him to his grave.— Me^^eim, Mist, de Prance. The nniveraal adoption of an 
amusement which was invented fer a fool, is no very favorable specimen of 
wladom, — Maikiai. Cords are of Spanish, not of French origin.— i>oiiisj 
Barrmglim. Picquet and aU. the early games are French. Cards first taxed 
in Englaod, 1759, 428,000 packs were stamped in 1776, and 986,000 in 1800. 
In 18S, the duly being then 2s. 6d. per pock, less than 150,000 packs were 
sfainped; but in 1827, the stamp duty was reduced to Is., and 310,854 packs 
paid duty in 1880, Duty was paid on 239,200 packs, in the year ending 5th 
Jan, 1840.— Part. Beporti. 
CARICATURES originated, it is said, with Bnlhlmaco, an Italian painter: he 
first put labels to the mouths of his figures with sentences, since followed by 
had masters, but more particularly in caricature engravings, about 1330. — 
De Piles. A new and much improved style of caricatures had latterly set In ; 
and the productions in this way of a clever bnt concealed artist, using the 
initials H. B., are political satires of considerable humor aMmertt,—ffajii». 
CARLISLE. The frontier town and key of England, wherein for many ages a 
strong garrison was kept. The castle, founded in 10B2, by William n,, was 
raade the prison of the unfortunate Majy queen of Scots, in 1568, Taken 
by the pai'Iiament forces in 1645. and by the pretender in 1745. 
CARLSBAD, Cohhrebs op, ou the affeirs of Europe: The popular spirit of 
emancipation that prevailed in many of ibe states of Europe against despotic 
government, led to this congress, in which various resolutions were como 
to, denouncing the press, and liberal opinions, and in which the great conti- 
nental powers decreed measures to repre^ the rage for limited monai'chiea 
and fl'ce institutions, August 1, 1819. 
CARMELITES, oa White Fhi*bs, named iVom Mount Carmel, and one of the 
fiiur orders of mendicanta, distinguished by austere rules, appeared in 1141. 
Their rigor was moderated about 1540. They claim their descent in an un- 


238 THE WORLU'S PIlOGaESS. L"^**- 

interrupted s'ucceBflion from Elijah, Ellslia, &o. Moimt Cannellias a monas- 
terj, and tie valley of Sbaron Sob to tlie south of the moniit, which is 2000 
feet higli, shaped liXe a flatted eonu, with stoep and barren sides : it is often 
referred to in Jeiviflh histovieB. 

" See BniCT clonOo ftnm lowly Sliacon ttee, 
And CBrmel's flgwety lop perluime Ihe skieB."— Pope. 

CAROLINA, diaoovered lij Sebastian Cabc* in 1550, A body of English, 
amounting to about 850 persona, landed and settled here in IGtIT; aud Cariv 
Una was granted to lord Berkeley and others a few years aflerivai'ds. See 
N. ((■ S. Ciwaiiiio. 
CARPETS. They were in. USB, at least in some kind, as early as the days ;f 
Amos, about &X> b. c.~Ames ii, 8. Carpeta were spread on the eround, on 
which pereons sat who dwelt in tents; bat when a-s6 used in houses, 
even in the East, we have no record. In tho lath oentmy carpats wore artj- 
des of luxmy; and in England, It is mentioned as an instance of Eeeltet's 
splendid style of Idving, that bia Bumptuous apartments were every day in, 
winter strewn with clean straw or hay; about *. D. 1180, The manuthcture 
of woollen carpets was introdnoed into Trance from Persia, in the reigtt of 
Henry IV., between 1&89 and 1610. Some artiaans who had qjUtted France 
in disgust went to Ecgland, and established the carpet manuftctare, abc t 
1750. There, as with moat nations, Feraian and Turkey carpets, espedail-y 
the former, are most prized. The fiunous Ajtminafer, Wilton, and Kidder- 
minster matiufiicture is the growth of the last hundred years. The manu- 
tkctare of Kidderminster ana Brussels carpets has much advanced within 
ffiteen years, at Lowell, Mass. and Thomsonville Conn. 
CAKBIAGES. The invention of them ia ascribed to Eviethonius of Athena, who 
produced the first chariot about 1486 B. c. Caviiageswere known in France^ 
in the reign of Henry II. a.d, 1547; buttheywere of verymde construction 
and rare. They seem to have been, known m England in 1556 ; but not tii^ 
ai't of making them. Close carriages of good workmanship began to be naed 
by persons of tho highest quality at the dose of the sixteenth centuiy Hen 
ry IV. liad one, bnt without straps or springs. Then' construction ivas va- 
rious ; they were first made in England in the reign of Elizabeth, and were 
then cftlM whirlicotes. Tlie(!iakeofBuckingliam,inl619, drove sis horses 
and the duke of NorthranberlancI, in rivalry, di'Ove eight. They weie first 
let for hire in Pons, in 1650, at the Hotel Fiacre ; and hence their name 
See Coaches. 
CARTESIAN DOCTKINES. Their author waa Ren^ dea Cartes, the Frendi 
philosopher, who promulgated them in 1647. He waa an original tlimker 
his raetoph^ical principle "Ithink, therefore! am," isrefnted by Mr Ljeke 
and hia physical pnnciple, tliat " nothing exists hut substance," is disprov 
ed by the Newtonian philosophy. His celebrated system ahoimds m great 
singularities and originalities ; bat a spirit of independent thought prevails 
throughout it, and Jwa contributed to exdte llie same spirit in othais Dea 
Cartes was ihe most distinguished philosopher of hia time and country — 
CARTHAGE, founded -by Dido, or Elissa, slater of Pyemalion, king of Tyre, 
809 B. c. She fled from that tyrant, who had killed her husband and took 
refvige in Africa. CartbagB became sonowerfulas to dispute the empue of 
the world with Rome, which occasioned the Punic wars, and tho total di mo 
lition of that city. Taken by Scipfo, and burned fo tho ground, 146 n. o. 
when the flames raged during aevenieen days, and many of tho inhabitants 
— ._t._i ijj^ijam, i-ather than survive the subjection of their countiy. The 
senate ordered the walls to be razed, that no trace might remain of 
le powerful republic— EitsrfMW. 




CARTHAGE, anriiimed. 

DHo ariives io Africa, and builds Brrai. 


altiie Megf nine 

having fi 

FiM allkoee of [he Carlhagiolaiis viiih 

IheRonicuia - - - - 500 

KSrit''' - '■''.''^'™' 480 
Thoy aeDd 3li),lD00 men into SkUy ■ 407 


a«a»inattii - 

bjecIE oil Spaja, as 

ThBMesedfSyratuse - - - 396 



iclor; orHaiinibal - 

Their flofeM by Tjmrteon ^ '■ -340 

rosses ihs Alps, and 

^ "" H nmbji i 

d ^ siege 

C RTHAGENA NwCrh e n Sp m M tiyAfi-ub te Caitha- 

twgna 2b TmlieHa mba u. in h memorable 

mai'ch to invade lUly, crossing the Alps, 217 b. c. Carthagena.inCoIombiQ, 

13 feilien by sir rrancis Drate io 1684, It waa piilaged by tlie rteaclj of 


1 1T40-1, bat 

1697 ; aDd was bomb^iled by admiral Vetni 
he was oDiiged, thougli he took the forta, to raise the siege. 

CARTHUSLANS. A religioaB order fbanded by Brnno of Cologne, wto retired 
from the converge of the world, in HM, to ChartrenBe, in tie mountains of 
Oaiiphicl. Their rules were Cmned by Basil Til., general of the order, and 
were peculiarly diatlnguished ftir their austerity. The monks could not 
leave their cells, nor speak, withont express leave ] and ihelT clothing wa^ 
two hair cloths, two cowls, two piur of hoaa, and a doak, all coarse. The 
general takes the title of prior of the ChartrensG, lie principal monastery, 
from which the order is named.— Auiwii; Mirai Originei Cartieas. 

CiiRTOONS OP RAPHAEL. They were designed in tlie chambers of the Va^ 
tican, tmder Jnlins H. and Leo X., about 1610 to 1515. The seven of them 
that are preserved were purchased in Flanders by Kubons for Charles I. of 
England, for Hampton-court palacA fa 1629. ^These matchless works repre- 

CARVING. We have scriptural authority for its early introduction. See E3>- 
odus xsxi. The art of carving is first mentioned in profane history 772 b. o. 
and is referred to the Egyptians. It was first in wood, nest in stone, and 
oftarwards in marble and brass. Dipfflnns and Scyllis were eminent carvers 
and sculptors, and opened a school of statuaiy, 668 n. c. — PHiiy. See arti- 
cle Stiiipiures. Carversof meat, called hy the Greeks dej-iistei'es, are mention- 
ed by Homer. 

CASHMERE SHAWLS. The district from whence come these cosily shawls 
is descrihed as being "the happy valley, an da paradise in perpetual spring." 
The bne Cashmere shawls can be manufactured of no other wool than that 
Thibet. They were fli'st hronght to England in 1666 ; but they were well 
imitated by tho Bpinning at Bradford, and the looms of Hudderafield. 



Sbawla for tte omrahs, of the Thibetian wool, cost 150 rupeea oacli, about 
the year IS^O.—Semkr. 
CASTEL NUOVO, Battle op. ITiq Raasiana dofeated by tlio Frencli army, 
5ept. 29, 1806. Caatel Naovo has several times Buffered ucder the drcadml 
yisitation of earfJiquakea : in the great earthquake which convulsed all Na- 
ples and Sieily, m 178B, this towa iias alnioat oblitarat«d. It ja recorded 
that aa inhabitant of Castel Nuoto, beings on a hill at no great distauiie, 
looking back, saw no remains of the town, Inut only a black smoke ; 4000 
persons perished; and in Sicily and Naples, more than 40,000. 
IJASITGLIONE, Battle op. One of the most bcilliant victories of theFrenc' 
arms, under general Bonaparte, against the mam army of the Anatria^,.,, 
commanded by general Wurmser : fie battle lasted five days sucoessiyely, 
from the 2d to the 6th July, 1796. Bonaparte stated tM enemy's loss in 
tilts obstinate conflict at 70 field-pieces, all his caissons, between 12 and 16,- 
000 prisoners, and 8000 killed and wounded. 
CASTILE. The most powerful government of flie Goths was established here 
about A. D. 800. Ferdinand, count of Castile, assumed the title of i;ing in 
1020. Ferdinand of Arragon married Isabella of Castile, and nearly the 
whole of the Christian dommions in Sp^n were united in one monarehy, liT... 
See Arragon and Spain. 
CASTLES. Anciently Britisb castles wei"e tall houses, strongly fortified, and 
built on the fops of hiKs, with gates and walls. The casue of the Anglo- 
Saxon was a tower-keep, either round or square, and ascended by a flight of 
steps in front. There were eleven hundred castles built in England by the 
nobles, by permission of king Stephen, a. d. 1136, and 1154: moat of these 
were demolished by Henry II., who deprived the barons of such posBeaaicn» 
on his accession, in 1151. 
CATACOMBS; the early depositories of the dead. The name first deno' 
the tombs of Saints Peter and Paul at Rome, and afterwards the burial-place, 
of all martyrs. They were numerous in Egypt ; and Belzoni, in 1815 and 1818, 
explored many cafeicombs both in that country and Thebes, built 8000 yeara 
ago: among others, a efe/-d'iBKtj-e of ancient sculpture, the temple of Psam- 
maticus the Powerful, whose sareophagus, Ibrmed qf the finest oriental 
alabaster, exauisitely sculptnred, he brought to England. Many other na- 
tions ha4 their catacombs ; there were some of great est«nt at Rome The 
Parisian catacombs ware projected a. d. 1777, The bodies found In cata- 
combs, eapeciallj those of Egypt, are called, mummies. See Embolmiitg 
CATANIA, OR CATANEA. At the Ibot of mount Etna. Founded by a colony 
fi'ora Chalcis. 758 b. c. Cei'es had a temple hero, in which none but women 
were permitted to appear. This andent city is remarkable tbr the dreadfu 
overthrows to whieS it has been subjected at various times from 11a vicinity 
to Etna, which has discharged, in some of its eruptions, a stream of lava 
four miles broad and fifty l^t deep, advancing at the rate of seven miles in 
a day. Catania waa almost tot&Uy overthrown by an eruption of £tna, in 
1669. By an earthquake which happened in 1698, Catania was nearly sw- i 
lowed up, and in a moroent more than 18,000 of its inhabitants weiebni it,, 
in the rulTis of the city. An earthqnake did great damage, and a number 
of persons perished herej Feb. 22, 1817. 
CATAPHRTGIAN8. A sect of heretics, so called because thay were Phry 
giana, who followed the. en'OW. of Monjamis. They made up the bread of 
the eucharlst with the blootl of infanfa, whom tliey priclced to death with 
needles, and then looked upon them aa Inartyrs.— PariZom. 
CATAPULTjE. Ancient military engines for throwing atonea of immense 
weight, dai'ta, and arrows I invented by Dionysius, 899 u.c.—JosejiAiis, Tb.e_ 


were capable of throwing darts and javelinii of foiii' and five jards lengtli.— 

CVmOLIC MAJESTY. The title of Catholic was firat given by pope Gre- 
gory III. to Alphonsus I, of Sp^n, who was thereupon saniamed Me C&tlio- 
lic; A. D. 730. The title of CuihoUc wfta also giyen to Ferdinand V., 1474. 
See Spaiii,. 
CATILINE'S CONSPIRACr. Sex^Jus L. Catilioe, a Roman of noble family, 
liaring squandered away hia ibrtnne by his debaneheries and extravagance, 
and having heen refused the consulship, he eecrully meditated the ruin at 
his country, andeoaspired wiHimanyof themost iUuBWouaoftheRoraans, 
as tlissolute ss bJiDse^, to extirpate the senate, pinnder the lieasnry, and set 
Home on fire. ITiis conspiracy was timely discovered by the consul Cicero, 
whom he had resolved to mnrder; and on eeerag' five of his accomplice 
arrested, he retired to Craul, where his garlisaiis were assembling an army. 
Cicero punished the comJemned conapifotors at home, while Petreins 
attacked Catiline's ill-disciplined forces, and routed them, and the conspiiv 
ator was killed in the engagement, about the middle of December, 68 b. o. 
His character has been branded with Uie foulest in&my, and to the violence 
lie offered to a vestal, he added the murder of his own brother ; and it ia 
said that he and his assodates drank human blood to rander their oatl^ 
mora firm and inviolable. — SaU/ast. 
C ATO, SUICIDE OP. Termed as the " era destructive of the liberties of Rome." 
Cato, the Roman patriot and pliihDaopheT,ooDa)dered freedom as iliat which 
alone "sustains the name and dignity of man;" nnable to survive the inde- 
pendence of his ooon&y, he stabbed himself at Utica. By this rash act of 
snicidei independently of all moral considerations, Cuto carried his patriot- 
ism to f]ie h^hest degiee of political frensy; for Cato, dead, could be of 
no use to his country ] hat had. he preserved his lilte, his counsels might 
Lave moderated Ctesar's ambition, and have given a different tm'n to public 
affairs. Feb. 5, 45 B. o. — Montesquieu, 
CATO-STREET CONSPIRACY. The mysterions glot of a gang of low and 
desperate politicians, whose object was the assassination m the ministers of 
the crown, with a view to other sanguinary and indiscriminate outi'ages, 
and the overthrow of the government ; the conspirators were arrested Fob. 
23, 1820 ; and Thistlewood and hia firar principal associates, Brunt, Davison, 
Ings, and Tidd, after a trial commenced on April 17th, which ended in their 
cojviction, were executed according to tlie then horrid manner of tnutors, 
on May 1, following. — Baajdn. 
CAUCASUS. A moiUitain of immense height, a contmuation of the ridge of 
Monnt Tanros, betweon tlie Enzine and Caspian seaa, inhabited anciently 
by various savage nations who lived upon the wild fruits of' fJie eai-th. It 
was covered witii snow in some parte, and in others was variegated with 
fruitful orchards and plantations ; its people were at one time supposed to 
gather gold on the shores of their rivulets, but they afterwards lived with- 
out maSing use of money, Prometheus was tied on the top of Caucasus by 
lupiler, and continually devoured by vultures, according to ancient autliors, 
1548 n. G. The passes neai' the mountain were called CaiicasiiE Porta, and 
it is supposed that through them the Sarmatians, called Huns, made their 
way, when they invaded the provinces of Rome, a. n. 4A1 .—Straio. Hera- 

CACIOTIC IN PAINTING. The branch of the art so called ia a method of 
burning tlie colors into wood or ivory. Ganaias, a painter of Sicyon, was 
the inventor of this process. He made a beautifill i»Jnting of his mistress 
Glycere, whom he represented as sitting on the gronndj and mating gar- 
■anda of flowers; and from this circiimslance the pwture, which waa 


CAVALIEKS. Tliis appellation was given as a party name in England to those 
wlio espoueed the cause of the king during the unhappy war which brought 
Chai'los I. to the scaffold. They were so called io oppoaition to ibe Rouud- 
heada, or friendB of the parliament, hatween 1642 and 1649 — Hiwte. 

CATALRT. Of the ancient oatiouB the Ron 
Iheu' cavalry, and fl)r its discipliw, and tli 
Eoman legiona was a body of hni " i m I j tunn'e; the com- 

mander was always a veteran and L I I J I inilvalor. Inthn 

early ages, the Persians biought tli iliy into the fleiu: 

they had 10,000 horse at «ie hi i i n r and 10,000 

Persian horse were slain at the hattl I i i — I'lutardi, 

CAYENNE. First settled by the FrencL m 1U2 j, buL Uiej Ipft it in 1 654. It 
was afterwards snccessively in the hands of the English French, and Duleh. 
These last were expelled by the French m 1377 Cayenne was taken by 
the British, Jan. 12, 1809, but was restored to the Freni,h at the peace in 
1814. In this settlement is produced the capstcjim iacca/am, or cayenne 
pepper, so esteemed in Europe. 

CELESTIAL GLOBE. A celestial sphere was brought to Greece from Egypt, 
368 B. c. A pknetarium was constnictod by Archimedes before 212 b. g. 
The celestial globe was divided into consfellatious after the age of Perseus. 
The great celestial globe ofGottorpi planned after a design of jVeho Brache, 
and erected at the expense of the duke of Holslein, was eleven feet in 
diameter ; and that at Pembroke-hall, Cambridge, erected by Dr. Long, is 
eighteen i^t. See Glt>bes. 
nELESTOTS. A religions order of monlts, reformed fi'om the Bemardins by 
pope Celestine T, in 1294. The order of nnns was instituted about tiu, 

CELIBACY, and the monastic life, preached ,by St. Anthony in Egypt, about 
4. D. 805. The early converts to this doctiine lived in caves and desolate 
places till regular monaateries were founded. The doctrine was rejected at 
the cotmdl of Nice, a. n. 325. Celibacy was enjoined on bishops only in 
692. The Romish clergy generally were compelled to a vow of celibacy in 
1078. Its observance was finally established by the oouniul of Placenda, 
held in 1036. Among the illustrions philosophers of antiquitj;, tiia follow- 
ing were unfriendly to matrimony: — Plato, Pythagoras, Epionnia, Bion, 
Anaxagoraa, Herachtus, Oemocritus, and Diogenes; and the following 
among the moderns : — Newton, Locke, Boyle, Gibbon, Hume, Adam Smith, 
Harvey, Leibnitz, Bayle, Hobbea, Hampden, sir F. Drake, earl ot Esaei 
Pitt, Michael Angelo, the three Caraccis, sir Joshua R^nolds, Haydn, 
Handel, Wolsey, Pascal, Fcnelon, Pope, Akenside, Goldsmijji, Gray, Collins, 
Thompson, and Jeremy Bentham. 

CEMETERIES. The ancients had not file miwise custom of crowdhig all 
their dead in the raidat of their towns and cities, within the narrow ■ 
cincts of a phice reputed sacredimnch less of amasshig them in the boson, 
of their &iies and tomplea. The burying placea of the Greeka and Homana 
were at a distance fiom their towns ; and the Jews had their sepnkhres in 
gardens— JflAn xii. ill ; and to flelda, and among roclta and mountains— 
MaUAew xxvii, 60. The present practice was iuti'oduoed by the Rofiiisb 
clergy, who pretended that the dead enjoyed peculiar privilegea by being' 
inton'edin coneeorated eronnd. The burying-places of the Turks are hiind- 
aome and agreeable, and it is owing chiefly to the many fine planta thai 
grow in them, and which they carefully place over their dead. It is /inh 


ititliiE a very few years that public cemeteries hoTe lieen formed in these 
countries, although the crowded state of onr many ehurchyai'tia, and the 
danger to health of biirial-phices in the midst of dense populations, called 

suhnrlja. The inclosed aj.ea of each of theae cemeteries is plwited and laid 
out in walks after the manner of Pfere la Chaise* There are similar oerae- 
tei'iefl in Manchester, Liverpool, and other towns ; and in Ireland, at Cork, 
Diibhn, iSm!. Some of the rural cemeteries of the United States, especiaily 
thatatMouat Aubnm, near Boston 'opened 1881), Laurel Hill, PhiladelpMa 
(188-), and Greenwood, near New-York (1839), are Ar more heautiflil in 
tlieir natural ifeatnres than any of thoas oear London or Paris. 
CENSORS. Roman magistrates, whose duty it w«b to survey and rate, and 
correct the manners of the people ; their power was also estended over 
private fiimilieB, and they restrained esttavagance. The two first censors 
were appointed 443 b. c. The office was aboUshed by the emperors, 
CENSUS. In the Roman polity, a genera! estimate of every man's ^tate and 
paraonal effecls, delivered to the government upon oath every ttve years : 
establiahed by Sarvius Tnllins, 666 b. c— Legal PtHiii^ of lAe Rcmiiin SUUe, 
In England Uia cenaus, formerly not periodical, is now taken at decennial 
periods, of which the last were the years 1811, 1821, and 1831 ; and the new 
census, 1841. 
CENSUS or the UNITED STATES, has been faten at sis different periods, 
viz. 1T90, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1030, and 1840. The seventh census is taken 
this year, 1850. — See PopiXeiMeTi,. 
CENTURION. The captain, head, or commander of a subdivision of a Ro- 
man legion, which consisted of 100 men, and was called a ceuiuria.. He was 
distioguished by a branch of vine which he carried ki his hand. By the 
Roman ceMUii, each hundred of the people was called a ceniwria, 560 £. c. 
CENTURY. The method of computing by centuries was first generally 
observed in ecclesiaatical history, and commenced from the lime of onr 
Redeemer's incamaUon, j. n. 1. It is a period that is parUcularly regarded 
by church histOTians. — Pardon. 
CERES. This pUnet, which is only 160 miles in diameter, was discovered by 
M. Piaazi, astronomer royal at Palermo, on the 1st. of Jan. 1801.' To the 
naked eye it is not visible, nor mil glasses of a very high magnifying 
power snow it with a distinctly defined diameter. PaUas, discovered by 
Dr. Olbers, is still smaller. 
CEYLON. The natives claim fbr tills island the seat of paradise ; it was dis- 
covered by Oio Portuguese *. d. 1605 ; hut it was known to the Romans in 
the time of {yaudiua, *. o. 41. The capital, Colombo, was taken by the 
Hollanders in 1603; and was recovered by the Portuguese in 1621. The 
Dutch again took it in 1653. A large portion of the conntiy was taken by 
the British in 1782, but was restored tbe next year. The Dutch settlements 


Clioiae takes JM nKae fconi 

I French Jeaiii^ WHO wa 


lis XIV., and 

, 119 died in 1709 ii 


eHs of hie hoUBB siUI grmmOB Bt PbfIb is nm 

V occupied bj 

his llMUliflll 



!=of hlahanllqiiltTtoph 

uu herbs and floi 



weep at Ihs eepuit 


eweel-basil) ujwn [he lambs \ nbich in Ab 

ja Miom, and 

.■uitey ill !! 

led eitii 

lalm-lreo, boughs 

of mytui,, or 

tilled ol [ho IiQsd ond 

(13 placed achead 

fon^filkll Willi cavEh, ill whicli . 

ate pliH 

>.voB. These are 

ipalea, ii'ho aEsenible 

jppo, [heis Btow 1 

Banj mjnlea, 


-lElitel; l&iHm 


1 Ibey aiu beautiful, aad r 

sniam long gteen. 



244 THE world's progress, [ ciia 

were seized hj the British ; Ti'inoomalee Aug. 26, 1735, and Jaffiiapatain, in 
Sept. some year. Ceylon was ceded to Great Bcit^n by the peace of Amiei" 
ill 1802. The British troops were treacherously nmasaered, or imprieoiiea 
by the Atiigar of Caady, at Colombo, Jime 26, 1808. The complete sove- 
reignty of the island was assumed by England in 1815. 

CIlSiEONEA, Battles op. The Athenians are defeated by the Bceotaans, 
and Tolnudas, their general, is slain, 447 n,c. Battle of Chreronea, inwliicli 
Greece lost its liberty to Pliilip, 82,000 Madcdonians deibatjng tlie confed- 
erate army of Thebans and Athenians of 30,000, Aug. 2, 88M b. c. Battle 
of Chteronea in which Archelans, lieutenant of Mithridates, is defeated b" 
Sylla, and 110,000 Cappadocians are slam, 86 a. c. 

CHAIN-BRIDGES. The largeat and oldest chain-bridge in the world is said to 
be tbat at Kingtnng, in China, where it forms a perfect road from the top of 
one mountain to the top of another. The honor of constmotaiig the first 
chain-bridge on a grand scale belongs to Mr. TelfoM, who commenced tTie 
chwn-suspension bridge over the strait between Anglesey and the coast of 
Wales, Jiily 1818.— See Menai Bridge. 

CHAIN-CABLES, POMPS, amd SHOT. Iron ch^-cablos were in use by the 
Venetj, a people intimately connected with the Belgje of Britam in the tinn 
of Ctesar, 55 n. □. These cables came into modern use, and generally in the 
royal navy of England, in 1812, Chain-shot, to desti'oj' the rigging of an 
enemy's ships, was invented by Mie Dateh admiral De Witt, in 1G66. Chain- 
pumpe were first nsed on board the Mora, British fl'igate, in 1787. 

CHAISE on CALASH. The invention of the chaise, which is desci'ibed as a 
light and open vehicle, is ascribed to Augustus CEcsar, about a. d. 7. Aure- 
lius Victor mentions that the nae of post-chaises was Introduced by Trajaji, 
about i, D. 100. The chariot was in use fifteen centm'ies before. See Cliariiil 

CHALDEAN REGISTERS, RegiEters of celestial observations were commenced 
2234 B. c, and were brought down to the taking cf Babylon by Alesander, 
881 B.C.. being a period of 1903 yeai's. These resistors were sent by Callis- 
tlienes to Aristotle. Chaloean Chajiaoteqs : the Bible was transcribed 
from the original Hebrew into these characters', now called Hebrew, by Eai'a, 

CHAMP DE MARS; an open square space in front of the Military School at 
PaiTS, with ftrfiflcial embankments raised on each side, extending nearly to 
the rVer Seine; with an area snf6cient to contain a minion of people. Hfire 
was held, on Uie 11th July, 1790, the femous " fSdSration," or aolemnily of 
swearing fidelity to the " patriot king" and new constitution. In the even- 
ing great rejoicings followed the proceedings ; public balls were given by 
the mimiiapality in the Champs Busies and elsewliere, and Paris was illumi- 
nated throughout. 1791, July 17, a great meeting of citizens and others held 
bere, dii'ected by the Jacobin clubs, to sign petitions on the " altar of the 
country" — left standing for some time afterwfirds — praying for tie enforced 
abdication of Lonis XVI. Another new constitution sworn to here, nnder 
the eye of Bonapai'te, May 1, 1815, a ceremony called the Chamtp de M' ' 

CHAMPION OP ENGLAND. The championship was institnted at the corona- 
tion of Richard H. 1877, At the coronations of English kings the champion 
still rides completely armed into Westminster-hall, and challenges any one 
tliat would deny their title I© Uie crown. The champiooship is hereditary 
in the Dymocke liimily, 
CHANCELLORS, LORD HIGH, of ENGLAND. The Lord Chancellor ranks 
after the princes of the Blood Royal as the first lay subject. Foimerly, the 
office was confiared upon some dignified clergyman. Maurice, afterwards 
bishop of London, was created chancellor in 1067. The first personage i:h" 




was qimliSecl by gceat legal education, and who dedded causes upoD his oivn 
jni3gmen£| waa Sii- Thomas More, in 1530, before which lime the oiHce was 
mo5^ethat of a high state ftmotioiiary than the president of a court of jiietice. 
Sir Christopher Hatton, who was appointed ebancellor in 1587, was very 
ignorant, on wliich account the first reference was made to a master in 1588. 
In England, tlie great seal has been il'e([uentlf put in commission ; but it 
waftnot unlillSliStljat the separate and co-existent ofBce of Vice-ChatuxUoT 

an Sr Jolm Somsra, e/lenoards lord 

(From the lime of Cardinal TCoteej/,) 

jlD CardJnaL Wolser. 

m Sii Thomas Mora (beheadedi. 

333 Sir Thomas AudlBv. 


B45 Loni Wrioihesiey, 

H7 Lord St. Jclm. 

5*7 Lard Rich. 

"- Bishop of Ely again. 

Sir Nich. Ilare.Xorri Sespcr. 

Sir Nathan WriehtJi.X 
Lota Cowpsr, L. k. 

cr KLig, L. K. afleiieords iorf 

IMS Sir Edwaiii Hjde, a/laTcatdas, 

1667 Sir Orlando llrid»D»m, L. K. 

1H2 Earl of Shafieebucy. 

1873 SlrHsnB^eMmih,(!/'/«-uiflnise 

1? 1 Heni7 Baiburau lord Apsley^ 


i-d Loughborough md oil 


.IcliiDS, L. K. 

jord Lyndhuisl 

IB Lord 

C^IAKCELLOR op IRELAND, LORD HIGH. The earliest nomination was by 
Richard I. a, d. 1188, when Stephen Ridel wen elevated to this rank. The 
ofBce of vice-chancellor waa known in Ireland, hnt not as a diatinot appoint- 
ment, io ttie reign of Henry III., Gefiirey Turvilie, archdeacon of Dublin, 
being so named, 1232, 

JHANCELLOR OF SCOTLAND.' In lie laws of Malcolm n. who reigned 
1. c. 1004, thia officer is thiia mentioned : " The Chancellar sal at al tymes 
aaaiat the king in giving him counsall mair secretly nor of the rest of the 
nobility. The Chancelhir tall be ludgit near unto the kingis Grace, for 
Mping of hisbodio, and tbo seill, and that he maybe readie, baith day and 
nicht, at the kingis command." — Sir Jatats Balfimr. James, carl of Seafleld, 
afterwante Findlater, was Hie last Jord high Chancellor of ScoUand, the 
office having been abolished in 1T08.— ScoW. 

CHANCERY, COURT ov. InaHtated as early (la a. d. eOG. Settled npon a 
better footing by William I., in 1067- — SloTEe. This court had ita origin in 
Ijie desire to render instice complete, and to moderate the rigor of other 
conrta that are bound to the ateict letter of the law. It gives relief to or 
against iiiitats, notwithstanding their minority ; and to or agajnst married 


■women, notwiUiBtanding their coverture; aod ill fnuds deceits Lieichea 
of trust and oonflttcuce, for whieli there is rvj redress at coiamou la« aie 
relievable here. — BUickstime. 

mo - Amouflllodgefl - *S^,000 1 ]S10 A loui lodged XJi,2L-O0O 

1J80 - cliiB . . tMooo ia» diHo 3tm,m 

1!90 - - dittQ ■ 1^338,000 13311 diilo S^i9S 

There are about 10,000 accounts. By Hie last ofiiciftl retnms tho cumber 
of committ4t9 for contempt was ninety-sit persona m three yeai& -^Par 

CHANTRY. A chapel endowed with revenue for priests to sing masa for +' 
souls of the donors. — Shakspeare. Firat mentioned in the comraenceraant ol 
the Beventh century, when Gregory the great established schools of chant- 
era. — See ChanUng. 

CHAOS. A rude and sijapeless mass of matter, and confused ansemWa^e of 
inacUve elements which, as the poets suppose, pre-existed the formation of 
the world, and from which the universe was formed by the liand and poner 
of a superior bemg. This doctrine was flist advanced by Hesiod, from whom 
the succeeding poets hare copied it ; and it is probahle that it was obscure' - 
drawn fiota the account of Moses, by being copied from the annals of S ui- 
^oniatlion, whose ago is flsed antecedent to the siege of Troy in 1198 b. □. 
See Geelogy. 

CHARIOTS. The invention of chariots, and the manner of harnessing horses 
to draw them, is aaci'ibod to Erichthomus of Athens, 1486 b. c. Chariot 
racing was one of the exercises of Greece. The chariot of the Ethiopian 
officer, mentioned in Ads viii. 27, 28, 31, was, it is supposed, something' in 
the form of our modem chaise with four wheels. CflBsar relates that Casai- 
belanuH, after dismisBing all his other forces, retained no fewer than iOiW 
war (iiariDta about his person. The eliariots of the ancients were hke our 
phsetons, and drawn by one horse. See Carriagis, Coaches, ij-c. 

CHARmES in theTJnited States.~See Beneveknce. In England there arc tena 
of thousands of charitable foondatlons ; and the charity commission re|iorted 
to parliament that the endowed ciiaritieB alone of Great Britain amounted to 
^el 500,000 annually, in ISiO.—Part. Rep. Charity Bchools were instituted 
in Loudon io prevent the seducljon of lie bfant i>oor into Koman Catholic 
ueminavlea, B James II. 16Sl.~Ra}ii!i. 

CHARLESTON, S. C, was first settled in 1680. In 1690 a colony of Frr -^ch 
reftigaes, eiiled (n consequence of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes 
settSd in Carolina, and some of them in Charleston: from them are de 
scended many of the most reapeotable of the iahabitaats. At the close e ' 
1779, the city was taken by the British, and held by them until May folio" ' 
ing. Population in 1730, 13.859 ; in 1810, 24,711 ; in 1820, 24.780 ; in m, 
30.289] in 18iO, 29,261— (a decrease of 1,028 in ten years) including 14.67f! 

CHARTERS op EIGHTS. The Brst charters of rights granted by the kings oi 
EngUxnd to their subjects, were by Edward the Confessor, and by Heis J [ 
i. D. 1100. The ftmous bulwark of English liberty, known bs Magna Charta 
or the great charter, was granted to the barons 1^ king John, June 15, 12]f. 
The ri^fa and prlvilegea gi-antcd by tliis charter were renewed and mtiflci 
by Henry IH. in 1224, el seq. Sir Edward Coke says that even in his days i'. 
had been confirmed above thirty times. Charters to corporations wore o 
frequent grant from the reign of William L Sec MagTia Charta. 

CHARTERS, to the American colonies. Thai to Virginia granted by James I. 
1606 ; to Massachusetts, by the same, 1620, but withdrawn by Charies l\ 



i684; that granted to Connecticut by Charlps H., 1665, was concealed in an 
oivk U> preseivo it from the tyrannical Andres. General suppression of 
charter goveramenfa in America, 1688. 
CHARTER PARTY. The same apecies of deed or agreement as the ancient 
chirogcapii. 'A covenant between merchants and maBtevs of ships relating 
to the ship and cargo. It was fc-st used in England in the reign of Henry 
m., about 1248. 
CHARTISTS. The agitators for i-adical politicai reforms in England were so 
called from the Cto-fer which they draw np and nrged fbr aobption as the 
law of the land, 1888. The petition for it, signed by about 5,000,000 names. 
Proclamation against tunmltuons aasembliea of the Chartisla, Dec. 12, 1838. 
Clwrtist attack on Newport, Wales, headed by John Frost, an ex-maeistrate, 
defeited, Nov. 4, 1839. Prost and others t^en prisoner, tried, and trans- 
ported. Another Ciiartiat demonetration on Kennington Common, near 
London, exciting gi'cat alarm (chiefly becanse of the recent revolution iji 
Paris), April 10, im The sii chief demands of the Chartists are : 1. Uni- 
versal suffrage. 2. Vote by ballot. 8. No property qialiflcation. 4. Annual 
parliaments. 6. Payment of members. 6. Eqnal electoral districts. 
CHARTS. Anaximander of Miletus was the Inyentor of geographical and celes- 
tial charts, about 570 n. o. Modem soa-eharts were Brought to England by 
Bartholomew Columbns, with a view to illuskate his brother's theory respect- 
ing a western cbnWnent, 1489. Meroator's cliart, in which the world is taken 
as a plane, was drawn, 16S6. 
CHAltYTBDIS, a dangerous whirlpool on the coast of Sicily, opposite another 
wlilrlpool called Soylla, on the coast of Italy. It was very dangerous to sail- 
ors, and it proved fiital to part of the fleet of Ulysses. The exact situation 
of the Charybdis is not discovered by the moderns, as no whirlpool suffi- 
ciently tremendous is now found to correspond to the description of the 
ancients. The words Inddit in ScyUam gtii milt mtdre Gtarvidim, became a 
proverb, to show that in our eagerness to avoid an evil, we Sill into a greater. 
CHANTING, Chanting the psalms was adopted by Ambrose IVom the pa- 
gan ceremonies of flie Romans, about a. d. 350. — I^ntgUt. Chanling in 
ciiuvohea was Introduced into the Roman Citliolic sewice in 602, by Gregory 
the Great, who established schools of chanters, and corrected tie church 
CHEATS. The convicted cheat punishabte by pfflory (since abolished), impri- 
sonment, and fine, 1 ifoioS. L. C 188. A rigorous statute was enacted 
against cheats, 33 Henry Tin. 1642. Persons dieating at play, or winning 
at any time more than 101., or any valuable thing, were deemed infkmous, 
and were to suffer punislunent as in cases of perjury, 9 Anne, 1711 ■—'Black- 
st/me's Comm. 
CHEESE. It is supposed by Camden and others that the English learned tho 
process of making cheese fVom the Romans (who brought many useful arts 
with ttiem) about the Christian era. Cheosa is made by almost all nations. 
Wilts, Gloucester, and Cheshire, make vast quantities; the last alone, annu- 
ally, about 31,000 tons. TTie Cheddar of Somerset, and Slalton of Huntjug- 
don, are as much esteemed as the cheese of Pacma, and Gruyfire of SwilS- 
erland. iil840 Englandimpoi'ted, chiefly from the U, States, for home use, 
a quantity exceeding 10,000 tons. 
CHEMISTRY AND DISTILLING, Introduced into Europe by tho Spanish 
Moors, about *. d. 1150; they had learned them tl'om the African Moors, 
and t!iese from the Egyptians. In Egypt, they had, in ver^ early ages, es- 
tracl^d salts ft'om their bases, separated oils, and prepaiedvmegar and wine; 

H..irtb, Google 

148 THE wor.Li)'s PEOGiiEBS. [ cm 

aM embalming was u kind of chemical process. The Chinese slso claim an 
early acqnMnt«Dce with, chemiabri Imt the fathers of true chemical philo- 
sophy were of our own couuiry ; Bacon, Boyle, Hooke, Mayow, Newton, &c. 
The modern character of chemistry was formed under Beecher and Stahl, 
who perceived the connection of the atmosphere and the gases, with the 
production of phenomena, Bergman and Scheelo were cotumpoiary with 
Priestley in Eneland, and LaTosier in France; ttien followed Thomson, Dav7, 
and other di"'" --'--J 

CHERRIES. They were brought ftom Pojitus, to LucuUus, to Rome, abont 70 
n. c. AprioolafroniEpirufl: peaches from Peraia; the finest plums from 
BomascnB and Armenia; peara and figs ih)m Greece and Eg^pt; GiCror;3 
from Media; and pomegrimatea &om Carthage; 114 b, c. The cherry tree 
was flist planted in Britain, it is said, abont a. d. 100. Eine kinds were 
brought worn Flanders, and planted in Kent, and with such success that an 
orohMd of thiily-two acies produced in one year f 1000, i. b. 1B40. See 

CaiESAPEAXE, Bjttle op. At the mouth of the bay of that name, between 
Uie British admiral Greaves, and the French admiral Da Grasae, with tho 
naval force sent to assist the United States ; the fonner was obliged to retire,. 
1781. The Chesapeake and Delaware were blockaded by a British fleet 
ftt 1812, The Chesapeake American frigate struck to the Shannim British 
fWgate, commanded by captain Broke, after a severe action, June 2, ISIS, 

CHESS, GiME or". Invented, according to some authorities, 680 b. c, ; and ac- 
cording to others, in the fifth century of onr era. The learned Hyde and 
Sir William Jones conom' in stating (as do most writers on the subject) that 
the origin of chess ii t« be traced to India. The automaton chess-player 
was exhibited in England in 1769. 

CHEVALIER D'EON, This extaTiordinary personage, who had been aetiog ia 
a diplomatic capacitrj' in several countries, and who was for some thne a 
minister plenipofentiary from France in London, was proved upon a triol 
had in the King's Bench, in an action to recover wagera as to his sex, to be 
a woman., July 1, 1777. He subsequently wore tfemale attire for many yearfl ; 
yet at his death, in London, in 1810, it was maniftst, by tlie dissection of 
his body, and other nndoubted evidence, that he was of the male sex,— 
Bw. Die. 

CHILDREN. Most of the ancient nations had tlie unnatural custom of expos- 
ing theii' ina,nts— the Egyptians on tJie banlts of rivers, and file Greeks oa 
highways— when they could not support or educate them; in such cases 
they wej'e taken care of, and humaaely protected by the state. The custorr 
which long previously existed of EngUah parents selling their children tc 
the Irish for slaves, was prohibited in the reign of Canute, about 1017, — 
Mai. Paris. At Darien, it was the practdce when a widow died, to bury 
with her, In the same grave, euoh of her children as were unable, from their 
tender years, to take care of themselves. And in some parta of China, su- 
perstiUon has lent her hand to sanction the horrid deed of offering infanla 
to the spirit of an adjoining river, first attaching a gourd to their necka lO 
prevent them from immedStely drownuig. 

CHILL Discovered by Diego de Almagro, one of the conquerors of Peru, a. d. 
1535. AZraagro crossed Uie Cordilleras, and Oie natives, regarding the Span- 
iards on their first visit as allied to the Divinity, collected for them gold and 
silver, amounting to 200,000 dncnfs, a pwsent which led to tlie subsequent 
cruelties and rapacity of the invaders. Chili was subdued, but not wholly, 
in 1548. The Chilians fought for liberty at various times, and with various , 
Buceesfl, nntU 1817, when, by the decisive victory gained by San Martin ova' 



the royal forces, Fob. 12, in that year, the proyinco was releoaed from its op- 
pressors, and declared independent. 

CiriLTEaN HUNDREDS, Aa eatate of Vhe crown in England, o» the chain 
of clislk Mils that pass ft'om east to west through the middle of Bucking-- 
hamahiru, the Bteirardship whereof is a nomioal office, confeii'ed ou members 
of parliament when they wish to vacate their seats, as, by accepting an 
office tioder the crown, a member becomes disqualified, unless lie be again 
returned by his constituents: this custom has existed time immemoriaT 

CHIMNEYS. ChaGug-dishes were in use pretious to the invenUon of chim- 
neys, which were iirst introduced into tliese covmtriea in x. d. 1200, when 
they were confined to the kitchen and large hall. The fiimily sat round the 
stove, the ftinnel of which passed through the ceiling, in 1300. Chimneys 
were general in domestJc architecture in 1310. The ancients made use of 
stoves, although Octavio Ferrari affirms that chimneys were in use among 
tliem i but this is disputed. 

CHINA. Thia empire ia very ancient, and the Chinese assert that it existed 
many thousands of years before Noah's flood ; but it is allowed l>y some autliop- 
itias to have commenced about 2500 years before the birth of Chribt. By 
others it is said to have been founded by Fohi, supposed to be the Noah of 
the Bible, 2240 e. o. We are told that the Chinese knew the periods of the 
sun, moon, and planets, and were acute astronomers, in the reign of Tao, 
which is act down 2857 b. o. But dates cannot be relied upon nnHI towards 
the cliBc of the seventh century, b. c. when the history of China becomes 
more distinct. In the batiie between Phraates and Oie Scythians 129 e. c, 
the Chinese aided the latter, and afterwards ravaged the countL'ies on the 
coasts of the Caspian, which is tlidr first appearance in history. — Lenglei. 

. of Uie aa China 


ive fixed to hla oarralive, by 
s, dio iflhet of ±6 Chtoese 
OR wall of Chum compli 
i afld ihe arE of prlol^ug E 

1 of Ihe : 


Lar^ wtiD csLfibrish Ihe 

[ako tbtoi^houl Clima Ij 
leifong al Fekia alooe 

expelled Uirough ilii 

Edicl againet CIii 

EnglaSd ™ " 
[Hfs tojij 
hia misjtc 

Tbe eiclusivo tigiusofliie Hasl India 
Coinpaoy cease - April 22, ISM 

Lord Napier arri'EBBlMacoo, to Biiper- 
inlendlJi-idsh comrnerea . July 15, 1834 

Opium iraile iniErdlcmfl by the Chinese, 

couolry tliia day . - l>ec. ti. 18 
Edict Dt UiB omparor JQteidJcting all 
tiadB ami iDIeicourse with England 


BlDckadB of Canton by a Bri&h teetat 

]Dg tSXtt ITOopi on bmrd, by ocdeis 
&om Sir GoiSon Bremer - Judb S3, 
Sslium of CapL Anstvulhar - Sepl. 18, 
I/in Jepriveil of his auiljoiitr, and 
fiDBlLy degmded; Keshia ngpolDUd 

^lineaa ^ -' - No.. 6,1840 
Hoi^'EoDg eeded by KeHhlft to Groat 
^laiq, aad efmfim dollars agreed to 
be paid wiihin leadajrB lo the IStitiah 

Imperial edict fram Pekto rajeeUoglhe 

CO sigiiad balbre NeoMn, 

'be poTLs of CaDTon, Amoy, Foo-chDO' 
foo, Niog-po, and Sbank-bae lo be 


TheBo ;i 

9 plenlpntenti^, pro- 


la destrojad 




lo CUoa froffi tbe 


sa-Hlo[?, pi-8senletr 

BiipW by lbs Briliab ■ Oct. 1, 1S41 


The emliasay of lord Macartney from England procured tbe first aathentio 
information respecting this empire: it appeare that itis divided into 15 pro- 
vinces, containing 44ffi walled cities ; tie population of the whole conntryia 
S'ven at 888 000,000 ; its ajmual ravenneB at £66,000,000 ; and Uie urmy, in- 
ndin^ tlie Tartars, 1,000,000 of inantry, and 800,000 cavalry ; the religion 
fa pagan, and the government is absolute. Learning, with the arfa and eoi- 
ences in general, are encouraged, and ethics are studied profoundly, and 
influence the mannevs of the people. See details in WU^ams's "JHiddfo 

CHINA PORCELAIN. This manu&oture is first mentioned in hiatoiy in 16"! ; 
it was introduced into aigland so early as the sixteenth centujy. Porcelain 
was made at Dresden in 1706 i fine ware in England, at Chelsea, 1762; at 
Bowinl768; in various other parts of England,^ about I7G0; and by the 
ingeuions JosMi Wedgwood, who maoh improved the British manufacture, 
in Staffordshire, 1762 etseq. 

CHINESE ERAS. They are very numerous, fabulous, and mythological. 
Lilie the Chaldeans, tliey represent the world as having existed some hun- 
dreds of thousands of yeai's ; and their annals and histories record events 


eaid to have ocourrea, and name philosophers and heroes said to have lived, 
more than 27,000 years ago. By their calculation of time, which muat, of 
course, differ esaentially &om ours, fhey date the commencement of their 
empire 41,000 years b, c.—Abbe Lengkt. 

CHIPPEWA, BiWLBB OF, The Britlah Ibrcea nnfler general Riall ware de- 
ftsted by the Americans under ffoneral Brown, Jaly 5, 1814. Another ac- 
tion with the British, commanded by generals Drummond and RLall ; the 
latter taken prisoner at Bridgwater, near Chippewa, July 25, 181i. 

CmVALltY. Began in Europe about a. d. 913. From the twellth to the fif- 
teenth century it had a conelderable Influence iu refining the manners of 
most of the nations of Bnrope. The knight swoi'e to accomplish the duties 
of his profeEsion, as the ohampioo of God and the ladies. He devoted him- 
self to apeak the trutli, to maintain the right, to protect the diskeseed, to 
practise couvteBy, to fulfil obligations, and to vindicate, in eveiy perilous 
adventnre, his honor and ohai'aoter. Ciivalry, wUcti owed its origin to the 

Jtiitlfll xyitesi, oiuiiial with it— JJii^i™. . OiU™. 

CHIVALRY, doonT or. It waa oommouly afier the lie-direct had been given, 
that combats took place in the court of chivalry. By letters patent of 
James I. the earl-marshal of England had "the like jarisdiction in the court 
of chivalry, when, the ofSce of lord high constable was vaeaot, as this latter 
and the marshal did jointly exercise," 1923. The following entries are 
found la the pipe-roll of 31 Henry I., tlie date of which has been fixed hy 
tholatiorsof the record commission : — " Robert Mia Seward renders account 
of flfteen marks of alver, for Ou office and wip of Hugh Chivill. Paid into 
the exchequer four pounds. And he owes six pounds;" p. 68. "William 
dc Hocton renders account of ten marla of gold thta he m^ have tAe ■mfe of 
Geoffrey de Paibcre in Tomriage, with her laiid, and may have her son iii 
custody until he is of a^ to become a Itnlght; he paid into the exchequer 
ten mai'ks of gold, and la discharged."— ^Pori. Reports. 

CHOCOLATE. Pirst Inti'oduced into Europe ftom Mexico about i. ». 1520. It 
is the flour of the cocoa-nut, and makes a wholesome beverage, much used 
in Spain. It was sold in the London co^ee-houses soon after uieir establish- 
ment, l^m.—Tailo'. 

CHOIR. The choir was sepaiated from the nave of the church in the time 
of Conslantine. The choral service was first used in England at Canter- 
bury, A. D. 677. The service had been previously in use at Rome about 603, 
—See (SiavMitg. The Choragus was the superintendent of the ancient 
chorus.— WarSwrlon. 

CHOLERA MORBUS. This Altai disease, known in its more malignant form 
as the Asiatic cholera, after having made great ravages in many countries 
of the north, east, and soutti of Europe, and in the countries of Asia, where 
idone it had can'ied off more than 600,000 pei'sons in its progress within two 
years, made its first appearance in England, at Sunderland, October 26, 1831. 
ProolnniBiion, ordering aJl veeaela from Sunderland to London, to peHJirjn 
quarantine at the Noi-e, December 4, 1831, Cholera first appeared at Edin- 
bui'gh, Feb. 6, 18S2. First observed at Rotherhithe and Limehouse, London, 
February 13 ; and in Dublin, March 8, same year. The mortaJJty was very 
great, but more bo on the Continent ; the deaths by Cholera in Fai'is were 
18,000 between Marcli and Angust, 1832. Cholera first appeared on this 
continent at Quebec, June 8, 1^2 ; and at New- York, June 27, 1832. Cho- 
lera again 'raged in !^me, the Two Scilies, Genoa, Berlin, &c. in 1886-7. It 
again appeared in Asia and the east of Europe in 1848, and raged in Lon- 
don, Edinburgh, Liverpool, and Paris at intervals, in 1848-9. First ap- 
peared again on this continent in 1849, on the Missi^ppi, in New York In 


Mav, and contiiimd muie oi lesa in various pai'iB of the United Slates 
tinul Noyemijer of that yeai 

CHRTST. See Jbbus Christ Thia name, so universally given to the Redeemer 
of the world, sigmfiM lu Gieek The Anointed, being the same with Mcs^ 
dah in tiiB Hebrew whioh ttie Jews called that Saviour anii Deliverer whom 
tiey expected, and who was piomieed to them by all the prophets. Thia 
appellaUott ia commonly put to our Jebits fsignifyiag Bamotur), the name of 
the groat olijeet of onr fiiith, and divine autkor of our religion. St. Clomont, 
the earliest filther, according to St. Epipianiua, fixes the oii-th of Camsr on 
the IStb of November, in tJie 28th year of Augustus, i. e. two years before 
the Christian era as adopted io the sixth c«ntory. Cerinttua was the first 
Christian writer against the divinity of Christ, abont a. d. S7. The divinity 
, of Chriat was adopted at the conncil of Hice, in a. d. 325, by two hundred 
and ninety-nine bishops agijnst eighteea 

CHRISTIAH. Thia name was fii-st given to the belieyera and followers of 
Christ's dootiines at Antioch, in Syria, Acts xi. 26, in the year 38, accord- 
ing to Bidier; in the year 40, aeeordine to Toridts; and according to other 
atShorities in Vae year 30. The Clinstiana were divided into episcopoi, 
proabyteroi, dinoonoi, pistoi, catachuinens, or learners, ajid energomens who 
were to he exorcased. 

CHRISTIAN ERA. The era which is used by almost aU Christian nations i it 
dates fl'ora January 1st, in the middle of the fourth year of the 194th 
Olympiad, in the 753d of the building of Rome, and 4714th of the Julian 
period. It was first introducecl in the sixth century, but was not very 
gecersllj' employed for some centuries after. We style the Christian era 
A.D. 1. It was first uaed in modem chronology in 616. 

CHRISTIAN KING; Most CHaisTiJir Kinh; Claisliamisdiims. Thistitlewas 

Siven by pope Paid II. to Louis XT. of France in 1469 ; and never was s. 
iatinction more unworthily conferred. His tyranny and oppressioa! 
obliged his subjects to enter mto a lea^e against him; and 4,CHlO persons 
were executed publicly or privataly in ffis mereif ess reigiL — l&na/uU ; Flswri/. 
CHRISTIANITy. Founded by the Saviour of the world. The persecutions of 
the Christians commenced a. d. 64. — See PsraeciiMints. Christianity was firel 
taught in Britain about this time; and it was propagated with some anccess 
in 16&.—Bede. Lncius.ia said to have been the flrat Chriatian king of Bri- 
tain, and in the world : he reigned in 179. But the era of Christianity in 
EngWd commenced with the mission of St. Austin in 696, from which tune 
it spread rapidly throughout the whole of Britain.* It was introduced intu 
Ireland in the second centm y, but with more success after the arrival of St. 
Patrick m 432 It ivaa received in Scotland m the reign of Donald I. about 
201, whpu itwaipmlnaced by that king, bis queen, and some of hia nobility, 

I 1 1 I I I I I r I 1 1 I 1 1 I r, by riia Teuic^Lc" Juiigliis, 

icy WBTS ra uming ^ m^ ^e ^^^ 

r I I 11, wLera Paganism was abo- 

J I , I I lUout _ - ■ - -1386 

luRu-uu, h, 'iBialoolal aw ilii/irands of Cbinoae Christians were 

In Poland, under Meicielaos I 3^12 put to dGBXH) ... - 1575 

* It is sold that Gragorj Lho Great, eliorTIv Iiefbre his &lovadon to iJio pfipal chair, chanced one 
dayta pas9 through Iheslave-marlEet at Rome, nnd perceiving nom^chlSQren of great haauLy wiio 
were set up Jbr sale, he inquii'sii abant their country, and finding they wore Bnglisli Pa^ns^ he is 
said to have cried uui,iii ilia Latin langua^ " Ntm An^i, Bed AftffdiiJoreTtiiSieaaenl Cbristxani^^ 


jHu] iiiai'ioNAZcY OF DATPB, ass 

CliristiMiity waa propagated in vaiioas pavia of Africa, as Guinea, Angola, 
and Congo, in the fifteenth centary ; and in America and India it nuide some 
progress in the sixteentli, and now rapidlj' gains ground in all parts of the 

CHMSTMAS-DAr. A of the chnrch. imiverEaHy observed in com- 
memoration of the naUvity of our Saviour, Ithae been denominated Chriat- 
mass, from the appellative Christ having been added to the name of Jesns io 
express that he was the iVIeBsiah, or The Atioinied. It was Srst observed as a 
festival J. D, 93. Ordered to be Iioldna a solemn ftast, and Divine service to be 
pesfonned on the 26th of December, by pope Telesphorus, about a. d, 187.* 
la the eastern primitive church, Christmas and Epipliany (lohich see) were 
deemed hut one and the same feast ; and to this day the church nniversally 
keeps a contioaed feast within those limits. Tlio hc^ly and misletoe used 
at Christmas are remans of the religions observances of the Druids, and so 
with many other like customs. 

CHRONICLES. The earliest chronicles are those of the Chinese, Hindoos, 
Jews, and perhaps those of the Irish. After the invention of writing, ail 
well-informed nations appear to have kept chroniclers, who were generally 
priests or astrologers, and who mingled popnlni- legends with their records. 

CflRONOLOGY. The Chmeao pretend to tha moat ancient, but upon no cer- 
tain authority. The most Buthentio, to which all Europe gives credit, is the 
Jewish ; but owing to the negligence of the Jews, they have created abun- 
dance of difBculties in this science, and very little certainly can bo arrived 
at es to the exact time of many memornble events. The earliest epoch is 
the creation of the world, 4004 b. o. Theophilus, bishop of Antioch, wasthe 
first Christian chronologist, about i. d. 169. /See the diferent eras tArougi tAe 

CHURCH, it is said that a chiirch was bniit fbr Christian worship in the first 
century; and some will have it that one was built inEngland,.A, d. 60. See 
Glastmfimy. In the small island of Whitahorn, Scotland, are the remains of 
an ancient church, wliich wag the first place of Christian worship, K ia be- 
lieved, in that country, and supposed to have been built before the cathedral 
at WMIiehoni, In Wigtonshire, where Nenian was bishop in the fourth cen- 
tury. The CliriatiBins originally preached in woods, and in caves, by caudle- 
light, whence the practice of candle-light in churches. Moat of the early 
churches were of wood. The first church of stone was built in London, hi 
1087. The first Irish church of stone was built at Bangor, in the county of 
Doivncby Malachy, archbishop of Armagh, who was prelate in 1134, — Gor~ 
don's Irelaaid. Church towers were originally parooliisJ foiti'esses. Churoh- 
yarda were permitted in cities in 742. 

CHURCH OP ENGT.AND, (the present). Coramenoed with the Reformation, 
Mid was formaUj established In tlie reign of Henry VHI. 1584. This chuioh 
wiqsisM of two archbishops and twenty-four bishops, exclusively of that of 
Sodor and Man ; and the other digidtariea are chnncellora, deans (of catho- 
di-als and collegiate churches), archdeacons, prebendaries, canons, minor 
canons, and priest vicars ; these, and the Incumbenta of rectories, vicai'ages, 

mat IS, " they wonld not beEnglish, tiitt angels, if Ihey were CSiriaUana," FMm [Iialliniehe waa 
srrHck wllh an ardonl dwire lo convert Ihal unenlighlenefl nsiiooi and ordcrsd a monk, named 

" Dioclelian, iJib Komnn empBTOt, keeping hie court el ?Jicjtnedia, beiE^ inrovm&d Uiat ITwi 
dt'tita u> Em 9hul, am} Ihe chuich lo to i»l on Are, and sis biuidred p«rijt^ed in Iho bnrQta^ jAis^ 


and cV.Apekies, make the mimbei: of prefemieuta of the establisheil ciiureh, 
aecordh^ to the last official returns, 12,827. The aomber of churches for 
Protestsjit worship in England was il,Jil3 in 1818. 

CHURCH DP IRELAND. Called., in connection with that of England, the 
United Church of England and Ireland. Preriously to the Chui'ch Tempo- 
ralities Act of William lY. in 1833, Bjere were four archbishoprica and 
eighteen biBhopricain Ireland, of which aeveral have since ceased ; that aci 
TiroTidhig' for the union of aeea, and for He abolition of certam sees, accord- 
ingly aa thepresent poseessorsof themdle. There are 1,659 placea of Prot^ 
eatant worehip, 2,109 Cathoho chapela, 452 Presbyterian, anil 414 other 
houses of prayer. See Bishops. 

CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. Presbylerianiam is tie religion of Scotland. lis 
distinguishing tenets seem to liave been first embodied in the formulary of 
faith attributed to John KJnox, and compiled by that reformer in 1560. It. 
was approved by the parliament and ratified in 1667 ; was finally settled by 
an act of the Scottiah senate in 16BS, and was aflBTwards secured by the 
(reaty of union with Ei^lnnd in 1707. Previously to the abolition of episco- 
pacy in Scotland in 1688, there existed two ai'ohbisiioprica and twelve bish- 
oprics, which were then dissolved ; bnt there are now six bishops. The 
cSiurch of Scotland is regulated by four courta— the General Assembly, tLd 
Synod, the Presbytery, and Kirk Session. See Presbyterians. 

CHUKCH MUSIC, was introduced into the Christian church by Gregory the 
Great, in a. a. 603. Choir service was first intcoduced in England, at Can- 
lerbuty. In 677. Church organs were in general nae iu the tenth centurj . 
Chm'ci music was first performed in EngEsh in 1559. See CAoiri C&antv^. 

CHURCH-WARDENS. Officers. of the parish chnrch, appointed hy the first 
canon of the synod of London in 1127. Overseers In every pariah were also 
appointed by the same body, and they continue noiv nearly aa then const^ 
tuted. — Jb&n!/ra's CaiKnis. 

CHURCHING OP WOMEN. It origmat«d iu the Jewish rife of puriflcation, 
A. E. 214. Churching is the act of returning thanks in the church for any 
signal deliverance, and partiuularly after the delivery of women. — WJieaticj, 
It was a Jewish law that a woman should keep wltJiin her house forty days 
after hei- lying in. If she had a son, and eighty if she had a daughter, at the 
expiration whereof she was to go to the temple, and ofler a Iamb with a 
young pigeon of tui-tle.. and in case of poreily, two pigeons or turtles. 
See P■a■rif^Miilm. 

CIDER, Anciently this bevei'ogo, when flrat made in England, was called wine, 
about A. o, 1284. When the earl of Manchefllw waa ambassador In France, 
he is said to have freciuently passed off cider upon the nobility of that conn- 
try for a delicious ivine. It was subjected to the exdse regulations in 
England, 1763, eisej, Apowerfial spirit ie drawn from dder by distillation.— 
CTMGRI. The war of the Cimbri. 118 e. c. They defiiat the consul Marcus 
SilanuB, 109 b. c. They defeat the Romans under Manlius. on the banks of 
the Rhine, where 80,000 Romans are slam, 105 i. c. The Teutoiies are de- 
d by Marius in two-batties at Aquas Seitire (Aix) inGaul, 200,000 are 

;e killed, and 60,000 talten prisoners, 101 d. □. Their name afterwards sunk 
in that of the Teutonea or Saxons. 
CINCINNATI. Onio, the moat populous city west of the Alleghanies iu the 
United Slates, was founded in 1789, by emigrants from New England and 


Ne™ Jevsoy. Population in 1795, 500 ; in 1800, 7S0 : in 1810. 2,540 ; in 1820, 
9,642; in 1880, 24,881 i in 1840, 46,338. 

CfcCHNATI, SociBTir OP. Establislied by tlie officers of tlie American army, 
in 1733. iifler tlie Revolution, and still continued by thum and their descend' 
ants, Tliore was at one time a popular jealousy of this society as auggest- 
ing a sort of bereditaiy nobility or aristocracy ; but this has long since passed 
away, and the society is now but seldom mentioned. 

CIRCASSIA. The Cm;its6ianB are deeoended fiomthe Alanians. Theycontln- 
Tied unsubdued, even by the arms of the celebrated TJmur ; hut in the sis- 
leentb century the greater part of them acknowledged the authority of tha 
Czar, Iran 11. of Kuasia. About a b. 1745, tha princes of Gireat and Little 
Kabarda took oaths of fbalty to that power. One branch of theii traffic is 
the sale of their daughters, fliinecl throughout the world tbr their beauty, 
and whom they sell for the use of the Beraglios of Turkey and Persia : tlie 
merchants who come itom Constanttoople to purchase these girls are geuei^ 
ally Jews. — KlapretA'i TVavds in t&s CaacasAs a/ad Georgia. 

CIRCULATING LIBRARl'. The first in England, on a public plan, was opened 
by Samuel Faneourt, a dissenting ministei' of Salisbury, about 1740. Ha had 
little encouragement in the undertaking, which in the end Ikiled. — Fergvr- 
son's Biag. 

CIRCULATION DP THE BLOOD, aud the motion of the heart in animals, con- 
firmed esperimcnfally by William Bafvey, the celebrated English physician 
and anatomist, between 1619 and 1628. See article Shod. By this dis- 
covery the medical and surgical art became greatly improved, to the benefit 
of mankind, — FVeiad's ffiji. of Physic. 

CiRCUMClSIOW. A rite msUtuled 1897 B. c. It was the seal of the covenant 
made by God with Abraham, — Josepi/ua. Even to the present day many of 
the Turks and Petaians circumdse, although not regarding it as essential to 
Solvation ; but in some eastern and AiVican nations it is rendered necessary 
by a peculiar conformaUon, and is used without any reference to a religions 
rite. — BeU. The festival of the Circnmcision was originally called the Ootave 
of Christmas. The first mention found of it lain a. n, 487. It was insdtutad 
by the church to oomjnemorate the ceremony under the Jewish law to 
which Christ submitted on the eighth day of his nativity ; it was introduced 
into the Liturgy in 1650. 

CIRCUMNAVIGATORS, Among the greatest and most daring of human en- 
terprises was the circumnavigation of the eai'th at the period when it was 
first attempted, a, d, 1519.* The followmg are the most renowned of this 
illustrious class of men ; Uieir voyages were undertaken at the dates affixed 
to their names. See Na/mgattrrs. 

Magellan, a Portii|urKe, the 1 

Sron (srandfalliBr of Lorfl Bya 
CaiTetei, mi EnsHehmfLn 

On tliQ dealli of C&plam Cook, tiie lasl 


" The fiist ship Ihat sailed round Iho em-lh, and hence determioea its boiog globular, wiu 
MaesUBQ'a, or Maielliqen'a : lie waa ji naiive ofPoTLugaL, io UiB eamce of Snaui, sM by keening B 
woaerlT couree he TBlumeif ts tho swe place he liail set out from m 1619. The voyaee naa com- 
pleredmlbrceye&Tfiandlwenty.uine duys: but Ma^Uanwafl IceHqlI on iiia homeward pnsage, ai 
[lie Phllipptnes, in 1681.— BWiw. 


Several voyages bava been since undertaken, and, among other nations, bj 
the Ruasiana. The early naTigatore, eciually iUiiatriona, are named elaft' 
CIRCUS, Tlietaw 

the Jareeet of th' . .. , . .._ ._ .._. 

elder iWgoin, 905 b. c. ; it was of an oval flgare ; ila leDg1,h was three stadia 
and a hAl^ or more than three English furlongs, and its breadth 960 Roman 
feet. This circus was enlarged by Caesar bo aa to seat 160,000 persons, and 
was rebuilt by Augnatus. All the emperors vied in beautifying it, anfl 
Julius Cisaar introduced in it lai'ge canals of water, which on a Eudden could 
be covered with nn infinite number of yessela, and represent a sea-fig-ht. - 

CISALPINE REPUBLIC. Founded by the French in June 1797. It was ac- 
huowledged by the emperor of Geriuany to be independent, by the ti'eaty of 
Campo Formio (which see), Oct. 17, following. Received a new conatitntion 
in Sept, 1798. It merged into the kingdom of Italy in March, 1805 ; Napo- 
leon was crowned king in May following, and was represented by his vice- 
roy, Eugene Beanharnois. See Itah/. 

CISTERCIANS. An order founded by Robert, a Benedictine, m lie eloven'.h 
century. They became so powerful that they governed almost all Europe 
In spiritual and temporal concerns. Thoy observed a continual sjlence, ab- 
' ' ' " " ' ' ■ -g neither shoes nor sliu-la, and were moat 

CmES. The word eHij has heen in u ince the Conquest, at 

which time even London was callei ie capital of ScoMand 

la still called Edinbwrgh, The Ei cry inconaiderable in 

the twelfUi century. Cities wei'e 1 ). 1079. The institu- 

tion of cities has aided nmch in i governments, polsLO, 

manners, and arts. — Soberlsoii,. 
CITIZEN. It was not laivful to scour; —L,iwj. In England 

a citizen is a person who is free <: itli carry on a trade 

therein. — Catadea. Varioua prlvil^„„„ iferrod on citizens as 

fteemen in several reigns, and povrere granted to them. The wives of citi- 
zens of London (not being aldermen's wires, nor gentlewomen by descent) 
were obliged to wear minever caps, being wMte woollen knit three-comered. 
with the peaks pr<(jecting three or four inches beyond thSir foreheads ; aider - 
men's wives made them of velvet, 1 Elizabeth, 1558.— Sioww. The title of 
cit izen, only, wsa allowed in France at the period of the revolution, 1792, et seg. 
ClUDAD RODRIGO. This strong fbrtreas of Spain was invested by the French 
June 11, 1810 ; and it surrendered to them July 10, foUowiog. It remained 
in their possession until it waa gallantly stoiined by the British commandsd 
by Wellington, Jan. 19, 1812. Wellington hod made a previous attack upon 
Cindad Rodrigo (Sept. 25, 1811), which ended iu his orderly retreat from 
the position, 
CIVIL LAW, Several codes come under this denomination of laws. A b''dy 
of Roman laws, founded upon the laws of nature and of nations, was first 
collected by Alfrenus Varus, the Civilian, who flourished about 66 b. o. j and 
a digest of them was made by Servlus Sulpiofua, the Civilian, 68 s. c. The 
Gregorian laws were compiled a, s. 290; the Theodoaian in 43S: and the 
Justinian, 529-534. Many of the former laws having grown out of use, the 
emperor Justinian ordered a revision of them, which was called tlie Justinian 
code, and tliis code constitutes a large pai't of the praaent civil law. Civil 
law was restored in Italy, Geiinany, &o. IITI. —Blaar. Civil law was intro. 
duced into England by Theobald, a Normau abbot, who was aiterwa?^ 



arclibishop of Canterbury, in 1138. It is now used in the epiritnal conrta 
only, and in mariUine affairs. See Laws. 
CIVIL USI m EKGLANB. This comprehends the revenue awarded to «ie 
idngsof England, partly in lieu of tileir ancient hereditaiy income. Tim 
entue revenue of Efizabeth woe not more thai) 6D0,0GtU. and that of Charles I. 
Was but 800,0IX«. After the Kevolution a civil liat reyeniie was settled on 
the new king and queen of 700,0002., the parliament taking into ila own 
bauds the support of the forces, both maritime and military. The civil list 
of George II. was increased to 800,000i. ; and that of George HI. in the 56th 
year of hia reign, was 1,030,000^. By the act 1 William Vf: 1881, the civil 
list of that sovereign was fixed at 610,0002. By the act of 1 Victoria, Dec 
1887, tJia civil list of the quean was fixed at 385.0(XK. ; and Prince Albert 
obtained an exclusive sum ftom parliament of 30,0002. jier sum. 4 Victoria, 
18i0, !■ . J~ . 

CLANSHIPS. These were tribes of the same race, and commonly of the same 
name, and originated in feudal times.— See Feii,dal Laws. They may he 
said to have arisen in Scotland, in the reign of Malcolm II., about lOOS. 
Clfuiships and othev remains of heritable jurisdiction were abolished in Scot- 
land (where clans were taken to be the tenants of one lord), and the liberty 
of the English was granted Ut clansmen, 20 George 11., iHQ.—Ritfiead. 
The chief of each respective elan was, and is, entitled to ii'ear two eagle's 
feathers in his bonnet, in addition to tlie distinguialiing badge of hia dan.— 

CLAEENDON, Statutes or. These were statutes enacted in a parliament 
held at Chu'endon, the object of which was to retrench the then enormous 
power of the clergy. They are rendered memorable as being the ground of 
Eecket's quarrel with Henry H, A number of regulations were arawn up 
under the title of the statutes or couslitutione of Clarendon, and were Toted 
■without opposition, a. d. 1161. These strin^nt statutes were enacted to 
prevent the chief abuses which at that time prevailed in ecclesiastical 
affikirs, and put a stop to church usurpations which, gradually stealing on, 
threatened the desti-ucHon of the civil and royal power. — Hnme. 

CLARION. This instrument originated with the Moors, in Sp^n, about a. d. 
8O0 ; it was at Srst a trumpet, serving as a treble to tiumpeta sounding their 
tenor and bass.—Asfte. Its tube is narrowei', and its tone shriller than tlie 
common trumpet, — Pardon. 

CLAS8IS. The name was first given by Tulhus Servins in making divisions of 
the Roman people. The first of sis classes were called dassici. by way of 
eminence, and hence authors of the first rank came to be called classics, 
673 B. c. 
CLEMENTINES. Apocryphal pieces, feble and error, attribafed to a primi- 
tive father, Clemens Romanus, a cotemporary of St. Paul; some say he 
succeeded Peter as bishop of Rorne, He died a. c, 102. — Nicerim. Also tjie 
decretals of pope Clement T., who died 1814, ■published by hia successor.— 
Bffmjer. Also Angustine monfes, each of whom having been a superior nine 
years, then merged info a common monk. 

PLRIHENTINES and TJRBANISTS. Parties by whom Europe was distracted 
for several years. Tlie Urbanists were the adberoiita of pope Urban VL, the 
others those of Robert, son of the count of Geneva, who took the title of 
Clement VII, All the kingdoms of Christendom according to their various 
interests and inclinations were divided between these two ponfifiS ; the courts 
of i^ance, CastUe, ScotWd, &c. adhering to Clomentj and Rome, Italy, and 


.3 i,cjnae({iii,i t upon tlia 

CLERGY, la tlie first cenfnry tha olcrsy neie distmgai^hed liy the title of 
preBbfters or bistops. The bistops in the second centmy aasumeii higher 
flinctions, and tlie presbyters represented the inffenoi pneats of the Lentes : 
this distinction was still fnrther promoted m the third century ; and, under 
CocsUntine, the clergy attained the reoognifiun ond protection of the Becu- 
lar power. 

CLERGY JH Enolanti. They increased rapidly in number early in the seventh 
century, and at length controlled the king and kingdom. DnmkemiesB was 
forbidden amons ffie clergy by a law, bo early as 747 i. d. The first frnite . 
of the then clergy were aaBigned by parliament to the king, 15M, The cler- 
gy were pxdaded from, parliament m 153Q. The confference between the 
Protastant and Dissentlne clergy waa held in 16M. See Conference. Two 
thousand resigned their beneflces in the church of Eneland, rathci than 
Bubseribe then- assent to the book of common prayer, includiiig the thirty- 
nine articles of religion, as eiuoined by the Act of Unifonnity, 1(191-2. The 
Irish Protestant clergy were restored to their beneflces, from which they ha,d 
been expelled, owing to the state of the kingdom under Lfcmes n., 1689. 
The Clergy Incapadtation atit pasaed, ISOl. See Ciarch of England. 

CLERK. TheClergy were flrstB^ledderka, owing to the judges beinjj chosen 
after the rTonnan. custom ftom the sacred order ; and the officers being cler- 
gy ; this gave them that denomination, which tliB j keep to this day,— feact- 
stoiie's Cemm. 

CLOCK. That called the clepsydra, or water-clock, was introdnced at Rome 
158 B. c. by Scipio Naaica. Tootheil wheels were applied to them by Ctesi- 
biua, about 140 b. c. Siud to hare been found by Ciesar on invading Britain, 
55 B. □. The only clock suppoaed to be then In the world was sent by pope 
Panll. to Pepin, king of France, i.e. 760. Pacificna, archdeacon of Verona, 
invented one in the ninth century. Originally the wheels were three feet in 
diameter. The earliest complete clock of which there is any certain record, 
waa made by a Saracen mechanic, in the 18th century. 

The Bcapemenl, ascribed lo G erhert, i.r 

Promaviiil, a butcbnum, injpmveil lUe 

iRep^llug clodka and wati^lifffi Invented 
bf BarFuw, nboiil - - - 1678 

The dcid lies!, end liorizontal escape- 
V Gi-abam, -' "™ 

ihe church of SL Paul b, Coven 
The sulaeqnent improvements were the sph'al balance spring suggosted. a 
the duplex Bcapement invented by Dr. Hotte; pivot holes jewelled by Foclo; 
the detached scapement invented by Mndge, and Improved by Bertlioud, 
Arnold, Eamshaw and others. 

CLOCK, MAGNETIC. Invented by Dr. Locke of Cmeimiati, 18i7-8. 

CLOTH, Both woollen and lineu cloth were known in very early times. Coarse 
woollens were introduced into England «, n. 1191 1 and seventy Cimilies of 
cloth-workers frOln the Netherlanda settled in England by Edward IIL's in- 
vitation, and the !b1, of weaving was thereby inti'oduced, IZSl.^Ri/mei-'s Hc- 
dera. Woollens were first made at Kondal, in 18D0. Medleys were manu- 
factured, 1614. Our fine broad cloths were yet sent to Holland to be dyed, 
1664. Dyed and dre^ed in England, by one Brewer, from the Low Coun- 
tries, 1667. The mannihctnre was discouraged in Ireland and that of Itg^ 


f both bonses of pai'liament, 1698. See 

CLOVIS, Famii-t op. Kines of Finance. The real ftrandei- of tlie French mo- 
narehj was Clovis I., who commenced his reign ». d. 481, and ivas a warlike 
prince. He expelled tlie Romans, embraced tlie Christian religion, and pnb> 
nahed the Soliqne law. On his being flret told of the sufferinge of Christ, 
he exclaimed, " 0, had I been there with my valiant Ganls, how I would 
have avenged him!" Clovisnmtedhiaeonc[uestslh)m the Romans, Germans, 
and GfotbB, as provincea to the then Bcanly dominions of France: removed 
the seat of Government fl'om Soissone to Paris, and made this the capital of 
hia new kingdom ; he died in 611,—HeiuniiU. 

COACH. Tlie coach is of Ffenoh invention. Under Francis I., who was a co- 
temporary with our Henry VIII., there were but two in Paris, one of which 
belonged to the queen, and the other to Diana, the natural daughter of 
Henry II. Them were but three inParisin 1560; andHenry IV. liadono, but 
withoat straps or springs. The first conrtier who set up this equipage was 
John de Laval de Bois-Dauphin, who could not travel otherwise on account 
of his enormous bulk. Previously to the uaa of coaches the kings of France 
travelled on horseback, the princesses were canled in htters, and Indies rode 
behind their squires. The first coach seen In England was in the reign of 
Mary, about 1553. — Priestley'i Lsct. They were introduced much earlier.— 
A-ndreif)!' Hist. Great Srit. They were introduced by Fite-Allen, earl of 
Arundel, in 1580. — Slmne. And in some years afterwards the art of making 
them. — A-aderstm's Hist, of Cemmerce. A bill was brought into parliament 
to prevent the effeminacy of man riding- in coaches, 43 Eliz. 1601.* — Carls. 
See Cas'riages, Hackney Coaches, Mail Coaches, &«. 

COALITIONS. The great coalitions against France since the period of the 
French revolution, have been six in nnmber ; and Hioy generally arose out 
of the subsidiaing by England of the great powers of the Continent. They 
were entered into as follows ; 

l3t. The ting of 

_. . „ ■ J'™1» 

BUl B7 Eiiglaija and AusEtia - Apiil fi, leiB 
' raUflefi^Kaliacli ^'MmtJiIVKS 

Driueal, and f uiKer, 
s,^,«,i. - . - JumiS, 

Srd. lij Great BrHaln,Rll6^,Aualtia, 
and Naples - - Aug. 6, 

COALITION MINISTRY. Tliia designation ivas given to the celebrated min- 
istry of Mr. Fox and lord Nortli, and which was rcjidered memorable as an 
extraordinary union in polilical life, on account of the strong personal dis- 
like which had always been displayed by these personages, each towards 
the other. The ministry was formed April 5, 178S, and dissolved Deo. 10, 
same year. See AdmijiisiraMoiis. 
COALS, It is contended, with much seeming truth, that coals, although they 
are not menljoned by the Romans in their notices of Britain, wci-e yet in use 
hy Uie andent Britons.— .Bcoreiit, They were first discovered at Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne in 1234, some say earlier ; and others in 1239. Sea-coal was pro- 
hihited from being used in and near London, as being " prqudicial to human 
he^tli ; " and even smiths were oblteed tfl hum wood. 1273.— Siowe. Coals 
were first made an article of trade from Newcastle to London, 4 Richard II. 
1881i— %nin-'s Fmla-a. NotwiHistanding the many previous coinplainls 

■ In Oie baelnning of &b year 1619, Ibe eail of 
noB Ite GuiiBowdor Plot, obisined hia liliofation 
iih ein honaa in hia cpadi (Ijeing Uie Aral iJiM w 
Maed tinra iha cower Ihinugli ine ciiy,— Hopfn. 


agaiiiat coal as a public 
don In 140D : but coals 
of Charles L, 1625. 

1660 ■ • 160000 chald, lison - - S14,DIN chald. I 1S30 - - l^SS^fKlcbEld. 

1700 ■ . 317^100 diiio, IBIO - - aso J72 fllLEO. 1835 - 2,399^6 uma. 
1760 ■ - 010^ dluo. J 18E0 - - 1,171,17S diico. | 1840 - - 2,63^60 dilK. 

The coal-flelds of Durham and Nojthuinbcjrland are 723 square miles in 
extent ; those of Newcastle, Sunderland, Whitehaven, and oder ^ces, aie 
also of Tflst magnitude ; and there are exhaustloss lieda of coal in Torksliiro. 
The coal in South Wales alone, would, at the present rnfe of consumption, 
supply Ekll England for 2000 years. — Blaieweli. It is snppoaed that there are 
now about 26,000,000 of tons consumed annnally in Great Britain.— PMHipJ. 
Scotland teeniB ■nith the richest mines of coal, and liesldes her vast collieries 
theie must he Vast fields unexplored. — Permant. Fine coal is Ibund in Kil- 
kenny, Ireland. The first ship laden with Irish coal arrived in Dublin ft'ora 
Newry, in 1742. — Bams. 
COALS IN THE United SrAraa. Lehigh coal tima Mauoh Chunt, Pennsylya. 
nia, first mined and used, 1806. According to Mr. Lyell, the coal strata in 
Pennsylyania, Ohio, &c., extend 700 miles. 
COCCESAWS. A sect founded by John Cocceiua of Bremen ; they held, 
amongst other singular opinions, that of a visible reign of Christ in this world, 
after a general conyeraion of the Jews and aE other people to the Christian 
^th, 1665. 
COCHINEAL. The properties of this insect became Imown to the Spaniards 
soon after their conquest of Mexico, in 1618. Cochineal was not known In 
Italy in 1648. although the art of dyeing then flourished there.— See Dyeing. 
The annual import of this article mfo England was 260,000 lbs. in 1830 ; and 
1,081,776, in 1845. 
COCK-FIGHTING-. Practised by the early barbarons nations, and by Greece. 
It was instituted at Home after a victory over the PerHans, 476 b. c. ; and 
was intiodneed by the Romans into England. William Fitz-Stephen, in the 
reign of Henry n., describes cock-fighting- as the sport of school-boys on 
Shrove Tuesday. Cock-Hghting was prohibited, 89 Edward m., 1365; and 
again by Hemy VIII, and Cromwell, Till within these few yeai-s there ivas 
a Cock-fit Bsyul, in St, Jamea's-paik ; but this practice is happily now dia- 
conraged by the law, ■ 
COCK-LANE GHOST, A famous imposition {V\ practised npon the crednlous 
multitude by William Parsons, his wife, and daughter. The contrivance 
was that of a female Tentraoquist, and all who heard her believed she 
was a ghost : the deception, which arose in a malignant conspiracy, ivas 
carried on for some time at the house, No. 33 Cooc-lane, London ; bnt 
it was at length detected, and the pai'enlB were condemned to the pillory 
and imprisonment, July 10, 1762. 
COCOA. Unknown in Europe nntil the diseoveiy of America, about 1500, 
The cocoa-tree supplies the Indians with almost whatever they stand in neei- 
of, ss bread, water, wine, vinegar, brandy, milfa, oil, honey, sugar, needles, 
clothes, thread, cupa, spoons, basins, baskela, paper, masts for ships, sails, 
cordage, nails, covermg for their houses, &c.— -,flay. 
CODES OP LAWS. The laws of Phoroneus were instituted 1807 s. c. : those 
of Lyonrgus, 884 n. c, ; of Draco, 623 e. c. ; of Solon, 587 n, c. Alfl-enua 
Tarns, the civilian, first collected the Eoraan laws about 63 b, c. ; and Ser- 
viuB Sulpidus, the civilian, embodied them about 53 b. c. The Gregorian 
and Hermoglnian codes were published i, n, 290 ; tiie Theodoaian ooiie in 
486 ■ the celebrated code of the emperor Justinian, in 62S— a digest irom 


tills laat was made in 583. — Blair. Alfred's code of laws la the foundation 
of the common law of England, 887.— See Laws. 

CODICILS TO WILLS. C. Ttelmtina Teste, the civilian of Rome, waa tha 
fii'st who introduced the use of this Bupplementary inatciunent to wiUa, 
about 31 B. 0, 

CCEUR DE LION, OR THE LioK-HEARTKD. The Bumame given to Richarcl Plan- 
tagenet I. of England, on account of his dauntless courage, about a. d. 1192. 
This surname was also conferred on Louis VIII. of France, who signalised 
liimself in the crusades aud in his wars againet Eaghmd. about 1223. This 
Jatter prince had also the appellation of the Liint given iini. 

I;0FJEE. It grows in Arabia, Persia, the Indies, and America. Ita use ae a 
beverage is traced to the Peisiana,* It came into gi'eat repute in Arabia 
Felix about i.D. 1454; and passed thence into Egypt and Syria, and thence, 
in 1511, to Constantinople, where coffoe-bouses were opened in 1664. M. 
Thevenot, the travelloi-, was the flist who brought it into France, to which 
oiJttntry ha returned after an absence of seven yeaiB, in 1663. — CkanOers. Cof- 
fee was brought into England by Mr. Nathariel Catiopus, a Cretan, who 
made it his common beverage at Baliol College, Oxford, m IQii.— Anderson. 

(COFFEE ADD TEA. The consumption in the United States at different perioda 
is reported by the secretary of the treasury (soe Atiicrkait Almanac, 1848) 

!B-2l . . .Tea, 4,686^33 Iba. - - - - CoffoB, 11,B85,0S3 lbs. 
1830 ■ - . " 6,S?3fl9llbe. ... " 38:363,687 ISb 

leS> ..." li33l,63B lbs. ..." 9l,7MJ)0a lbs, 

1^3 ..." j3,ts3,G46 iba ... " urnmjfier lbs. 

COFFEE-HOUSES. The first in Ei^land waa kept by a Jaw, named Jacobs, 
in Oxford, 1650. In that year, Mr. Edwards, an English Turkey merchant, 
brought home with him a Greek servant named Pasouet, who kept the first 
house for making coffee in London, which he opened in Georg;e.yard, Lom- 
bard-street, in 1&52. Paaquet afterwards wont to Holland, and opened the 
first house in that country. — Anderson. The Hainbow cofifee-honse, near 
Temple-bar, was represented as a nuisance to the neighborhood, 1657. 
Coffee-houses were suppressed by proclamation, 26 Charles II., 1676. The 
prodamation was afterwards suspended on the petition of the traders in tea 
and coffBe, 

COFFEE-TREES. These trees were conveyed from Mocha to Holland in 1616: 
and w*re carried to the West Indies in the year 1726. First cultivated at 
Surinam by the Dutch about 1718. The culture was encouraged in the 
plantations about 1732. 

COFFINS. The Athenian heroes were buried in coffins of the cedar tree; ow- 
ing to its aromatic and incorruptible qualities. — Tiucydules. Coffins of 
marl)le and stone were used by the Romans. Alexander is said to have been 
buried in oneof gold: and glass cofSns have been found in England,— Go«g-i. 
The earUest record of wooden coffins amongst us, is that of the burial of 
king Arthur, who was buried in an entire trunk of oak, hollowed, a. d. 542 
— Asser. The patent coffins were invented in 1796. 

COIN. Homer speaks of brass money as existing 1184 e. c. The invention of 
coin is ascribed, to the Lydians, wlio choriahed commerce, and whose money 

■ Some fiscrilj^ Ihfl <li?covaiy oT coflfco a^ a bevei-age to the prior ofamonafltetj',Tpho,bBin5in. 
fniTnad b; a g«t-hei-J thai his cattlij eDinoiim^ browsect upon tbu tree, ami that they would ^ea 
wake at night- and ppoii and bound iipoo ihe hiJIq, b««ime ourious to proTfl ils viT'tues- He ac 
cordipBlj-liiaQit DuliiBmonkB, fo prorent Lbair sleeping at mrttin?, and he fouod that it check^Ll 



was of gold and silver. Both weve cotaett liy Phidoa tyrant of Areos, 862 
B, G. Money was coined at Rome nnder ServinB TuUiuB, about &78 B. o. 
The most antient known colna are Macertonlari, of tlie flfth centnry b. c; but 
others are believed to be more ancient. Brass money only ivaa in use at 
BLome preyiouisly to 260 b. o. (when raWus Pictor coined silver), a sign that 
little ccrrespondenee was then beld with the East, wliere gold and Bilrer 
were in use lone before. Gold was coined 206 b. c. Iron money waa usod 
in Sparta, and Son and tin in Britain, — Oafresvjiy. Juiiua Ceesar was the 
first who obtained the express permission of the eecate to place his portrait 
on the coins, and the example waa soon followed. In Uie earlier and mora 
simple days of Rome, the likeness of no living personage appeared npc;l 
their money ; the heads were those of their deiUes, or of those who Iiad re- 
ceived divine honors, 
com IN ENGLAND. The fliBt coinage in England was nnder tJie Romans at 
Cawulodunnm, or Colcbester. -Cnglisli com was of didei'cnt shapes, )ts 
sc[uare, oblong, and ronwl, until the middle ages, when round coin only was 
used. Groats were the largest silver coin until after *, d. 1351. Coin wa? 
made sterling m 1216, before mhich, time rents were mostly paid in Wnd, and 
mana J was foimd only in the coffers of tlie barons. — Siovie 

l^ieSvEt sold eotas on csTluu record, i endMUieclrcul&licDofiirtrntelead- 

Golil fiorin firat snui^ Ed. HL (Cam- Ilcafpence and MvlliinES coined - ICIil) 

dm) 1337 Goineas Hist coined, aS Clisi. U. - 1673 

f^l large copper coiuBfe, putlJDz BJi Soveroigns, ziew caciuLffs - -1816 

1 Half-fanliiiigs . . . . 1843 

Gold coin ■was inti'Oduccd in sii shilling pieces by Edward III. and nobles 
followed, at sis shillings and eigbtpence, and hence the lawyer's fee: after- 
wards there were half and quarter nobles. Guineas were of the same size ; 
but being made of a superior gold from sovereigns, guineas passed for 
more. SeeGjjiiiettS. English andli'ish money were aasimilafed Jan. 1. 18EG. 
See Gold. 

Eliaabelh- ■ £6fai,W0\ lames n. - - ia,740,000 | Qeai 
Jiuneal. ■ - a,BM^ WilUamm.- ."'■-"'™l ~ 
CtorlBal- - -lO.BOO.OOO Anns - - .., ...._„. 

CromiTBll - - liWl),000 Georeel. - ■ 8,725,920 WiUian __._.,___ 

Charles n. ■ ■ 7,634,100 !■ Gooteb ,IL ■ ■ 11,966,676 | Viccoris, to ISJS, 82^70.814 
The coin of the realm was about twelve millions in 1711. — Dai-eaaTtt. It was 
estimated at sixteen millions IT62, — Anderson. It was supposed to betwen- 
ty millions in 1786. — C&almers. It amounted to thirty-seven millions in 18U0. 
— PUUips. ■■ The gohj is twenty-ejght millions, and the rest of the metallic 
curreney is thirteen milhons, wliile the paper largely supplies the place of 
coin,1830.— I>iiie of WeUin^on, In 1S41, it may be calculated as reaching 
forty-five millions. See Geld. 
COIN OP THE U. S. TheU.S. Mint was established in 1702. The coinage IVom 
that time to 1886 was thus ;— 

Oold - - 4,716,325 ■ ■ SSa,lie,(SS 

Copper - - 73^82)965 - - '740^331 

The goldcoinaa . . ._...._. 
eagles and dollars. Gold dollai's wen 
posit of California gold for coining, \ 
ounces, Dec. 8, 1848. 





COINING. ^Tiiis operation was originally perfbiinetl by tlie metal being placed 
betwaen' two ateal dies, nnd stnick by a hammer. In 1563, a mill was 
inveotfid by Antonie Bmcber, and introduced into England in 1662. An en- 
gine fcr coining was inTented by Balancierin 1617. The great improTemonts 
of the art were effected by Boulton and Watt, at SohO; 1J8S, aiid Bubsequently. 
The art was rendered perftret by the creation of the present costly maehitici'y 
at llie mint, London, oommenwsd in 1811. 

1 'OLD, The extremes of heat and cold are fonnd to prciliice the same percep- 
tions on the skin, and when mercurj is frozen at forty degrees Ijelow zero, 
the sensation ia tJie same as touching red-hot iron. IXiring the hard frost 
1740, a palace of ice was built at St. f elersbuxg, after an elegant model, aod 
in the just proportions of Augustan architecture, — Qreig. Perhaps the cold- 
est day erer known in London was Deo. 26, 1796, when the thermometer was 
16° below aero. Quiotsilver was frozen hard at Moscow Jan. 13, 1810. See 
.Frosts, Ice. 

COLISEUM. The edifice of this name at Rome was built by Vespasian, in 
the place where Ihe basin of Nero's gilded house had previously been a. d. 
72. The splendid Coliaieum of London, and one of its most worthy objocta 
of admiration, ia built near the Eegent's Pai'k, and was completed in 1827-8. 

COLLEGES. UnlTersity education preceded the erection of colleges, which 
wen! munificent tbundations to rehcTe the students from the espense of IIt- 
ing at lodging-honses and at inns. Collegiate or academic degrees are said 
to nave been first conferred at the University of Paris, a. n. 1110 ; but some 
authoriljes say, not before 1216. In England, it is contended that the date 
is much higher, and some hold that Bede obtained a degree formally s,^ 
Cambridge, and John de Baverloy at Oxford, and that they s " " 
doctors of tliose universities. Ca/oiiiridge, Oxfori, &c. 

cethe first 


%9 roonded 


Bl CoUego, Absfdeen - 

th CallBge 

SioD Colleab, re-fbimded 
Sui;geoD3, London 
Trinity College, DnbTin 

Winchiiler College - 

Hlghburr Collcgs 

Stng'B OoUege, Alierten • 

Eing'a ColLeg4, London ■ - - lu^ 

COLLEGES IN THE United States. The first established was Barnard, at 
Cambridge, Mass., by John Harvard, 1688; and this is now the most im.- 
Bortant and best endowed in the United States. The second was WiUiam 
and Manj, in Vil'ghiia, 1693. Third, Yale, at New Hayen,"1700. Fourth, 
CeUege of iVew Jersey, Prinoet^n, 1748. Fifth, CohmMa, New- York, 1764. 
SixtS, Vaiversiia of Pamsplvmda, Philadelphia, 1765. Serecth, Broum 
Vniv^sily, Providence, 1764, Eighth, Darlmoitti, at Hanover, N. H., 1769. 
Ninth, Rutgers, New Brunswick, N. J., 1770. These were all prior to the 
Revolution. The first medical school was that at Philadelphia, founded 
1764. The first law school was founded at Litchfield, Conn., 1782. In 
1849 there were 118 colleges in the United States ; 42 theological schools ; 
12 law schools ; 36 medical schools. See list in Aiaentmi Ah^aiac. Girard 
CoSi:ge opened Jan. 1, 1848. 
COLOGNE. A member of the Hanseatio league, 1250. Tlie Jaws were expelled 
Itom here in 1485, and the Protestants in 1618, anil it has sines thllen into 
ruin. Cologne was taken by the Erench, under Jom'dan, Oct. 6, 1794. In 
the cathedi'al are shown the heads of the three Magi ; and in the church of 
St. Ursula is the tomb of that saint, and bones helonging to the 11,000 vir- 
gin! said to have been put to death along with her. 
COLOMBIA. A repnblio in South America, formed of states which have 


declared their independence of the crown, of Spain ; but its several cliiefi 
liare been contending- one against another, and each state has ^aen a pre; 
to civil ivar, and the stability of the union ia fiu- from assured. 

Veassuela discorered 


InHepemlence ibrmalty decJared ' 

Union of Ihe SLaua of Grenada and Vi 







*""- Juoest 

AHianra willi flu 





olawralup - Nov. S3, 

FadUla'a insurre 

Apl-ll 3, 

"^Sa ^ 

Ufa of fijliTar 
He dies 





COLON. This point was known to the andenta, but waa not exp e scl a t 
is in moiiem times. Tiie colon and period were adopted nd xpla ned by 
Thrasyinachua about 373 b. o. — Saidas. It was laiowi to Ar s o le j 
punctuation appears to have been introduced with the a t of p nt ^, 
Tha colon and semicolon were both first used ia British hte ata e o tl e 
sixteenth century. 
COLONIES OF (JREAT BRITAIN, They are described under the name of each. 
Tlie white and the fVee colored population, as far as it lias been ascertained, 
amounts to about 2,500,000, and the slaves at the period of their emancipa- 
tion, were 770,280, The number of convicts in New South Wales and Van 
Diemen's Land, is 38,36'? j the aborigines of the latter place have not been 
ascertained. The act for the abolition of slavery throughout the Britidli 
colonies, and for compenEation to the owners of slaves (.£20,000,000 sterling) 
was passed 3 & 4 William 17. 1833. By the provisions of this sfatute all 
the slaves throughout the British colonies were emancipated on August 1, 
COLONIZATION, The American Colonization Sixaety, for colonizing free 
people of color on the coast of Africa, founded December, 1816, at Wash- 
ington, chiefly through the exertions of Rev. Sobert Finley. [Plan advo- 
cated by Jefferson as early as 1777, m'ged by Dr. Tliomton, 1787, and by the 
Ifsislatnre of Virginia, 1801.1 First president of the society, Buahrod 
Washingtoni auocoeded by Charles Carroll, James Madison, and Henry 
Clay Liberia purchased 1821. 
COLOSSIjS op RHODES. A brass etatne of Apollo, 'seventy cuMts high,, 
erected at the port of Rhodes in honor of the sun, and esteemed one of the 
wonders of the world. Built by Chares of Lindus, 290 n.c. It was thrown 
down by an earthquake 224 b. c. ; and was finally destroyed by the Saracens 
on their toting Rhodes in A. D. 672. The iignreateod upon two moles, a leg 
being extended on each side of the harbor, so fiat a vessel in fhll sail could 
enter between. A winding staircase ran to the tep, firom which could" ho 
discerned the shores of Syria, and tJie ships that sailed on the coast of Egypt. 
The slatue had Iain in I'uina tbr nearly nine centuries, and had never been 
repaired; but now the Saracens pulled it to pieces, and sold the metal, 
weighing 720,900 lbs., to a Jew, who is said to have loaded 0(N) camels in 
transporting it to Alexandria — Vii Pyesswj. 
COLUMBIA, BiaTnECT op, A tract of country 10 miles square, ceded bv Vir- 
ginia and Maryland to the United States, (br the purpose of fbrmin'g the 
seat of government. It ineludad the cities of Washington, Georgeto'vfi, 


and Alexandria ; but lE 1848 the latter was re-ceded to Vii'ginla. Popular 
tioii iu 1800, U,093; iu 1840, 48,712, ineluding 8,881 li-ee colored persons, 
and 4,694 slayes. 
COMEDY. Tlialift is the mnae of comedy and lyric poetry. Snaaiion and 
DoloQ were the inventorsof theatrical eshibitions, 562 e. c. They peifbrmed, 
the first comedy at Athens, on a wagon or inoyable stage, on four wheels, 
fov which they were rewarded with a basket of figs and a cask of wine. — 
Afv/adeiiaii, Mm-hlss. Aristophanes was called tlie princo of ancient comedy, 
43i B. c, and Menandet that of new, 320 h. c. Of Plautus, 20 comedies are 
eitant i he flourished 220 b. c. Statins Cseoilins wrote upwards of 30 come- 
dies ; he flourished at Rome, 180 b, c. The comedies of LtB^us and Terence 
were tlrat acted 15i e. c. The first regular comedy waa performed in Eng- 
land about j.n. 1651. It was said of Shei-ida)i,that'he wrote the best comedy 
(the Scliool fm- Scaadal), the bestoirara (the Duenna), and the best after- 
piece (the CViiis), in the English hmguage.— See Drama. 
COMETS. The first Uiat was discoTered and described accurately, was by 
Nicephoraa. At the birth of the great Mithridates two large cometa 
appeared, which were seen fiir serenlj-two days together, and whose splen- 
dor eclipsed that of the mid-day sun, and occupied fotty-flve degrees, or 
the fourth part of the heavens, 136 s.G.—Jnslxa. A remarkable one was 
seen in England, 10 Edward m,, 1337.— Sfewe. These phenomena were first 
rationaUy explained by Tyeho Brache, about 1677. A comet, which terri- 
fied the people from its near apprcoch to the earth, was TisiWe from Not. 
3, 1679, to March 9, 1680, The orbits of comets were proved to be ellipses, 
Igf Newton, 1704. A most brilliant comet appeared in 1769, which passed 
within two miUions of miles of the earth. One still more brilliant appeared 
in Sept., Oct., and Nov., 1811, visible all the autumn to the naked eye. 
Another brilliant comet appeared in 1828.— See the three next articles. 
COMET, BIELA'S, This comet has been an object of fbar to many on account 
of the nearness with which it has approached, not the earth, but a point of 
the earth's path : it was first discovered by M. Biela, an Austrian officer, 
Feb. 28, 1826. It is one of the three cornels whose reappearance was pre- 
dicted, its revoluUon being perfbrmed in six years and thirty-eight weeks. 
\\& second appearance was in 1S82, when the time of its perihelion poHsage 
\Fas Nor. 27. Its third appearance ivas in lgE>9, and its fom'th in 1345. 
COMET, ENCKE'3. First discovered by M. Pons, Nov. 26, 1818, but justly 
named by astronomers aiter professor Enote, fiom Ms success in detectai^ 
its orbit, motions, and pertm'bations ; it is, hke the preceding, one of the 
three comete which have appeared according to prediction, aSd its revolu- 
tions are made in 3 years and 16 weeks. 
r.OlvrET, MALLET'S. This is the great and celebrated comet of the greatest 
astronomer of England. — Lai/mdi. Doctor Halley first proved that many of 
tie appearances of comets were but the periodical returns of the same bodies, 
and he demonstrated that the comet of 1682 was the same with the comet 
of 1^, of 1581, and 160/, deducing this iact from a minute observation of 
the first mentioned comet, and being slmck by its wonderftil resemblance to 
the comets described aa having appeared in those years ; Halley, therefore, 
first fixed the identity of cornels, and first predicted their periodical returns. 
—Vince's Aslnmomy. The revoluWon of HaUey's comet is performed in 
about seventy-sis years : it appeared in 1759, and came to its perihelion on 
March 13 ; and its bat appearance was in 1835. 
COMMERCE. Flourished in Arabia, Egypt, and among the Phceuicians in 
the earliest ages. In later times it was spread- over Euroj>e by a confed- 
eracy of maritime cities t. n. 1241.— See House Tavms. The discoveries of 
Columbus and the enterprises of the Dutch and Portuguese, enlarged the 

H..irtb, Google 

Bphece of commerce, and led other nations, particularly England, to engage 
extensively in its pursuit.— See tlie vanaus articles coniiected with tMs siiSject. 
COMMERCE. See Namgaiien. 

COMMERCE, Kew-Yohk Chimbek op, instituted 1788. 

COMMERCIAL TREATIES. The fli'st treaty of commerce made hy Eng- 
land with any foreign nation, was entered into with the Flemiugs, 1 Edward 
I., 1272. The second mas with Portugal and Spain, 2 Edward U. 1808 — 
Anderson. See 'l^ealies. 
COMMON COUNCIL of LOITOON. Its formation commenced about 1208, 
The charter of Henry I. mentions the /eit-Biute, this being a SajtCrn appel':i-. 
tion, and which may fiiirly be rendered the court or assembly of the people. 
COMMON LAW op ENGLAND. Custom, to which length of time has 
given the force of law, or rules generally raeeived and helj as law, called 
to; mm scHpta, in contradistinction to the written law. Common law 
deriTCS its origin from Alfred's body of laws (wtach was lost), i. d. 890. 
The cottunon law of the United States is founded, on that of Ei^land.— See 
Custom, lanos. 
COMMON PRATER. Published in the English language by the authority of 

Sai'liament, in 1648. The Common Prayer was voted out of doors, by pur- 
ament, and the Directory {which see), set up in its room in 1644, A pro- 
clamation was issued against it, 1B47. Sea DkectoTy. 
COMMONS, House of. The great representative assembly of the people of 
Great BcKain, and third branch of the Imperial legislature, originatea ivith 
Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, who ordered returns to be made of 
two knights from every shire, and depuWes &om certain boroughs, to meet 
the barons and elergy who were his fHends, with a view tberebyto strengthen 
bis own power in opposition to that of hia sovereign Hemylll. Tliis was 
the fh^t confirmed outline of a house of commons ; and the flrst commons 
were summoned to meet the Icing in parliament 42 &, 48 Henry IH. 1258. 
— GoldsmWi. Stowe. According to other authorities, the first parliament 
fbrmally convened was t^e one summoned 49 Henry HI., Jan. 28, 1265 ; and 
writs of the latter date are the earliest extant. Some historians date 'Jie 
tot regularly coastitufed parliament from the 22d of Edward 1. 1294. The 
first recorded spealier, duly chosen, was Petre da Montfort in 1260 ; he was 
killed at the battle of Evesham, in 1265. The city of London tot sent 
members to parliament in the reign of Henry HI., while WestmiuEttr was 
not represented in that assembly until the latter end of Henry VHI's life, 
or rather in the first House of Commons of Edward "VI, The following 
is the conslitation of the House of Coiamona since the passing of the 
Refbrm Bills {which see,) \a 18S2 :— 

Cides and Boroughs - 

Giiiea hM Barauehs 
LTfiH. — GouQtf members - 

CiDiee ami boToughs 

EDglieti and Wel^ 

Total (see FarHim 

COMMONWEALTH op ENGLAND. This was the interregnum between the 
decollation of Charles I, and the restoration of Cliarles 11. The form of the 
government was changed to a repuhiic on the eseeiition of Cliarles I, Jan, 30, 
1649. Oliver Cromwell was made Protector, Dec. 12, 1053. Hlchai'tl Crom- 
well was made Protector, Sept, 1 658. Monarchy was restored in the person 
of Charles n,, who returned to London May 29, 1670. See England. 

COMMONWEALTH of ROME, See Rome, The areatest and most renown 
ed republic of the ancient world. It dates from 609 b, c.,^when the gov^n; 


mentof kings ceased with tlic axpuIsioDof Tarqnmius Supecbns, the seveitth 
and last king of Rome, and the election of conflula. After this rerolution Roma, 
advanced by rapid strides towarda iiniverBal domimon. The whole of Italy 
received lier laws. Siraly, Sardinia, Spain, Carthage, Africa, Greece, Asia, Sy- 
ria, Egypt, Gaul, Britain, and even a part of Gennftny, weie sucoeasirely sub- 
dued by ker axras : so that m the age of Julius Cxsar this republic had the 
Euphrates, Mount Taurus, and Armenia, thr the houadaries in the east; 
Etiriiapia, tn tjie south j the Danube, in the north; and the Atlantic Ocean, 
in the west. The republic existed under consuls aud other magistrates un- 
til the l)attle of Actium, from which we commonly date the commencement 
of the Roman empire, 81 b. c. . 

COMMOIWON. It origiuated in the Lord's supper, and was practised early in 
the primitive ohurdl. Communicating under the form of bread alone is 
said to have its rise in the west, under pope Urban U. 1096. The fotirth 
Lateran council decreed that eveiy believer shall receive the commnnion at 
least at Easter, 1215, The communion service, as now observed in.tlie 
clrardi of England, was inatituted by the authority of council, 1M8. 

COMPAWIES. Among the earliest commercial companies in England may ba 
named the Stoel-yard society, ostabHshed j. d. 1282. The second company 
was the merchants of St. Thomas a Becket, in IMS.—Slame. The third waa 
the Merchant Adventurers, incorporated hy Elizabeth, 1564. are 
ninety-one city companies in London; the first twelve are 

1 Metcora - ■ - i.D. 13931 7 Mereham Tailnra - - A. D, 1460 

""■-■ 1346 8 traborL\.iElie,-3 - - -1447 

COMPANIES, BUBBLE. Ruinous speculations coming under tliis name have 
been formed, commonly by designing persons. Law's Babble, in J720-1, 
was perhaps the most extraordinary of its kind, and the South Sea Bubble, 
in the same year, was scarcely less memorable for its ruin of thousands of 
ftimihea. Many companies were Mlablished tn Great Britain in 1824 and 
1825, and most of them turned ont to be kMes) and owing to the rage for 
taking shares in each scheme as It was prtriected, immense losses were in- 
carred by individuals, and the femilies of thousands of speculators were 
totally ruined. See Laie's BiiMle, and Ban&r^tpts: 

COMPASS, The MARINER'S. It is said to have been known to the Chinese, 
1115 B. c. ; hut this seems to be a mistake. They had a Tnachine which self- 
moved, pointed towards the siwitS, and safely gnided travellers hy land or 
water ; and some authors have mistaken it ror the mariner's compass, the 
invention of whicli is by some ascribed to Marcus Paulua, aTenetian, a. d. 
1260; while others, with more seemine justice, assign it to Plavio Gioja, of 
Pasitano, a navigator of Naples. Until his lime the needle waa laid u^on a 
couple of pieces of straw, or small split sticks, in d vessel of wat«r ; GHoja in- 
troduced til© suspension of the nee& as we have it now, 1B02. Its variation 

.i. .-. !._ ^_i — i._j^ jjj IJ.Q2, The compass-box and hanging com- 

.•e invented by William Barlowe, an English di- 
^ r, in 1608. — Siog. Die. The measuring compass 
IS invented hy Jost Bjng, of Hessa, in 16M. 

CONCEPTION OP THE VIRGIN. This is a feast in the Romish church in 
honor of the Virgin Mary having been conceived and born immaculate, or 
without original sin. The ibstival waa appointed to be held on the 8th of 
Dec, by the chnrdi, in 1389. Conceptiohists, snorijer of n '■-.v-^-.-.v..^ 


268 THE world's progress. [ con 

CONCERT. The fc'st putlic subscription concert was performed at Oxford, in 
1665, when it was attended by a great number of personages of rank and 
talent fi'om every part of England, The first concert of lilte Idnd perform- 
ed in London was in 1678. Concerts aflerwatda became ihsliionable and 

CONCHOLOGT. This branch of natural history is menUoned by Aristotle and 
Pliny, and was a ftivorite with the most intellectiial and illustrious men. It 
was first reduced to a system by John Daniel Major of Kiel, who pablished 
his classiflcation of the 'restacea. in 1676. Lister's system waa published hi 
1686; and that of Lai'gius in 1722. 

CONCLAVE FOR THE ELECTION op POPES. The concave is a range of small 
cells in the hall of the Vatican, or palace of the pope at Rome, where the 
cardinals usually hold their meetings to elect a pope. Tlie word is also used 
for the assembly, or meeting of the cardinals shut up for the election of a 
pope. The conclave had ite rise in *. e. 1271. Clement IV. being dead at 
Viterbo in 1208, the cardinals were nearly three years unable to agree in the 
choice of a successor, and were upon the point of breaking up, when the 
magistrates, by the advice of St, Bonaventnre, then at ViterbO; shut the 
gates of their city, and locked up the cardinals in the ponljfloal p&lace till 
3iey agreed. Hence the present custom of shutting up the cardinals while 
they elect a pope. 

CONCORDANCE to the BIBLE. An index or alphabetical catalogue of all 
the words in the Bible, and also a chronological account of all the transac- 
tions of that sacred volume. The first concordance to the Bible waa made 
under the direction of Hugo de St. Charo, who employed as many as 500 
monks upon it, a. d. 1247.— jiJft^ Lenglet. 

CONCORDAT, The name given to an instrument of agreement between a 
prince and the pope, ■nsuafly concerning bene Bees. The celebrated concordat 
between Napoleon Bonaparte and Pius VH., whereby the then FvenoU consul 
was made, in effect, the head of the Gidlicon Church, as all ecclesiastics 
were to have their appointments from bim, was signed at Paris, July 15, 
1801. Another conoordat between Bonaparte and the same pontiff was sif,Ti- 
,ed at Fontainbleau, Jan. 26, 1813. 

CONCUBINES. They are mentioned as having been allowed to the priests, a. d. 
1182. Ci^jas observes, Uiat alfhongh concubinage was beneatli marriage, 
both as to dignity and civil effeofa, yet concubine was a reputable ttUe, V':.y 
different from that of mistress among us. This kind of union, which is 
formed by giving the left hand instead of the rig/tt, and cabled, ha^-marriage, 
is still in use in some parts of Germany. 

CONFEDERATION at PARIS. Upwards of 600,000 citizens formed this 
memorable confederation, hold on the anniversary of the taking of the bas- 
tile, at which ceremony the king, the national assembly, the army, and the 
people, solemnly swiwe to maiBtain tlie new constitution, July 1, 1790. Sei 
Champ de Mars, Basl&, 

CONFEDERATION op the RHINE, or League of the Germanic States form- 
ed under the auspices of Napoleon Bonaparte. By this celebrate league, 
the minor German princes coUectively angaeed to raise 258,000 troops to 
serve in case afyira, and they estahllBhed a diet at Frankfort, July 12, 1806. 
See Gej-manic Coiifederatiov,, 

CONFERENCE. The celebrated religious conftrance held at Hampton Court 
palace, between the prelates of the church of England and the dissenting 
ministers, in order to effect a general tmlon, at the instance of the king, 2 
James I. I6&±. This confference led te « new translation of the Bible, whicl 



was execDted m 1607-11, and is that now in genet-al use in England aad Qie 
United States; and duringtliemeetii^BomealteratioDsinthecTmroli liturgy 
were agreed npon, bnt tliia not eatie^ing tlie dissenters, nothing more was 
done. A conference of the bishops and presbylfirian ministers with the same 
Tiew was held in 1661. 

COfTFESSION. Auricular confession in the Romish church was first institnted 
about A. o. 1204, and was regularly enjoined in 121B. It is made to a priest, 
in order to obWin absolution tbr the sine or faults acknowledged by the pe- 
nitent, who performs a penance eiyoined by the prieat; and if this be done 
with a conti'ite heart, the sins thus absolved are supposed to be absolved in 
• .heaven. At the reformation, the practice was at first left wholly indifferent, 
by the conncll; bntthis was the prelndeto its entire abolition in the church 
of Ea^laad.—Bwnet. 

CONFIRMATION. One of the oldest riles of the Christian ;hnroli; it was 
used by Peler and Paulj,and was general, according to some church au- 
thorities, in n. D. 190. It is the public profession of the Christian religion 
by an adult person, who was baptised in inikncy. It is still retained in the 
ctjm-ch of England ; but to make it more solemn, it has been advanced into 
a sacrament by tiie chm'ch of Rome. 

CONGE D'ELIRE. The license of the king, as bead of the church, to chap- 
teiB, and otiier bodies, to elect dignitaries, particularly bishops. After the 
interdict of the pope upon England bad been removed in 12H, king John had 
an arrangement with the clergy for the election of bishojiB. Bishops were 
elected by the khig's Conge ^Slim, 38 Henry YIII., 1536. 

CONGRESS. An assembly of princes or ministers, or meeting for the settle- 
ment of the aflairs of na' ' " ' " -■ — ■ ■ ■■ 
dnring the conthiental w 

if Europe: — 

See AUian^iEBi ConventiimSi ^. 

Ca.J.metatN.T.Beo.T, 1765,-Tim.Ruegles.Prest. The Continental Congi-ess 
met at Pbilft. Sep. 6, 1774; again May 10, 1775 : adopted Dec. Indep. July 4, 
1776; met at Bait. Dec. 20, 1776; at Phila, March 4, 1777; atLanenster, Pa. 
Sep. 27, 1777 ; at York, Pa. Sep. 80. 1777 ; at Phila. Jnly 2, 1778 ; at Prince- 
ton, June SO, 178S ; at AnnapoUs, Nov. 26, 1788 ; at Trenton, Nov. 80, 1784 ; 
at N, York, Jan. 1785; and tiiat continued to be the place of meeting until 
the adoption of (ie eonatitution, 1780 : removed to Phila. 1700 : to Wash- 
ington, 1800. 
;ONVENTION, Thb, for forming the Constitution of the IT. S. met at Phila. 
May 10, 1787 ; in session till Sep. 17, same year. 

.JONGREVE ROCKETS. Invmted by general sir William Congreve, in 1803, 
They were used with great etfect in the attack upon Boulogne, in Oct. 1806, 
when they set a part of the town on flro, which burned for two days; they 
were employed in various oparationa in the late war with muc}i success, dis- 
charged by a corps called rocktl-njcn. 

CONIC SECTIONS. Theu' moat roraarkable properties were probably known 
to tlie Greeks four or five centuries before the Christian era. The study of 
them was cultivated in the time of Plato 390 s. c. The earliest treatise 
■ was written by Arisf reus, about 380 n. c. Appolonius's eight books were 



written about 2i0 B. c The parabola was applied to projeotjles by Galileo; 
tlie ellipse to the orbit of ploiieis, by Kelper. 
CONJURATION and 'VVITCHCRAFr. Tliey were deolarel to be felony by 
various statutes, and the moat absurd and niolted laws were in forcoagainat 
them in England in former limeB. See article WUchc^aJi. Conjuration waa 
felony by statute 1 James I., 1608. This law waa I'epeaiedB Georgell., 
1736| but pretensions to suet skill was tben made punishable aa a misds- 

CONNECTTCUT. One of the U. States: ft'st settled in 1S83, at Windsor, by 
a Bolooy fl'om Maasaohusetta. Hartford, settled by the English in 1635, the 
Dulch haTing previously bniit a Ibrt there, which they did not permanently 
hold. English colony founded at New Haven, 1688. The two oohmies of New 
Haven ftiid Hartford united by a charter of Charlea H., in 1665. This oliai'- 
ter, when in danger from the tyranny of Andros, was preserved in an oak, 
near Hartford, smoo called the Charter Oak. ' Conn, took an active pai't in 
the revolution ; a number of ila towns, Danbury, N. London, &c., burnt by 
the British during that Btmiggle. It became one of the original 13 states, 
adoptmetheconstitutionof theTJnioninlTBS, byavotooria8to40. Pop- 
niation 1713, 17,000; 1700, 237,946; 1810, 291,942; 1830, 297,665; 1840, 
CONQUEST, The, The memorable era in British history, when William duke 
of Normandy overcame Harold II,, at the battle of Hastings, and obtained the 
crown which had been most unfairij beqiioathed to him by Edward the 
Confessor (&«■ Efear was the rightful heir) Oct. 15, 1086. William has been 
en'oneonsly styled the Conqueror, ibr he succeeded to the crown of England 
by compact. He killed Harold, who waa huuself a nsurper, and deleated 
his army, but a large portion of the kingdom aflerwarils held-out a£ainE'^ 
him, and he, unlike a conqueror, took an oath to observe the laws ana cus- 
toms of the realm, in o«ler to induce the submission of the people. For- 
merly the Judges were accustomed to reprehend any gentleman at the bar 
who casually gave him the title of William the Conqueror, instead of Wil- 
liam I. — Sddsii. 
CONSCRIPT FATHERS. Poires consaripti was the designation given to the 
Eoraau eenators, and used in spuak n f tl n n the eras of the rejabllo 
and the C»sara: because their names w tten n the registers of thp 

CONSEC RATION. That of churaliLS wa ist f ted n the second contury, 
the temple of worship being dediiated th p u olemnity to Gk>d auii a 
patron saint. The consecration of h h place f burial, &c., is admit- 
ted in the refovmed religion. The ns rati n i bishops was ordained in 
the jatter church in 154H. — Sttnae 
CONSISTORY COURT IN ENHLiNB. A ntlytl C nsistory was joined with 
the Hundred court, and ita original, as divided therefh>m, is found in a laiv 
of Wilham 1. quoted by lord Coke, 10TB. The chief and most ancient Con- 
sistory court of the Idngdom belongs to the see of Canterhmy, and is called 
the Court of Arches. 
recorded con^Iracies, real or supposed, the following are the moat reniarlt- 
able. They are extracted from Cantden, Temple, SiLTiie, and other authori- 

or Aoihonr Babington and othera, p Ihe Dnta a\ Ornioiul, wnvindBd him. 

The nunpomlei' Plol (tnkich see) - \&ia nho aHenvanlB atole 5]e ttovn ■ Wl 
Tii9iLiT«c[ii3Q r>f th« fll\h moDai'chy mea The pL^elendad conspiracj of Ilia Prench, 

a.^ainsL Cliai-las 11, - . -1660 SpamBli,aMEagliBh Je3uil9LQ a^aaa. 


fflgqa Titu3 Dates, Dr. Toiigue, 
Dtheta - . - . 

Tlie Meal- tub ptol ' 

or Simon Fraser, loid Loval, against 

king's mInlBtera. (Sso Oaio^lreet) ■ 1820 

CONSPIRACIES, in or rolating to tie United Slates, 

Unilod Smles - - - . ISOT Brilish eoremmsnt, lo imdermlnB 

I Ihe AmenctuiimiaD, fficpcsed, Feb. ^ 1612 
CONSTANCE, Council of. The culetirated conncil of liiiwiM ([) wLich oon- 
demned tlie pious martyrs Jolin Hush and Jerome of Prague, to be burnt 
alire, ft sentence execatad apon tlie first on July 8, 1415, and on the other, 
on May 80, IbBoffiog. Huss had complied with a summons from the coun- 
cil of Constance to detkid his opioiona before the clergy of aU nations ia 
fjiftt city, and though the. emperor Sigiamund had given him a safe-conduct, 
he was cast iatopi'ison. Jerome of Prague baalened to Constance to def^d 
him, but was himself loaded with chains, and in the end shared the fate of 
his friend. This scandalous violation of pablio faith, and the cruelty and 
treachery which attended the punishment of these unhappy disciples of 
Wiollhffi!, our gi'eat refoiTner, prove the melancholy ti'uth, that toleration 
IS not the virtue of priests in any form of ecclesiastical govemment.-i-i/www. 
COKSTANHNA. Tha former capital of Numldia. It has become knoivn to 
Euvopeaja but very recently, they being strangers to it until the Franoh 
occupation of Algiers. Here was fought a great battle between the French 
and the Arabs, &t. 13, 1837, when Uie former carried the town by assault, 
but the Frenrfi general, Daremoht, was killed. Achmet Bey retired wiHi 
12,000 men as the victors entered Conajiintlna. 
COSSTANTTNOPLE, So called from CouBtantine the Great, who removed the 
sent of the Eaatem Empire here. t. n. 328. Taken bi? the western crusaders 
who put the emperor Mom'Eoufle to death, first tearing out his eyes, 120i. 
Retaken by Michael Paheologus, thus restoring the old Greek Hue, 1281. 
Conquered by Mabomet n., who slew Constantino Palreologua, the last 
Chrislian emperor, and 60,tXI0 of his people, 1453. The city, taken by as- 
sault, had held out for flny-eight days. The unfortunate emperor, on seeing 
the Turks enter by the breaonea, thi'ew himself into the midst of the enemy, 
and was cut to pieces i the children of the imperial house were massacred 
by the soldiers, and the women reserved to gratify the lust of the conquer- 
or. This put an end to the Eastern Empire, which had subsisted for 1125 
years, and was the foundation of tha present empire of Turkey in Europe 
See Eastern .Ejupire and 7\erkel/. 
CONSTANTINOPLE. Era op. This era has the creation placed 5508 years b.c. 
It waa used by the Russians until tie time of Peter the Great, and is still uaad 
in the Greek church. The civil year begins September 1, and the ecclesiae- 
tioal year towards "the end of March; f£e day ia not exactly determined. 
To reduce it to our era, subtract 5508 years ftom January to August, and 
6503 from September to the end. 
CONSTELLATIONS. Those otArdm^s, OHon, the Pleiades, and MazzarM,, 
are mentioned by Job, about 1520 n. c. Homer and Hesiod notice constel- 
lationa; but though some mode of grouping the visible stai's had obtained 
in very early ages, our first direct knowledge was derived t\-om Claud. 
PtolemKus, about «, d. 140. 
CONSTITUTION ov ENGLAND. See Magna ChaHa. It comprehends the 
whole body of laws by which the British people are governed, and to which 



it is presnmpiiTely held that everj' ihdmiltial has assented.-— Lord Somers. 
This ^sembldfe of laws is distiiigiitslied fhna the tarra goveroment, in 
this respect— that the oonaUtntion is the rule by ■which tlie soyereign ouglit 
to govern at all times : and govemment is that hy which he doea govern »t 
any particular tinie.'^ZB«-rf ^oiwi^fcuAe. The king of England is notaeated 
OQ a solitary eminence of power ; on the contrary, lie sees his egmali in the 
oo-existlng branches of the legislature, and he recognizes bis superior in 
the Law. — Sheridaii,. 
CONSTITUTION op tiis U, S, Adopted by the general convention of dele- 
gates from all the (then) states, May, 17b7. Ratified by the several states 
at different times. See the respective states.- 
The GOth anniversary of Washington's iuanguration, was celebrated in New 
York as a jubilee of the constitution, and John Quinoy Adams pronounced 
an oration before the Hist. Soo'y, April 80, 1840. 
CONSTITDTION akd G0EEEIEHE. The American frigala ConsfitufioD, 
capt. Hull, after an action of 80 minutes, captured the British frigate Guer- 
riere, capt. Dacres, Ang. 20, 1812. American loss 7 killed, and 7 wounded, 
British loss 100 killed and wounded. The English attribute the victory to 
ihe superior force of the Amei'ican frigate. Aa ttiis was the first important 
naval victory of the XJ. S., it caused a atrong sensation. Por others sew 
Naval Baltks. 
CONS0LS. These ofSeers were appointed at Rome, 509 b. c. They possessed 
regal authority for tie apace of a year; Lneins Junius Bmtus, and Lucius 
^[Wquinins CoHatinnB, the latter the injured husband of Lacretia, wei-o th's 
first consuls, A consular government was established in France, November 
9,1799,whenBonaparte,CaitibacS3-6, and Lebmn, were made consuls; and 
subsequently Bonaparte was made first consul for life. May fl, 1802. Com- 
mercial agents were first distinguished by the name of consuJs in Italy, in 
CONTRIBUTIONS. 'Voi.traTAEY, In the two last wars voluntary contributions 
to a vast amount were several times made by the British people in aid of 
the government. The moat remarkable of these acts of patriotism was that 
in 1798, when, to support the war against France, the eontiibutious amount- 
ed to two millions and a half sterlhig-. Several men of wealth, among others, 
sir Robert Peel, of Bury, Lancashire, subscribed each 10,00W. i and 200,OOCIi. 
were transmitted ftom India in 1799. 
CONVENTICLES. These were private assemblies for religious worship, an'?, 
were particularly applied to those who differed in form and doctrina ftom 
the established church. But Uie teim was first applied in England to the 
schools of Wicklifife. Conventicles, which were very numerous at the time, 
were prohibited 12 Charlea U., 1661. 
CONVENTIONS. See Alliances, TieaMes, &c. to tlieir respective places through- 
out the volume. 
CONVENTS. They were first founded, accordii^ to some authorities, in *. d. 
370. The first in England was erected at Folkstone, by Eadbald, m 630.— 
Cwmden. The first in Scotland was at Coldingham, when Ethelreda took 
the veil, m 670, They were founded earlier than this last date in Ireland. 
Convenl£ were suppressed in England in vaj'ious reigns, particularly in that 
of Henry VIII,, and compacaHvely tbw now exist in Great Btitftin. More 
than 8000 have been suppressed in Europe within the laat few yeara. ThP 
emperor of Russia abolished 1ST convents of monks, by a ukase dated July 
81, 1382. The king of Prussia followed his example, and secularized all 
the convents in the duchy of Posen. Don Pedro put down 3P" ' ' 

Portugal, in 1884, and Spam has lately abolished 1800 cr 


rOWnCTS. The iirat ati-ival of tvaosportetl coEriiita from England, at Botany 
Baj, waa in VJ88. Convicts are now aent to Van Diemen's Land, Norfolk 
Island, Syiliiey, in New Sonth Wtdee, i&c. See JVew Soatk WaSes and Trans- 

COOK'S VOYAGES. The illustrioniS captain Gook Hailed ftom England in the 
Endeavor, on ilia flfst voyage, July 30, 1768 ;* and returned home after hav- 
ing cirenmnavigated the globe, arriving at Spithead, July IS, 1771. Sir 
Joseph Banks, afterwards the illustrious prraident of the Royal Sodety, 
accompanied captain Coofe on this Toyage. Captain Cook again sailed to 
explore the southern hemisphere, July 1772, and returned in July 1775. In 
his third eipedilion this great navigator was killed by the sava^s of 0-why- 
hKo, at 8 o'dock on the morning of Feliruaryli, 1779. His ships, theifesn- 
liUi/m and Dtsameri/, arrived home at Sheemeas, Sept. 32, 1780. 
COOPERAGE. This art must he coeval with the dawn of histoiy, and seems 
to have been early knoivn in every country. The coopers ot London were 
incorporated in 1501, 
COPENHAGEN. Distinguished as a royal i-esidenoe, a. d. 1443. In 1728 more 
than eeventy of its streets and 8785 houses were burnt. Its fiimona palace, 
valued at four millions sterling, was wholly homt, Feb. 1794, when lOO per- 
sons lost then" lives. In a Are which lasted fbrty-eigtt hours, the arsfajal, 
admiralty, and fifty sli'eets were destroyed, 1795. Copenhagen was bom- 
barded by the Engliah under lord Nelson and admiral Parker ; and in then: 
engagement with a Danish fleet, of twenty-three ships of the line, eighteen 
were talten or destroyed by the British, April 2, 1801. Again, after a bom- 
hardment of three days, the city and the Danish fleet sniTendered to admi- 
rni Gambler and lord Cathcart, Sept. 7, 1807. The capture conaisted of 
eighteen sail of the line, flftaen frigates, six brigs, and twenty-five gun- 
boats, and immense naval atorea.— See Denmark. 
COPEENICAN SYSTEM. The system of the world wherein the sno is sup- 
posed to be m the centre, and immovable, and the earth and the rest-of tho 
planets to move round it in elliptical orhita. The heavens and stars are 
here imagined to be at rest, and the dinrcal motion, which they seem to 
have from east to weat, is imputed to the earth's motion from west to east. 
This system was published at Thorn, a. n. 1680 ; and may in many potots be 
regarded as that of Pythagoras revived.— Ga^sn^us. 
COPPER. It is one of the sii primitive metals | its discovery is said to liave 
preceded that of iroa. We read in the Scriptures of two vessels of ilne 
copper, precious aa gold. — iforo viii. 27. The meat divisihility of this 
metal almost exceeds bdicf ; a grain of it dissolved in alkali, as peai'l ashes, 
soda, &c, will give a sensible c3or to more than 500,000 times its weight in 
wat^ i and when copper ia in a state of ftiaion, if the least drop of water 
touch the melted ore, it will fly about like shot from a gan.— Boyle. The 
mine of Fahlun, in Sweden, is the most surprising artiflciai excavation in the 
world. In England, copper-mines were discovered in 1561, and copper now 
forms an immense branch in the British trade ; there are upward? of fifty 

■ A memocla: iras praasntod to Oia Ung by Ihe Voyai Socletf in 1768, selling fonh Ihs adran- 

pi'iimt^ for that purpons,aDd the command of bei^ given 14 Lieuunenl JameBOciDk. Heasiled 
111 inly 1763, loucliGd u Madeira and Rio de Jaoeiro, doubled Oape liom, and nfier n prosperous 
vuy^o iMclied Octheile, Ibe ptaco grdaalioaUgn, in Apiii 1769. By a comparLson of Ibe ofiserva- 
tiona made dq Uiia Uansil (June 3, ITBfl) from the »srioua pans of Oie gialio, on whtch il was newed 

dbtaqcB of Ihe ma from Ibe sdilb, ss calculated toy tbts aod tbe trsnul in 1761^ lunr aetUed al 
in3,<IOO,JKI0 nilles, instead of iJie canunooly recslTedtarapittalion, of 96,000,100.— BuUer. 





mines in Cornwall, where mining haa Tjeen increasing since tliereign of Wil- 
liam DI. 
COPPER-MONEY. Tlie Romans, pi-ior to the reign of Servins Tullius, used 
rude pieces of cop[ier for money.— See Coin, la England, oopper-moue^ is 
of estenaiye coinage. That proposed by sir Robert Cotton was brought rate 
use in 1609. Copper was extensively coined in 1S65. It was agahi coiued 
by the crown, 23 Charles 11., 1672. Private traders hod made them previ- 
ously to this act. In Ii'Olaod copper was coined as early as 1889 : iu Scot- 
land in 1406 ; in France in 1680. Wood's coinage in Iveland. (lOfcS Me) com- 
menced in 1723. Penny and two-pemiy pieces were extensively used, 1797- 

COPPER-PLATE PRINTING. This spedes of printing was first attempted ii 
Germany, about i. d. 1450. Rolling-presses fbr workrag the plates were in> 
vented about 1515. Messrs. Pettins of Philadelphia, invented, in 1819, a 
mode of engraving on soft steel which, when haidened, will multiply cop- 
per-plates and fine impressions Indoftuitely.— See EngTavi'ig. 

COPPERAS. First produced in England by Cornelius deVos, a merchant, in I68T. 

COPYRIGHT ON BOOKS, &c. in ENGLAOT). The decree of the Star-chamber 
regarding it, a. d. 1656. Every book and publication ordered to be licensed, 
1685. An ordinance forbidding the printing of any work without the 
consent of the owner, 1649. Copyiight fiirther secured by a statute en- 
acted in 1709. Protection of copyright in prints and engraving, 17 George 
ni., 1777. Copyright protecUon act, 64 (Jeorge HI., 1814. Dramatic au- 
tliora' protection act, 8 WiUiam IV., 1888. The act for preventing the pub- 
lication of lectures without consent, 6 William IT., 1885. The act of the 
17th George m., extfinded to Ireland, 7 William IV., 1830, International 
copyright bffl, 1 Victoria, 1888, Copyright of designs for aiticles of manu- 
(kcture protected, 2Vietoria, 1839. For important act of 1M2, see lAt&rcsry 
Projicrty.— Haydn. 

COPYRIGHT IN DNTTED STATES. The first act ibr the pratecljon of literary 
property in the United States passed chiefly through the influence of Noah 
Webster, the iexicographer. May 81, 1790. Anotlier act in relation to it, 
April 29, 1802 — granting- copyright for 14 years, suljject to renewal for 11 
years if the author is livyjg. Memorial of 66 British authors asking fUr 
International Copyright, presented in the Senate by Mr. Clay, Feb. 1, 1837. 
Act to esfabliah uie Smithsonian Institute, reguiring that copies of books 
to secure the copyright must be deposited in there as well as In the library 
of Congress and office of Sec. State, Aug. 10, 1816. 
COPYRIGHT, Pboducb op. The following sums are steted to have been paid 
to the authors for the copyiight of fliB works mentioned. 

y- ^.. 

Inah - . - . . . sm 

Dluo, by Lingari ■ - - - 4,63 

Ltfe of NapoTeon, hy Sir W. Scott - 18,001 
WaloYV of Bneland, by Macoulay, ml. 
1 aod w>me^di'[, ££00 per uiuium 
for len yeara, Biy - - .3,00 

owns Iho copyriglit> before 1850 - 8100,00 

, MSre'aLalliBooJih . 

' llEJecled Addreases 

, Campbell's Pleaaurw of Dope C 

' ten yeara' publratjon) 

TiBled ihat Scon's 

81000 per (uamm fi-om hia Spelllns 


cob] 13I0TI0NARY OF DATES. 975 

CORDAGE. The naval cordage in eai']y agea was, probably, merely thongs ol 
leatber ; and these primitive ropea \yere retained by the Caledonians in the 
third centary, and by some northern nations in the ninth. Cordage of weed 
and of horse-hair was also need anciently before that made of hemp. See 

COEFU. So celebrated in mythology and poetry, and capital of the island of 
the same name, was placed under BritiBh administration, by the treaty of 
Paris in Not. 1815. It is tlio chief of the Ionian Isles, whicA see. 

CORINTH. This city iras built in 1520 and the kmgiiom founded by Sisyphus 
in 1370 B. 0. In 146 b. c. the capital was destroyed by the Bomacs, butwaa 
rebuilt by Julius Csesar; aud was among the Qrst cities of Greece that em- 
hraced the Christian religion. It was defimded by a fortress called Aoro- 
corlrtth, on a summit of a high, mountain, Burrounded with strong walls. 
The situation of this citadel was so advantageous, that Cicero named it tho 
Eye of Greece, and declared, that of all the cities Itnoivn to the Romans, 
Corintli alone >7as worthy of bemg the scat of a great empire. 

la lai^ of Sicyon, 

The relaiofB 

ie the flrat on whom Ibis ilig- 


AcHicoriniti (citadel) taken ^ , 

Coriilth rteatro^d bj Lai^nB M 

ings there eeen, ftej being pa 
epoii (ifEji) - 

CORINTHIAN ORDER. The finest of aU the orders of ancient architecture, 
aptly called by Scamoazi, the virginal order, as heing espressive of the deli- 
cacy, tendeiTiesE, and beauty of the whole composition. The invention of it 
is attribtited to Callimachue, 540 1. c. 

CORINTHIAN WAR. The war which received this name, because the battles 
were mostly fought in the neighhorhdod of Corinth, was hegan b. o. 396, by a 
confederacy of Cie Athenians, Thebans, Corinthians, and Argives, against 
the Lacedtemoniana. The most femona battles were at Corouea and Leuo- 
tra, wkisA see. 


havingtaught the ai „j. , _ .. .., , _, .. 

AruMtleMmi MarMes. The art of husbandry, and the method of making 
bread from wheat, and wine Itom rice, is attnbuted by tie Chinese to Cbing 
Noung', the snccessor of Fohi, and second monarch of China, 1998 b. l. — 
Univ. Hist. But com provided a common article of food from the earliest 
agea of the world, and baking bread was inown in the patriarchal ages.— 
See Exodus iii. 15. Wheat was introduced into Britain in the sixth century, 
by Coll ap Coll "Erem.— Roberts' Hut. Anc. BrUmts. The first importation 
of com of which we have note, was m 1347. Bounties were granted on its 
importation into England, in l&SG. 

COKNLAWS mENGLiun. Varions enactments relative to the dntyon "com" 
or gi'ttin passed 1814. Riots, caused by the passing of the act permitting its 
importation when com should he 80s. "per quarter," 1815. The "sliding- 
seale" of duties passed July 15, 1828. Another, April 29, 1S42 ; act fixing 


276 THE world's ri(,OGUi;.-,s. [ <;oi. 

the duty on wheat at 4s. until Feb. 1849, and after that at Is. per quavier, 
passed June 26, 1846. This was the virtual abolition of the Com Laws— 
and the Anti-Com Law league— which bad been formed in 1841 was there 
fore formally disaohed, July 2, 1846. 

CORONATION. Tlie first coronation by a bishop, was that of Majocianua, at 
Constantinople, in a, d. 457. The ceremony of anoiutuig at coronations was 
introduced into Eogland in 872, and into Scotland In 1097. The coronation 
of Henry in. took place, in the first Lastance, withont a crown, at Gloncester, 
October 28, 1316. A plain ch'ole waa used on this occasion in liea of the 
crown, which had been lost with the other jewels and baggage of king John, 
in passing the marshes of Lynn, or the Wash, near Wisbeaoh.— MaMkni 
Paris, Rpaer. 

CORONATION FEASTS, and OATH. The oath ivas first administered to the 
kings of England by Dunstan (the archbishop of Canterbury, afterwards 
eauoniaed), U> Ethelved 11. in 979. An oath, nearly correspondmg with that 
cow in use, was administered in 1377; it was altered ia 1689. The fSies 
giyen at coronations commenced with Edward I. in 1273. That at the coc- 
onaUon of George IV. rivalled the extraTaganoea and snmptuousness of 
former times. 

CORONERS, They were officers of the realm in i. d. 925. Coroners fbr eveiy 
county in Engltmd were first appointed by statnte of Westminster, 4 Edwai'd 
1. 1279. — Slaiee. Coroners were instituted in Scotland in the reign of Mal- 
colm n., about 1004. By an act passed in the 6th and 7th of qiueen Victoria, 
coroners are enabled to appoint deputies to act for them, hut only in case of 
illness. Aug. 22, 1843. 

CORONETS. The caps or infferioT crowns, of various forms, that distinguish 
the rank of the nobility. The coronets for earls were first allowed by Henry 
III.; for viscounts by Henry VIU, ; and for barons by Charles U..— Baker. 
But authorities conflict. Sir Robert Cecil, earl of Salisbury, was the first C" 
the degree of earl who wore a oorpnet, ISOL—Beaisim. It is uncertain when 
the coronets of dukes and marquesses were settled. — Idem. 

CORPORATIONS. They are stated by Livy to liave been of very high anti- 
quity among the Romans. They were in&oduced into other countriea from 
Italy. These political bodies were first planned by Numa, in order to break 
thelbrce of the two rival thotiong of Sabmes and Romans, by institutmg sep- 
arate societies of every manual trade and profession, — Plutarcb,. 

COBPORATIONS, MUNICIPAL, m ENGLAND. Bodies poMc, anthorrjcci 
by the Mng'a diarter to have a common seal, one head officer, or more, and 
members, who are able, by their common consent, to grant or receive, in 
law, any matter within the compos of their charter. — Covrel, Corporations 
were fbrmed by charters of rights granted by the Mugs of Eng-land to vari- 
ous towns, first by Edward the Contlissor. Hemy I. granted ehartere, a. n. 
1100 1 and snccceding monarcha gave coi'porate powers, and extended them 
to numerous large communities throughont the realm, snliject to tests, oaths, 
and conditions. — Blaekstone. 

CORSICA. Called by the Greeks Cymos. The ancient inhabitants of thU 
island were savage, and bore the character of robbers, iiars, and atheists, 
according to Seneca, when he eKisteU among them. It was held bytheCaf- 
thaglnians ; and waa conquered by the Romans, 331 1. c. In modem times, 
Corsica was dependent upon the republic of Gfenoa, until 1730 j and was sold 
to France in 1733. It was erected into a kingdom under Theodore, its flrst 
and only king, in 1736. He came to England, where he was imprisoned in 
the King's Bench prison for debt, and for many years subsisted on tlio l)e- 
uevolence of private friends. Having been released by an act of insolvency 


ia 1756, he gave in liis acliedule the kingdom of Corsica na an estate to liia 
creditoi's, Mid died the same jeai, at his lodgings in Chapel-atreet, Soho. 
The earl of Oxfoid wrote tlit following epitaph, on a tablet erected near his 
grove, in St. Anne s chiiuli Dt in itieit ^ 

The celebrated Pistai t- mli n i« LimiLii lui their general by tlie Corsicaus, 
in 1753. He was deleatetl by the count de Vanx, and fled to England, 1769. 
Tlia people nclmowladged George HE. of England for tlieir king, June 17, 
1704, when sir Gilbert Elliott was mode viceroy, and lie opened a parliameni 
in 1796. A revolt was suppressed in June 1796; and tha island was -elin- 
qniehed by the British, Oct, 22, same year, when the people declared for the 
CORTES OP SPAIN. A deliberative assembly under the old constitntion ol 
Spain ; several tjmes set aside. The cortes were neivly assembled after a 
long interval of years, Sept. 24, 1810; and they settled the new constitution, 
March 16, 1812. This constitntion was set aside by Ferdinand TU., who 
banished many members of the aaseniblj in May, 18J4. The cortes orstatea- 
generai were opened by Ferdinand VII. 1820, and they have since been reg- 
olarly coorened. 
CORUWNA, Battle op, between the British anny under air John Moore (ivbo 

was killed) and the Fi'ench, Jan. 16, 1S09. 
COSMETICS. Pre^alions for improving beauty were hnowE to tlio anoienta, 
and some authorities refer them even to mythology, and others to the Gre- 
cian stage. The Roman ladies painted ; nndthoseof Italy excelled in height- 
ening their charms artificially, by juices and colors, and by perfumes. 
Rouge has always been In diarepute among the virtnoua and wcJl-ordered 
women of England, though some simple cosmetics are regarded as innocent. 
Bad are in general use. — Ashe. The ftmalea of Franca and Germany p^nt 
mora highly than most other nations.— fficAarrfstm. A stamp was laid on 
cosmeticB, pei-tnmery, and such medicines as really or suppoeitjoualy beau- 
tify the skin, or perfiime the person, and the venders were obliged to take 
out licenses, 26th Geo. HI. 1786. 
COSMOGRAPHY. The science which teaches the structure, form, disposition, 
and relation of the parts of the world, or the manner of representing it on a 
plane. — Seldsa. It consists of two parts, astronomy and geogi'aphy : the 
earliest accoonis of the former occur 2284 b. c. — Blaxr. The first record 
of the latter is from Homer, who describes the shield of Achilles as rep- 
resenting the earUi. — Iliad. See the articles on AstrnmoTm/ and Geagraphj 
COSSACKS. The warlike people inhabiting the confines of Poland. Russia, 
Tartary, and Turkey. They at first lived by plundering the Turkish galleys 
and tie people of Natolia : they were fbrmed into a regular army by Ste- 
phen Batori, in 1576, to defend the frontiers of Russia from the incursions 
of the Tai'taiB. In the late great war of Em-opeagainst France, a vast body 
of Cossacks formed a portion of the Russian armies, and fought almost in- 
COSTDME. See Dress. Accouuta of magnificent attire reftr to very remote 
untiquity. ITie costume of the Grecian and Roman ladies was comely and 
graceftil. The women of Cos, whose country was liimous for the silkworm, 
wore a manufiicture of cotton and silk of so beaatiful and delicate a texture, 
and their gannents, which were always white, were so clear and thin, thai 


278 THii WOllLDS Fl^OURLlSS. [ (!0T 

their bodies uould be seen tiirough. Uiem,— -Ouirf. As relates to costume 
worn on the stage, ^acliyius the Athenian was, it is aaid, the first who 
erected a regiilai' stage for his actors, and ordered their dresses to be suiteii 
to theh' characters, about 186 b. c. — Paimti Marbles. 
COTTON. Tiiemetiiod of spinning cotton formerly was by the Irnnd; but 
about 170T, Mr. Haj^reaves, of Lancashire, invented ^e fipinning-jenny 
with eight Hpindlee ; he also erected the first carding-machiHe with cylin-i 
dors. Sir Richard Aitwrigit obtained a patent for a new mrention of 
machinei7inl769i and another patent for ail engine in I7V6. Cromplon 
invented the mule, a fVirtber mtd woDderi^ll improvement in the manufac- 
ture of cotton, in 177B, and various other improvemenlfl have been Biune. 
made. The names of Peel and Arkwrigbt are eminently coaspicaous in con- 
nection with this vast source of British industry; and it is calcrolatad tbat 
more than one thousand millions sSeriing- have b&tn yielded by it to Great 
Britain. Cotton mamitketm'era' utensils were prohibited from being exports 
ed in VilL—Haydw. 

fiSsaing brirf Hems qf U.S hisUjy 0/ ct,uon,f,ma 1730 10 1S36, ofs (ofcn/.™ «™//. 


1730 M nysUsplnsIheflmcollDnTorn 

3-Aesiv...— r™. 



moved 1^ mulea or hnreos ; 

1807. The revolulicpn hi Spanish Amoiica 

begms to funiiBh new markecs for collon 

1 BliuIUe geiiernHy u»d m 

1810 DigeXorcDllonmaDuractHresindio 

Unllod BlaMbyMi G^la,Id,ana 

vclvola ani quillmga a<3i<: 
1 bl A tw "ht otaai'Uie flrel patciir 

tJ e Bplni Ing framo, whicli he itii h 

1 ' ' ' ' ' ' N.MullI"''""''"""' 

1 OS T e 9 oc!dDe Tmino epnlied 1 

Hsmniond B^ lUhi^Vl^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 

1 Mu es(i niiipglovomodlijHsrgraio 

1319 £xmar£Daiy iu:ii.ea Ibc AJabsma 

U ' C "S^n" '^ "" ""^ '^™" 

« 1 look out luB paloM foi the 

"lESO Steam poweifliEt applied with HUC- 

180 A boun 7 grantaainEnglondoniha 

laa FiM cotton facMi-j m Lowoll erecte'' 

BKiono slau coliongoodi 

IffiS FimtexporlorrawcoHonfroniEgjpi 

1786 Powo ooma invenied bT D( ( arl 

lYrighl— atoam onginea used io i*tl n lot 

IKS InKewOrleanacollonalftomaSto 

lAs°i^f^m~ nrnle Bpiimi-i pafeafed 

1-^ r mp-iw rtfntoEnelanflffom 




"OrrONIAH LIBRARY. Formed by great labor and with great judgment 
by Bir Robert Cotton, a. d. 1600 et seq. This Taet treasury of knowledge, 
after having been with difSoulty rescued from the fnry of the repubUcans 
during the protectorate, was eecured to the public by a statute, IS William 
m. 1701. It was removed to Essex-house in 1713; and in 1730 to DeanV 
yard, Weatmiuater, where, on Oct. 23, 1731, a part of Hie boolis sustained 
damage by fire. The library was remoTed to tnoBiiHsh. Museum in 1768. 

COUNCILS. An English council is of very early origin. The wise Alfred, fo 
whom we are indebted fbr mnuy excellent inaWtutiona, so arranged the buai- 
nesa of the nation, that all reaolutions pasaed through three coundla. TJie first 
was a select council, to which those only high in the Idng'a confidence were 
admitted ; here ware debated aU aflkira that were to be laid be&ra the 
second council, which consisted of bishops and nobles, and resembled tho 
present piivy council, and none belonged to it but those whom the king was 
pleased to appoint. The third was a general council or assembly of the na- 
tion, called in Sason, Wittenagemot, to which quality and ofBces gave a rl^ht 
to sit independent of the ting. In these three councils we behold the i>rigin 
of tile cabinet and privy oouucila, and the antiquity of pailiamenta; but tlie 
term cabinet council is of a much more modem date, according to lord Clar- 
endon.— See CaMnet Cowacil, ComToon Camtdl, Privy CotMcU, &<;. 

COUNCILS OP THs CHURCH, Thefollowingaraftmongthemoatmemorahle 

Shristian councils, or councila of the Church of Rome. Moat other councils 
Jie list of which would malte a volume) either respected national churebes 
or eeoluaiastical government, Sii" Hairis Niealas enumeratea 1604 councils. 


CO0KCILS, French Republican. The council of Ancients w 

COUNSEL. See Barrisiers. Counsel who were guilty of deceit or collusioii 
were punishable by the statnta of Westminster, 13 Edwai-d I.. 1284. Coun- 
sel were allowed to persons charged ivitli treason, by act 8 William III. 1696. 
Act to enable peraons indicted of felony to make their defence by counsel, 
6 &. 7 WiUiam IV., Aug. 1830. 

COUNTTES. The division of England iutooountiesbegan, it issi^d, wlthMng 
Alfred ; but some counfiea bore their present namee a century before. The 
division of Ireland into countiea took place in 1562, County courts were 
instituted in the reign of Alfred, 890. Counties Bi'st sent members to par- 
liament, before whi5» period knights met in liieir own counties, 1259.— See 
Commjms, and Ptwliameat. 

CODRTERS OH POSTS. Xenophon attribiitea the first couriers to Cyrus ; and 
Herodotus aays that they were common ajnong the PerBiaos. But it does 
not appear that the Greeks or Romans had regular conrioi'S till the time of 
Augustus, when they ti'avelled in cars, about 24 a. □. Couriers or posts are 
said to haTc been instituted in France by Cbarleraagne, about i. d. 800. 
The couriers o rpo sta for letters were established in me early pai't of the 
reign of Louis 3a. of Prance, owing to this monai-oh's estraoiilinary eagci'- 
ness fbr news. They were the first institution of the kind in Europe, a. a. 

COURTS. Coui-ts of Justice were instituted at Athena, 1507 a. o. — See Ateojio- 
gUa. There were courts for the distribution of justice in Athens, in 1273 
a. c. — Blah'. They existed under various denominations in Rome, and other 

COURT OP HONOR. In England, the court of chivalry, of which the lord high 
constable was a judge, was called Oaria Militaris in the time of Henry IV., 
aod subseqnently the Court of Honor. In the States of Bavai'ia, in order to 
prevent duelling, a court of honor was instituted in April, 1819. In these 
countries, Mr. Joseph Hamilton has ardently hibored to establish similar in- 

COVENANTERS. The name which was particularly applied to those persoiis 
who in the reign of Charles I. l«ok the solemn league and covenant, thereby 
mutually engaging to stand by each other in opposition to the projectB of 
the king; it was entered into in 1038. The covenant or league between 
England and Seoiland, was formed in 1648; it was declared to be illegal by 
parliament, 14 Charles U., 1662. 

COVENTRY, PEEPING TOM of. The great show iUir of Coventiy owes its 
origin to tho following tradition :— Leofric, earl of Mercia, had imposed such 
heavy taxes on the wtiaena, his lady, Godiva, moved by their entreatiea 
imaortuned her lord to I'emit them, and ha consented on the condition of her 
ridmg naked ttirough the city at midday. Her humanity induced her to 
consent, and she so disposed her flowing tresses as to hide her person ; and 
ordering all the inhabitonta, on pain of deatli, to close their doors and wm- 
dows, she rode quite naked through tJie town. One person, yielding lo 
curiosity, stole a glance at the countess, and was struck dead; and has been 
ftmed ever since under the name of Peeking Tom, and his ofHgy is sbowr 
to this day. To commemorate this event, a. d. 1067, at the gi'Cat abow &i; 
the mayor and corporation walk In proceasiou throngh the town, accon' 



panied \)j a female ou horseback, clad in a lined dress cloacly fitted f« her 

COW-POCK INOCULATION. This species of inoculation, as a security 
against tlie smaJl-poJt, was introduced by Dr. Jenner, and it became gencrid 
in 1799, The genuine cow-pox appears in tlie form of vesicles on the 
teats of the cow, and was fii'st noticed by Dr. Jenner, in 1796. He was re- 
warded by parliament with [Jie muniflcent grant of f 10,000, June 2, 1802. — 
See JjtDCitia/iott, SmaM-Pax, Vaccaiatiiya. 

CRACOW. The Poles elect CracuB for their duke, and he builds Cracow with 
the apoils taken fi'om the Frante, i. n. 700, et seq. Taken by Cliarles XU. 
in 1702; taken and retaken by ttse Eussians and coufederales on the one 
side and the patiiotio people on the other seTCral times. Kosciusko expel- 
led the Kuasian garrison IVota the dty, March 24, 1794. It ann'endered to 
the Prussians. June 15, same year. Formed into a republic in 1815. Occu- 
pied by 10,000 Russians who followed there the defeated Poles, Sept. 1831. 
Its independence extinguished ; seized by the emperor of Austria, and in- 
corporated with the Austrian empire, Noyembei', 1846.— See Poland. 

CRAN!BS. They are of very eariy date, for the engines of Ai'cliimedea may 
bo so called. The theory of the inclined plain, the pulley, &c. ara also his, 
220 B. c.—-Lavy. 

CRANIOLOGr. The science of anima! propensities 
started this new doctrine respecting the brain, in If 

lowed, and by his exposilaona gave a consistency to lue Buieute, auu ii, scbiuii 
to be rapidly gaining ground ; it has now many professora, and in almifet all 
counti'ies craniology is countenanced by learned and enlightened men. The 
science assigns the particular locations of certain organs, or as many differ- 
ent Beats of the most prominent operations of the mind. 

CRAKMER, LATIMER, and RIDLEY. Illustrious names in the list of Eng- 
lish martyrs of the reformed religion. Ridley, bishop of London, and I/ati- 
mer, bishop of Worcester, were burnt at Oxfoi-d, Oct. 16, 1656^ and Cran- 
mer, archbishop of Canterbury, March 21, 1&50. Hia love of life had in- 
duced Cranmer, some time previously, in an unguarded moment, to sign a 
paper wherein he condemned the Reformation ; and when he was Jed to the 
^aks, and tiie fire was kindled round him, he stretched forth his right haod, 
with which he had signed his recantation, that it might be consumed before 
the rest of bis body, exclaiming from time to tjme, " This unworthy hand 1" 
Raising his eyes to heaven, he expired with the dying prayer of the first 
martyr of the Christian church, " Lord Jesus, receive my spirit 1" 

CRAPE, A light kind of stuff like gauze, made of raw silk gummed and 
twisted on tbe mill. Its manufeeture is of very early date, and It is said 
some crape was made by St. Badour, when queen of France, about a. d. 680. 
It was first made at Bologna, and in modem times has been principally used 
for mourning. 

CRAYONS. They mere known in Franca before a. d, 1422— improved hy 

L'Oriot, 1748. 
':ilEATION OP THE WORLD. It was placed by Usher, Blah-, and Duftesnoy, 
4004 B. c. Joaephus makes it 4658 years.-- ITOsiiMi. The first date agrees 
with the common Hebrew text, and the vulgate Latin translation of the Old 
Testament. There arc about 140 diff^'ent dates assigned to the creation: 
.some place it 3819 years before the birth of our Saviour. Plato, in his dia- 
logue entitled Crilias, asserts his celebrated Atalantis to have been buried 
in the ocean about 9000 years before tl\e age in which he wrote. The Chi- 
nese represent the world as having existed some hundreda of thousands of 
years ; and we are told tliat the astronomical records of the ancient Chal- 



deans caii'Ied back flie origin of society fo a period of no leas than 473,000 

CREATION, Era OP THE. In oee bj many nations. This era would be fmioa 
convenient, by doing away with tlie difficulty and ambiguity of oouulang 
before and after any particular dale, as is necessary when the era begins at 
a later period ; but, unlbrtiinately, writers are not agi'eed as to the right 
time of commencing. This epoch is fixed by the Siunarilan Pentateuch e*, 
ilOO B. c. The Seutuagint makes it 5872. The authors of the Tahnud 
make it 534i ; and different chronologera, to the number of 120, make it 
vary from the Septuagint date to 8268. Dr. Hales fixed it at 5ill ; but the 
Catholic church adopted the even number of 4000, and subsequently, a cor- 
rection as to ihe birth of Christ adds four yeare : therefore, it is now geneav 
ally considered as 4004 years, which, agrees with the modem Hebrew text. 
CREED. The Apostles' Creed is supposed to hare been written a great while 
after their time.— PaTdon. It was inkoduced fonnaEy Into public worship 
in tlie Greek church at Antioch, aad Bubseguently into the Homan chuioli. 
This creed was transial^d into the Saxon tongue, about a. d. 746. The 
Nicene Greed takes its name from the council by whom it was composed, in 
i, n. 825. The Athanasian Creed is supposed to have been written about 
840. — See Apostles', Nicene, and other creeds. 
CEESSY, OR CRECr, Eattle op. Edward HI. and his son, the renowned Ed- 
ward the Black Prince, obtained a great and memombla viotoiT over Philip, 
king of France, Aug. 29, 1343, This was one of tlie most glorious triiimpha 
ever achieved by English arms. John, duke of Bohemia; James, king of 
Minorca ; Ralph, dnfce of Lorraine (sovereign princes) ; a number of French 
nobles, together with 80,000 private men, were slain, while the loss of the 
English was very small. Thecrest ofthe king of Bohemia vras three ostrich 
feathers, with the motto ''-tch Dien," in English, "I serve;" and inmemory 
of this victory it has since been adopted by the heirs to the crown of Eng 
land. — Prnssart, Carrie, jB«nie. 
CRESTS. The ancient warriors wore crests to strike terror into then enemies 
by the sight of the spoils of the animals they had killed. The origm of 
crests is ascribed to the Carians. In English heraldry, are several lepreseo- 
tationa of Richard I., 1189, witii a creat on the helmet resembling a plume 
of feathers ; and after his reign most of the English kings have crowns 
above their helmets ; that of &ohai'd n., 1877, was sunnoimted by a hon 
on a cap of dignity. In later reigns, the crest was regularly borne as well 
on the helmet of the kings, as on the head-trappings of their horses. 
CRETE. Now Candia,i«JMsee. This island was once fiunous for its hundtoil 
cities, and for the laws which the wisdom of Minos established about 1015 
B.C. Some authors TBclion tlie Labyrinth of Crete as one of the seven won- 
ders of the world. Crete became subject to the Roman empire, 68 e. o. It 
was conquered by the Saracens, a. n. 808 ; talten by the Gieel>a 061 passed 
into the hands of the Venetiane, 1194; and was taken from them by the 
Turks, in 1669.— JF*nes«M(. 
CRIME. " At the present moment," observes a popular E ighsh writer 
one-11fl«enth part of the whole population' of the United Kingdom s sub- 
sisting by the' lowest and most degrading prostitution an ither fifteenth 
have no meaais of support but by robbery, swindling pi kpocketi ig and 
every species of crime; and flve-fifteenttis of the people are what are dtnomi-j 
nated poor, living from hand to month, and daily sinking mto beggary, aiid, 
as an almost necessary consequence, into ei'ime." A comparative view of 
foreign oonntriea with Great Britain demonslrafes the effects of poverty and 
ignorance on the great mass of the population. In North America pauper- 
ism Is almost unlmown, and one fourth of the people are educated; -p>-'- 



meditated ranrder is alone capital i imprisoamcnt for debt has, in several 
states, been abolished, and cnmeB, particolao'ly of enormit;, aie exceedingly 
rare. ' The Dutch, who possess a competency, and are generally eduonted, 
are oouiparatively fl'ee from grave offences ; and France affords a remark- 
able iUustraUon in the same way. But io the United Kingdom, the differ- 
emce ia painfrilly eremplifled : — 

ScoUand. Englimd. Iref/md^ 
TnElructioitto thepeoplQ' > ■ 1 in 11 - 1 in ^ - 1 in 36 

Criuiiode omaDg [hs people ■ liue093 . lin9<M - lin4eS 

There was recently a revision of tlie English criminal code, and severBl 
acts liave been passed calculated to reduce the amoimt of cnme, and miti- 
gate the severity of its pmushment. An act fbr improving the criminal law 
of England, passed 8 GJeorge IV., 1827. An act fbr consolidatii^ and 
revising the laws relating to crime, conformably with Mr, Peel's digest, 
passed S George IV., 1828. Hanging criminals in cliaina was abolished by 
statute iWilliam lY., 1834. See .Eswurfiows, Haagmg, Tiiali, Sic—Ewadn. 
CRIMEA. Tlie ancient Taarica Chersonsms. Settled by the Genoese, in 1193. 
The Genooae were expelled by the Crim Tartars, in 1474- The ihans were 
tributjiry to the Turks until 1774. Tlie Ruasiana, with a large army, took 
possession of this country, in 1783 ; and it was ceded to them the following 
year ; and seenred to them in 1791. 
CHISPIN. The name sometimes given, to shoemakers, Crispin and Crispianns 
were two legendary saints, born at Rome, from whence, it is S£^d, they tra- 
velled to Soissons, in Prance, about a. d. 803, to propagate the Christian 
religion ; ond because they would not be chargeable to others for tbeir main- 
tenance, they exercised Uie (aade of shoemScers; but the governor of the 
town discovering them to be Christians ordered them to bo decollated. On 
this aiicount, the shoemakers, sinco that period, have made choice of them 
as their tutelar aaints. 
CRTTICS. The fliBt society of them was formed 276 b. c.—Bla^. Of this class 
weie Varra, Cicero, Appolonius, and many distinguished men. In modem 
times, the Jowmd de Scavans was tiie earliest work of the system of period- 
ical criticism, as it ia now known, It was originated by Dennis de Sallo, 
eccleaiastical counselior in. tlie parliament of Jrance, and was first jinblislipd 
at Paris, May 30, 1665, and conUnued for nearly a centnry. The hrst work 
of this kind io England, was called the Revieie of Daniol Defoe (tlie isrxa 
being invented by himaelf) published Jn Feb. 1703. The Waux iif Ldlcra- 
i^iTS was commenced in 1714, and was discontinued in 1722. The Mimliiig 
Beviem, which may tie said to have 'been the third work of thia nature in 
England, was publiBhed 1749. The OrUUal Remew appeared in 1756 ; the 
EMtUnurgh Reviev), in 1802 ; and London QuaHerii/ in 1809. The Amsriemt 
Revkw, established in N. Y. 1799, was the first Review In the U. S. The 
North Amerieim Review was established by Wm. Tudor in 1818; the Ameri- 
can Qiimierly, by Robert Walsh, at PhiUi., 1827; the Nevi Vark Rsamo, by 
Prof. C. S. Henry, 1885; the SinO/tem Q^uwrtaiy, at Charleston, 1642. See 
Penadicids. The legality of liiir criticism was established in the English 
courts, in Feb 1794, when an action that excited great attention, brought 
by an author against a reviewer fbr a severe crilaqne upon his work, was de- 
termined in fovor of the defendant, on the principle that criticism, however 
sharp, if just and not malicious, is allowable. Sea ReilieiBi, &c. 
CROCKERT. In use, and made mention of, asproluced by the Egyptians and 
Greeks, so eaily as 1390 b. c. The Romans excelled in thia kind of ware, 
many of their domestic ai'ticles being of eoi'then manufecture. Crockery, 
of a fine Mnd, in various household utensils, was made at Faenaa, in Ita^, 
about i. D. 1310; and it is still called /nyen*» in French. See EarU^tieare. 


284 THE world's puoop.ess, [c 

CROWN. "The ancienteat mendon of a roj-ftl cro« 
of the AnfalekiteB bringing Saal's croinj: to David,"- 

man who wore a crown was Tarquin, 616 b. o. The umnu ivaa mai. a uuc* 
tied round the head; afttrwards it was fonned of leaves and flowers, and 
also ofstuffa adorned with jewela. The royal crown -was first ■ivorn in Ed- 
glaDdhyAlfredJnA.D. 872, The first oi'own or papa! ci 

pope Dsima^ns II,, in 1053; John XIX. first encompaseod it with a < 
1276; BonifoceVin. added a aeoonl crown in 1395; and Benedict Xll, 

CRUCIFIXION. A mode of eKOOution common among the Syrians, Egjplianj, 
Baisiana, Greets, Romans, and Jews, and esteemed the most dreadful on 
acconni of the shame attached to it; it was usually accompanied by other 
tortares. Among early accounts may be mentioned, that Anarathes of Cap- 
padocia, when vanc[uished by Perdiecas, was discovered among ttie prison- 
ers ; and by the conqueror's orders tlie unhappy monarch was flayed alive, 
and then nailed to a cross, with his principal officers, in the eighty-flrat year 
of his age, 822 b. c. Crucifixion was ordei-ed to be discontinued by Conslan- 
tiuB, i. D. 330. — LengUt. See Death, Pv/msimetit of. 
CRUSADES, obHolyWabs. (InFiwuch, Craisades.) Undertaken by the Chrit^ 
tiaii powers to drive the infidels from Jerusalem, and the a^acent countries, 
called the Holy Land. They wera projected by Peter Gfantier, called Peter 
the Hermit, an enthusiast, and French officer of Amiens, who had quitted 
the military profession and turned pilgrim. Having tiavellcd to the Holy 
Land, he dnplofed, on his return, to pope Drbait n. that infidels should be in 
possession of the femouB city where the author of Christianity first promul- 
gated his sacrod doctrines. Urban convened a Council of 310 blahops at 
Clermont in France, at which the ambassadors of the chief Christian potea- 
tates assisted, and gave Peter the fiital commiasSon to excite all Europe toa- 
general was, a. d, 1094. The first crusade was published ; an army of 800,- 
OO0menwaBraised,andPeter had the direction of it, 1095.— FoKotre. The 
holy warriors wore a red cross upon the right shoulders, with the name of 
Croisis, Crossed, or Crusaders; their motto was VolmUi de Die«,,"God:a 
. will." The epidemical rage for crusading now agitated Europe, and in the 
end, these unchristian and iniquitous wars against the rights of mankind, 
cost (he Jives of 2,000,000 of mea.—VoUaire. 
CUBA. Discovered by Columbus on his first voyage, in 1492, It was conquered 
by Valasquez, in 1611, and settled by the Spaniards. The Buccaneer Mor- 
gan took Havana in 1669. See Bticcaneers. The fort here was erected by 
admiral Vernon, in 1741. Havana was taken by admiral Poeocke and lord 
Albermarle iu 1762, but was restored at the peace, in 1763, Attempt of 
LopeK and his 400 followers, landing at Cardenas, to stir up a revolutioc. 
defeated May, 1850. 
CUBIT. This was a measure of the ancients, and is the first measure we read 
of; the ark of Noali was made and measured by cuhWs.—Holden. The Pe- 
brew sacred cubit was two English feet, and the great cubit eleven Eng' ;Bh 
feet. Originally it was the distance &om the elbow, bending inwards to ihe 
extremity of the middle finger.— Coimei. 
CUCUMBERS. They grew formerly in great abundance in PalesUne and 
Egypt, where, it is said, they constituted the p^ter part of the food of the 

foor and slaves. This plant is noticed by Virgil, and other ancient pocla. 
t was brought to England fVom the Netherlands, about 1538. 
CDIXODEN, Battle op. In which the English, under Wiiliam duke of Cum- 
berland, defoated the Scottish rebels headed by the young Pretender, the 
last of the Stuarts, near Inverness, April 16, 1746." The Scots lost 2600 ma. 



111 billed upon tlie field, or in the slauglitcr wliieh oeciirrod in the pursuit, 
while the loss of the English did not far exceed 200. The dnke's army prac- 
tised great cruelUes upon the VBuquished, as trcll as upon the defenceless 
inhabitants of the adjacent districts after the battle. — SmoBell. launediately 
after the engagement, Prince Charles sought safety bj flight, and continued 
wandering amoog the frightful wilds of Scotland for six months, while30,- 
OOW. were ofifered for taldng him, and the troops of the conqueror were 
constantly in search. He atlength escaped ftom the Isle of Uist to Morlaix, 
and died at Rome, in 1TS8. 

CURACOA. In the Caribbean Sea, seized by Holland, in 1684. In 1800, the 
French having settled on part of this island, and becoming at vaiiance with 
the Dutch, the latter surrendered the island to * single British frigate. It 
wna restored to the Dutch by the peace of 1802, and taken fWim them by a 
British sijoadrott, in 180T, and again reistored by the peace of 1814. 

ClfRFEW BELL. Jrom the French coworefev,. This wis a Norman institu- 
tion, introduced into England in the reigu of William I,, a. o. 1068. On the 
ringing of the enrfew at eight o'clock iu the evening, all fires and candles 
were to be estinguiehed, under a severe penalty.— ,fiapim. The curfew wfts 
abolished 1 Hen. 1., a. d. 1100. 

CURRATJTS. They were brought from Zanfe, and the tree planted in England 
1538. The hawthorn ourrant-tiee lltibes oxyacaiitlioides) came from Canada 
in 1705. 

CUSTOM. This is a law, not ivritten, but established by long usage and con- 
sent. By lawyers and civiliaoa it is defined lex nan scripta, and it stands 
opposed to (ac saripta, or the written law. It is the rule of law when it is 
derived from a. d. 1189, downwards. Sixty years is binding in civil law, 
and forty years in ecclesiastical cases. 

"^[TSTOMS. They were collected upon merchandise In England, under Ethel- 
red H., in 979. The king's claim to them by grant of parliament waa estab- 
lished 3 Edward I., 1274. The customs were firmed to Mr. Thomas Smith, 
for 20,00{H. for several years, in the reten of Eliaal»eth. — Stowe. They wei'e 
ftrmed by Charles H. for 890,00«. in the year 1866.— OawJiani. 

In irai dlitQ 
The customs in Ireland w 

Uniwil Kingdon: 



__., in the year 1224, via., on every sack of wool, 

_ .. . , _n every last of hides, 6d. ; and 2d. on every barrel of Tiimt.—Aivinds 
of DubEn. Custom-house officers, and officers of excise, were disqualified 
ftom voHng for the election of members of parliament, by statute 22 GJeorge 
in., 1782. See Rev&ime. 
CUSTOMS (DUTIES) in the UNITED STATES. Tlie amounts < 

1789-91 - »1399,473 1 isao . - S15flt6.6ia 1 1M6 - 
1800 ■ - B3),93S ISai . . - 3DflK,714 1346 - . ■ -.^^ji-^fm 
iSOS - 13,93648? 1S30 . ■ 31,932,391 1847 ■ ■ 33,747,664 
1310 - ■ 8,683,309 1S3B - - - 19,391,311 I 1818 • - ■ 31,767,070 
1816 - - 7,3^«3 1 1^1 . - 13,499,940 [ £gs Turif. 

CYCLE. That of the sun is the twenty-eight years before the days of the 
week return to the same days of the month. That of the moon is nineteen 
lunar years and seven intercalary months, or nineteen solai' years. The 
cycle of Jupiter is sixty years, or sexagenary. The Paschal cycle, or the 
time of keeping Easter, was first calculated for the period of 682 years, by 
Victorlus, *. D. 4SS.— Blair. 


CTCLOl'ffiDIA.— See Eni^ciopadia. 

CYMBAL. The oldest mnsical mstriiment of which we have certain record. 
It was made of brass, like a kettle dnim, and some think in tlie same ibrm, 
tiut smaller. Xenophon mates mention of tho cymbal as a musical instru- 
ment, whose invention ifl attributed to Cybele, by whom, we are told, it was 
used in her feasts, called the mysteries of Cybele, about 1580 b. c. The 
Cstiyala of Cybele were introduced hy Scamander, with the dances of Co.y- 
bantea, at Mount Ida, 154G 3. c. 

CYNICS. The sect of philoiophei'S founded hy AulJstheneB, 336 a, c.—Diog, 
Laerl. He lived in the ninety-fourth Olympiad. — Pardon. These philoso- 
phers valued themaelvea fbr contemning all worldly things, and even uil 
sciences, eaoept morality ; they were YStv free in I'Oprehendkig vice, and did 
all their actions publicly, and practised the greatest obscenities without 
blushing.— Jiiem. Eiogenes was one of this sect. They generally slept on 
the ground. — Diog. Lasrt. 

CYPRUS. An island, whoso inhabitants anciently were much given to love 
and pleasnre. — Pliny. It was divided among several petty kings till the 
time of Cyras, who sabdued thorn ; it ranlted amoDg the proconsular pro- 
vinces in the reign of Aoguatus. Conquered by the Saracens, a. n. 648; but 
recovered by the Romans, in 957. Cyprus was reduced by Richard I. Of 
England, in llHl. Taken by the Turks from the Venetians, in 1570.^ 

CTRENAIG SECT. Aristippus tJie Elder, of Cyrene, was the fonndep of 
the Cyrenaioi, 892 e. c. They maintained the doctrine that the 

eiod of man in this life is iJeasure, and particularly pleasnre of a sensual 
nd; and said that virtue ought to be commended because it gave pleasui'e, 
and only so Eir as it conduced thereto. The sect flouriBhed for several ages. 
—Latr. Ar. Cicero. 

CTRENE, Pounded by Battus, 630 n. a. Ai'istsus, who was the chief of the 
colonists here, gave the city his mother's name. It was also called Pentap- 
olis, ou account of ite five towns, namely, Cyrene, Ptolemais, Berenice, Apol- 
lonia, and Arsmoe, Cyrene was left by Ptelemy Apiou to. the Romans, 07 
B. c. It is now a desert.— JViejifey. 

CZAR, From CcBsar, a title of honor assumed by the sovereigns of Russia. 
Ivan BasilowitB, after having achieved great hinmph? over the Tartars, and 
made many conquests, pursued them to the centre of their own country, and 
returning in triumph, took the title of Taar, or Czar (signifying Great Kii^). 

DAGUERHEOTYPE. The name given to a process invented by M. Dagnerre of 
Paris, in 1889, by which perfect fiio-similes of objects are transfiji'red upon 
thin copper plates, plated with silver. The images are produced hy the si?- 
tion of light upon tiie iodine, through the focus of the camera obscura. An 
apparatus somewhat kindred in design, was in contemplation about the same 
time hy M. NiepcS, and about 5 years previotuily by Henry Pox Talbot of Lon- 
don ; the original idea, however, is traceable as lav back as the days of Roger 
Bacon. By means of the Talbotype, a recent improvement upon the above 
process, pictures in colors are produced both on paper and plates. So im- 
portant a discovery in the fine ai'ts, was the Daguerreotype deemed hy the 
iVenoh goveniment, that it awarded to its inventor a life pension of 6000 



DAMASCUS. This city was in being in ti,8 time of Abral«Lm.— Gm.s!y. It 
13, eonseqnently, one of the most ancient in the world. FromtJie Asayriana, 
DamnECuB passed to the Persians, and from them to the Greeks under Alex- 
ander ; and afterwards to the Romans, abont TO e. c. It was taken by the 
Saracens, a. d. 6S3; by the Turks in 1003 ; and was dOBtroyed by Tamei'hme 
in 1400. It was in a journey to Jhis phice that the ayostle Paul was miraou- 
loiisly converted to the Christian filith, and here he b^an to preach the 
gospBl, about A. D. 60. Damascns is now the capital of a Turkish pachalic, 

D.4MA:SK LINENS and SILKS. They were first manuaoturad at Damascus, 
and hence the name, their large fine figures representing flowers, and being 
raised above the groundwork. They were beautifalTy imitated by the 
Dutch and Flemish weavers ; and the mannlhcture was brought to England 
by artisans who fled froni the persecution of the cniel duke of Alva, between 
the years 1571 and l(i'lS.~A'aderstni. 

DAMON AND PYTfflAS. Pj-thagorean philosophers. Wlien Damon was con- 
demned to death by the t;?rant Dionysios of Syracnse, he obtained leave to 
go and settle some domestic a^rs, on a promise of returning at thsEppoint- 
ed time of execntion, and Pythxas being snrety fbr the perTormance of his 
engagement. When the ftilal hour approached, Damon had not appeared, 
and Pythias surrendered himself, and was led away to execution ; but at 
this critical moment Damon returned to redeem hia pledge. Diooyslua w 

DANCING. The dance to the measure of tjme was invented by the Curelfis, 
153i B. c. — Eusebius. The Greeks were the first who united the dance to 
their tm^diea and comedies. Pantomimic dances were fii'St introduced on 
the Roman stage, 22 e. c.—Usier. Dancing by cinque paces was introduced 
into England from Italy a. n. 1541, tn. modem times, the French \yere the 
first who introduced baUets onalagtKS in their musical dramas. The country 
dance (amire-danie) is of French orig;in, but its date ia not precisely known. 
— j^peJmon. ~ 

DANES, Invasions op tee. The invasions of this people were a Bcourge to 
England for upwards of two hnndrad years. During their attacks upon 
Britain and Ireland, they made a descent on Franco, where, in S96, under 

ing to other anthoriliea, by Waldemar I. in 1160. S< ' 
of Praasia, and annexed to his dominions in Y}9S. It si 
French afler a siege of four months. May 5, 1807 ; and by the treaty of Til- 
sit, it was restored to its former independence, nnder the protection of 
Prussia and Sasony. Dantaic was besieged by the aJllea in 1812 ; and after 
a gallant resistance, surrendered to them Jan. 1,1814. By the treaty of Paris 
it again reverted to the king of Prussia. Awfnl immdation here, owing to 
the Vistula breaking through its dykes, by which 10,000 head of cattle 
and 4,000 houses were desti'oyed, and a vast nnmhev of lives lost, April 9, 
DARDANELLES, Pissage op the. The Dardanelles are two castles, one called 
Sestos, seated in Romania, tlie other called Abydos, in Natolia, commanding 
the entrance of the strait of Gallipoli. They were built by the emperor 
Mahomet 17., in 1659, and were named Dardanelles from the contiguous 
town of Dai'danns. lie gallant exploit of fbreing the passage of the Dar- 


danelles was achieved by the Britisli aqimdron under admiral sir John 
Duckworth, Feb. 19, 18OT; but the admiral was obliged to repass them, 
which he did with great loss and immense daiiiHge to the fleet, March 2', 
following-, the castles of Sestos and Abydos hurling down roeka of stone, 
each of many tons weiglit, upon the declcs of Oie British ships. 

DAUPHIN. The title given to the eldest sons of the kings of France, IVora 
the province of Daaphin^, which was ceded by its last prince, Humbert II. 
to Philip of Valois, on the condition that the heirs of the French throne 
should bear the arms and name of the province, a. d. IS^.—Priestlejj. 

DAVIS'S STRAIT. Discovered by the English navigator, John Davis, whose 
name it bears, on his voyage to find a North-west [lassage, in 15S5. 

DAY. Day hegan at sunrise among most of the northern nations, and at sun- 
set among Vae Athenians and Jews. Among the Romans day commenced 
at midni^t, as It now does among us. The Italians in most places, at the 
present time, reckon the day &om sunset to sunset, making their clcoka 
strike twenty-four hours round, instead of dividing the day, as is done in all 
other countries, into equal portions of twelve honrs. This mode is but par- 
tially used in the larger towns of Italy, most cnblic cloolis in Florence, Eoma, 
and Milan, being set to the hour designated on French or English clooK'.. 
The Chinese divide the day into twelve pai-fa of two hours eaoli. Our civil 
day is distinguished from the astronomical day, which begins at noon, and is 
the mode of reckoning used in the Nautical Almanac At Rome, day and 
night were first divided in time by means of water-clocks, the invention of 
Scipio Nasica, 158 e. c. — Fossiws de Scieji,. Ma&. 

DEACON. An order of the Chi'istaan priesthood, which took its rise from the 
institution of seven deacons by the Apostlaa, which number was retained a 
long period in many churches, about a. d. 51. See Acts, chap. vi. The 
original deacons were Philip, Stephen, Prochonis, Nicanor, Timon, Farnis- 
noB, and Nicolas. The qualifications of a deacon are mentioned by St. 
Paul, 1st Timothy iii. 8-18. 

DEAF iND DUMB. The first systematic attempt to instruct the deaf and dumb 
was made by Pedro de Ponce, a Benedictine monk of Spain, about a. d. IB'O. 
Bonet, who was also a monk, puhlished a. system at Madrid, in 1620, Dr. 
Wallia published a work in England on the subject, in ISSO. The first 
regnlar academy for the deaf and dumb in Great Britain was opened in 
Edinburgh in I77S 

DEAF AND DUMB, BLIND, ano INSANE PERSONS, ra the United States. 
In 1840 thei-e were 8,916 bUnd persons, or 1 in 2.467 of the population; 
7,650 deaf and dumb, or 1 in 2,228; 17,434 insane and idiotic, or 1 in 079. 
There were in the United States 23 asylums for the insane, with about 
2,840 patients. 
Among the most prominent and sueoessful of the philanthropists who have 

Eromoted the education and good treatment of the above persons in the 
nited States, are Dr, Amariah Brigham, of Hai'tford; Dr/S. G. Howe, of 
Boston ; Rev. T. H. Gallandet, Hartiord; 
DEATH, Punishment op. DeatJi by drowning in a qua^ire was a punish- 
ment among the Britons before 460 n. c.—Slome. The most eulogiaed 
heroes of antiquity inflicted death by crucifliion, and even women snfifered 
on the cross, the victims sometimes living in the most excruciating torture 
many days. A most horrifying instance of death by torture occurs in the 
llito of Mithridat«s, an assassin of Xei'xes. See a luiis to the article Persia ; 
see also RavSlac; BoMiig to Death; Biirniag to Death, &c. Maurice, the 
son of a nobleman, was minged, drawn, and quartered Ibr piracy, the first 
execution in that manner in England, 26 Henry HI., 1241. Thepunishmf.^ 


] nWTIONAIiy OI' DATES. 289 

used ii 

of death was sbolished in a great number of eases by Mr. PeeFs acta, 1824-9, 
In other cases 1832, for forgery 1837- Capital piinishmeDt, esoept in cases 
of martial law, aboliBhed, by Pniseia, and by Germftn parliament, at Fraot- 
fort, same day, August i, 1848. 
DECEMBER. In the year of Romiilua tliis was the tentli month of the 
year, called so from decern, ten, tlie Romans commencing their year in 
March. Numa introduced January and Februaiy before the latter month, 
in 713 B. 0., and fi-om fhenoeforward December became the twelfth of the 


DECEMVIBI, Tec maelstratea, who were chosen annually at Rome to go- 
vern the commonwealth instead of consuls ; first inatitnted 450 b. c. — Lami. 
The decemvlral power became odious on account of their tyranny, and the 
attempt of Appins Claudins to defile VlrgLnia, and the offlee was abolished, 
the people demaiidii^ from the senate to burn the decemviri alive. Con- 
suls were again appointed, and tranquUlitj restored. — See Virgwia. 
DEEDS. They were fonnerly written in the Latin and Frenoll laneua^ea : the 
earliest known instance of the English tongae having been used in deeds, is 
that of the indentm'e between the abbot and convent of Whitby, and Robert, 

"- of John Bustard, dated at York, in the year 184S. The English 

was ordered to be need in aU law pleadings in 1364. Ordered to be 
in all law-^uits in May, 1731. 
DEFENDER op the PATTH. PIM Defensor. A title coufen'ed by Leo X. 
on Henry Vin. of England. The ting wrote a tract in behalf of the Chnrch 
' of Rome, then accounted DomicUiitm fidei CaiAaHets, and against Luther, 
who had just begun the Reformation in Germany, npon which the pope gave 
him the title of Defender of the Faith, a tiUe still retained by the momu^dia 
of Great Britain : the bnll conferring it bears date Oct. 9, 1621. 
ECGREES. The iirst attempt to determine the lengUi of a degree is recorded 
aa having been made, by Eratoathenes, about 250 a. a. — SiSlitis. The flrat 
degree of longitude was fixed by Hipparchus of Nice (by whom the latitude 
was determined also), at Ferco, one of the Canary islajids, whose most west- 
ern point was made the first general meridian, 162 b. o. Several nationa 
have ftsed their meridian from places connected with their own territories ; 
and thus the English compate the& longitude from the meridian of Green- 
wich. See LaiiHde, Zi/jigihtde, and tie nariouj O/Uegiale degrees. 
DEiSM. This denomtaation was first assumed about the middle of the six- 
teenth centiuy by some gentlemen of France and Italy, in order thus to 
disguise their opposition to Christianity by a more honorable appellation 
than that of Atheism.— FimCj JujfomdM™ ChreHeane, 1663. Deism is a 
rgection of all manner of revelation: its followers go merely by the light 
of nature, believing that tlierB is a God, a providence, vice and virtue, and 
an after state ofpunishments and rewards: it is sometimes called free-tliink- 
ing. The first deistical writer of any note in England, was Herbert, baron 
of Cherbury, in 1824. The most distinguished deisfa were Hobbes, Tindal, 
Morgan, lord Bolingbroke, HumS, Hoioroft, and Godwin. 
DELAWARE. The smallest of the TJ. Statoa except R. Island. Ph:at settled 
in 1630, by the Swedes and Fins im^let the patronage of GusfavoiS Adolphus 
and received fie name of^ew Sweden. They were subdued m 165B by the 
Dntdi, who Jn turn surrendered it, with New Netherlands, to the Enghsh in 
1664, and then named Delaware. The duke of Tork granted it to Wm, 
Penn, in 1682, and it remained nominally nnlted to Pennsylvania until 1775. 
This state bore an honorable part in the revolution, and sufiferett mnch ir 

the atrnggle, She adopted the Constitution of the 17. S. by a u — = 



-1790, ,50,004; 1840, 78,085; 

Invaded Hindoostan, he entered Dellii, and dreadflil n 
followed; 100,000 of the inhabitants perished by the sivord; and plunder to 
the amount of 62,000,000i. sferlingp waa eaid to be eoUeeCed. 
DELPHI. Celebrated for its oraclea dellrered by Pythia, in the temple of 
Apollo, which waa built, some say, by the council of the Amphictyons, 
1263 B. c. The priestess deliyered the answer of the god to suon as came 
to consult the oracle, and was suppoeed to be suddenly inspired. The tca- 
ple waa burnt by the Piaistratidte, 548 b. c. A new temple was raised by the 
Alcmieonids, and w^ so rich in donations Uiat at one time it was plundered 
by the people of Phoois of 20,000 talents of gold and silver; and Nero cai'- 
lied from it 600 costly statues. The first Delphic, or sacred war, concerning 
the temple waa 449 b. o. The eeeond sacred war was commenced ( a Delphi 
being attacktd by tlie Phocians, 856 u. c— Cu J^eswnj. 
DELXTGE, THE GfENERAL. The deluge was threatened In tlie year of the 
world 1586; and it began Dee. 7, 1656, and continued 877 days. The ai'k 
rested on Monnt Ararat, May 6, 1657 ; and Noah left the arlr, Dee. 18, follow- 
ing. The year corresponds with that of 2B48 b. c.' — Blah: The following 
are the epochs of the deluge, according to the table of Dr. Hales. 

Septoaglut s. 0. ;Q4G I Fersian - i.o. 3103 I Plsyf^ir - a.B.S3Si\Pe1Afim •b.o.^!S9 

JsckEOn - 3170 HiniJoB - - 3103 Uehot - - 2348 Slrauchi™ - 2293 

Hales - - 31BS Sumariwn - - 8998 English Blbla -S348 Oebiow - ■ 3288 

Josephus - 3146 I Howard - . 3698 | Malaham - - S344 J Vulgai Jewish 21U4 

Some of the stat^ of Europe were alarmed, ive are told, by the prediction 

(!) that anothergeneral delugo would occur, and arka were every where built 

to guard against fho calamity; but the season liappened to be a very rifie 

dry one, a. d. 1524. 

DELUGE OF DEUCALION. The Cihuloua one, is placed 1503 b. c. according 

to Emeiitis. This flood has been ofien confounded by the ancients with the 

general flood; but it was 845 years posterior to that event, and was merely 

a local inundation, oooasioned by the overflowing of the river Pineus, whose 

course was stopped by an earUiquake between the Mounts Olympus and 

Ossa, Deucalion, mho then reigned in Theaaaly, with his wife Pyrrlia, and 

some of their aul^eota, saved themselves by climbing up Mount Pamagp^. 

DELUGE OP OGYGES. In the reign of Ogyges was a delnge which so inrai- 

dated the territories of AtOca that they lay waste ibr near 200 years ; it 

occurred before the deluge of Deucalion, about 1764 b. o. — Blair. Bam' 

thinks that the Hebrew and Gi'eelan delugea were the same, and arose fcon 

the Atlantic and Bosptorus bursting into the valley of the Mediterranean, 

DEMERAHA and ESSEQUIBO. These colonies, founded by the Dutch, mere 

taken by the British, 1796, but mere restored at the peace of 1802. Demarara 

and Easequibo again surrendered to the British under general Grinfield,p,ad 

commodore Hoo^ Sept. 20, 1803. They are now Sied English colonies. 

DENMARK, The most ancient inhabitants of this kingdom mere the Cimbr 

and the Teutones, mho were driven out by the Uutes or Goths. TTie Teutonei 

settled in Germany and Gaul ; the Cimbrians invaded Italy, where they ^eri 

defeated by Marina. The peninsula of Jutland obtains ila name ftom the 

Jutes; and the general name of Denmark is supposed to be derived from 

Dan, the founder of the Danish monarchy, and ntark, u Gorman word aigni- 

fiing country, i, e, Dan-mark, the country of Dan, 


or Lodbrog - A. D. 750 

Copenhagen made 11 


The peaceful rei™ ofthriWlan VI., 
whr> pi-ocnalea Lhe llappmeaB of his 

cona IT red l|r [bllan 

es Sc eawigan H afeln 

ssp om ™™^|^^ jg^ 

H kJM Biaalfl frefldom df Uis pren 
mil ofptihllc raee^inge - Usrchf IS^ 

'ott aDcl join lhe grcu German da- 


April 10 1 but driyenoul of Schlonwis 

Apvil 23; mS 
Cru™ agreed upon (prorlsional fiOvorfi- 

Mlg killed in an expcdilloo agabul 
rhriatopher I., jkoisoDed by ;ho bishop 


THE world'; 

1513 Chrjadan 

Svni, aieiJan-aJ.lfcia 

DENIS, St. An ancient town of Prance, six miles Irom Paris to the norlli- 
ward, the last stage on the road fi'om Ei^land to that eapital,— femoiia for 
its abbey and church, the former abolished at the ReTolotlon; tlie latter 
duaecrateii at Uie same epoch, after having been the appointi3<] place of 
Bepnltm'e to the French kings, from its founcfetion. by Dagobert, in 613, 

" DEYIL AMD DR. PAUSnrS," Faustus, one of the earliest printers, had the 
policy to conceal his art, and to this policy we are indebted for the tradition 
of " The Devil and Di-. Faiatus." Faustus associated with John of 0",*- 
temhergi their types were cut in wood, and fixed, not movable, as at 
present. Having printed off numbera of copies of the Bible, to imitate 
tioae which were commonly sold in MS,, he aoderf«ok the sale of them at 
Paris, where printing was Wsen unknown. As he sold hia copies fbr sixty 
crowns, while the scribes demanded five hundred, he created universal aa- 
tonishment ; bnt when he produced copies as fSist as they were wanted, and 
lowered the price to thirty crowns, all Paris was agitated. The uniformity 
of Hie copies increased the wonder; infbrmations were given to the police 
against hun aa a magician, and his lodgings being searched, and a grc^t 
number of copies being found, they were seized. The red ink with which 
they were embellished was supposed to be his blood, and it was aerioviaiy 
adjudged that he was in league .with the devil; and if he had not fled, he 
would have shared the fate of those whom supeistiUous judges condemned 
in those days for witebcraft, a. n. 1460. Nown. Diet. See Pniding. 

DIADEM, The band or fillet woni hy the ancients instead of the crown, and 
which was consecrated to the gods. At first, this fillet was made of silk or 
wool, and set with precious stones, and was tied round the temples and 
forehead, the two ends being knotted behind, and let fell on the ne'Jfe, 
Aurelian was the first Roman emperor who wore a diadem, a.b. 2'J2. — 

DIALS. Inyenled by Anaximander, 550 b. c.—Pliny. The first dial of thr 
Eun seen at Rome, was placed on the temple ot'^Quirinus by L. Papirins 
Cursor, when time was divided into hours, 298 n. c. — Blair. In the ti- 

of the emperors almost every palace and public building h 
They were first set up in chnrchBa in a. b. 613. — Lisnglet. 
DIAMONDS, They were first brought to Europe ftom the East, where tile 
mine of Sumbulpourwas the first known; and where the mines of Gloleoiida 
were dlscoverd inlBSi. This district may he termed the reaJm of diamonds. 
The mines of Brazil were discovered in 1728. Prom these last a diamond, 
weighing 1880 catata, or fourteen ounces, was sent to the court of PortugaL 
and was valued by M. Romeo de I'lsle at ihe extravagaiit sum of 224 raiR 
lions ; hy others It was valued at flfly-six millions : ita value was next stated' 
to be three millions and a half; but ifa true valua is 400,OOOJ. The diamond 
cailad the "motmtain of light," which belonged to the king of Cabul, was 
thO WPPt superb gem ever seen ; it was of Qie finest water, and the size c' 


troy. The einpieas Catliaiioe IL offured for it 104,1662. besides an unaaity 
for life, to the owner, of l(Mli. which was refusod; but it was afterwanfe 
sold to Catharine's feTorite, count Orioff, for the first mentioned sum, ivitli- 
out the tumuity, and B'as by him presented to the empress on lier birth- 
day, 1772; it is now in the sceptre of Russia. Tlie Pitt diamond weighed 
136 carats, und after entting 106 caiate ; it was sold to the king of rranee 
for 125,0004. in 1720. 
DIAHA, TEMPLE OP, JT EPHESU3. Oneof the seven wonders of the world, 
built at the common charge of all the Asiatic States. The chief architect 
was Ctesiphon ; and Pliny says that 230 years were employed in ompletiiig 
this temple, whose riches were immense. It was 425 feet long, 226 broad, 
and was supported by 127 columns, (60 feet high, each weighing 150 tons 
of Parian maj-ble,) famished by so many kings. It was set on lire on the 
night of Alexander's nativity, by an obscnre inaividua] named EratostratuB, 
who cunfe^ed on the rack, thM, the sole motive which had prompted him 
to destroy so magnifleent an edifice, was the desire of transmitting his name 
to future ages, 366 n. c. The temple wa£ rebuilt, and again burned by the 
Goths, in feir naval invaaion, *. n. 256. Utiiv. Hist. 

se ivera supreme and absolute magistrates of Rome, in- 
:., when Titus Larcios FlaTua, the first dictator, was ap- 

)ffice, respectable and illustrious in th" ^""' -(■.i- 

Republic, became odious by the perpetual nsnrpatioi 
Cffisar; and after the death of tlie latter, the Roman seiun*,, uu u™ juuiuuu 
of the consul Antony, passed a decree, which for ever forbade a dictator to 
exist in Rome, 44 E. c. 
DICTIONARY. A standard dicilonary of the Chinese language, containing 
about 40,000 chai'acters, most of tham hjeroglypMc, or rude representations 
somewhat like our signs of the zodiac, was perfected by Pa.oul^she, who 
lived about 1100 e. c.— Moirisom, Cyclopiedias were compiled in the fif- 
teenth and sixteenth centuries. The fi'st diotionaiy of celebrity, perhaps 
the first, is by Ambrose Calepini. a Venetian friar, in Latin ; he wrote ono 
hi eight languages, about >. n. 1600.— Mceran. The Lexicon HcptagloOoii 
was published by Edmund Castell, in 1669. Bayle's dictionary was pub- 
lished in 1698, " the first work of the kind in which a man may learn to 
think."— FiJiteije. Chamhcra' Cycloptedia, the Srst dictionary of the drde 
of the arts, sciences, &c., «as published in 1728. The ^reat dictionary of 
the English language, by Satnuel Johnson, appeared m 1765. FraniaB 
Grose's Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, was compiled In 1768 ; and ll'om 
this period nnmerous dictionaries have been added to onr store of literature. 
Noah Webster's great American Dictionaiy of the English language, in two 
quarto volumes, was first published at New Haven in 1828! It Was re- 
printed in London, nnder the supervision of E, H. Barker, 1882. Numerous 
abri(^menta andaneweditionof the whole work have since been published. 
See Eiia/dapedia, 
L'iZT or THE GERMAN EMKEE. The supreme authority of this empire 
may be said to have existed !n the assemblage of princes tinder this name. 
ITie diet, as composed of tliree colleges, via. :— the college of electors, the 
collM;e of princes, and tie college of imperial towns, commenced with 
the rainous edict of Charles IV, 1S56. — See Golden B'\iU. Diets otherwise 
constituted had long ^ireviously been held on important occasiuus. Tho 
diet of Wurtaburg, which proscribed Henry the Lion, was lield in 1179. 
The celebrated diet of Worms, at which LuUier assisted in person, was 
hold in 1521. That of Spires, to condemn the Reformers, was held in 1629 i 


294 THE world's paoGitESS. | mp 

and the flmioua diet of Angsburg, in 1580. In the league ef the Genuan 
princes, called the confederation or the Rhine, they fixed the diet at Frank; 
fort, July 12, 1806. A new diet at FranbfWt, for the purpose of con- 
solidating the government of tlie German States, 1848. Sm Germaay. 

DIET! ET MON DROIT, "God i^icl my right." This was the parole of 
the day, given by Eiehard I. of England, to his army at the battle of Gisora, 
in France. In this battle UnMek see) the French army was signally defeated ; 
and in remembrance of this victory, Eidiard made " Diev, et maadrtni" 
the motto of the royal arms of England, and it haa ever since been retained, 
A.B. 1198.— %m«r'j Fenlera. 

DIGEST. The ftrat collection of Roman laws under this title was preparoa 
by AltVenus Varus, the civilian of Cremona, 66 e. c.— Qiiiaitil. Xnsi, Oral. 
Other digests of Roman laws followed. The Digest, bo caUed by way of 
eminence, was the collection of laws made by order of the emperor Justi- 
nian ; it made the fh'st part of the Roman law, and the fii'st volume of the 
civil law. Quotations flom it are marked with a S.— Pardon. 

PTQf TRSF . The Grst division of the Roman empire into dioceses, which wore 
at that period civil governments, is ascribed to Constantine, *, n. 823 ; but 
Strabo remarks that the Romans had the departments called dioceses y :■-% 
before.— iSte-oio, lib. xiii. In England these clicuits of the bishops' jnris- 
dicfJon are coeval with Christianity; there are twenty-four dioceses, of 
which twenty-one are suffragan to Canterbui'y, and three to York. 

DIOCLETIAN ERA. Called also the ei-a of Martyrs, was need by Christian 
writers until the introduction of the Christian era in the sixth eentmy, and 
is sdll employed bj the Aby^inlana and Copts. It dates from the day on 
which DiocleUan was proclaimed emperor at Chalcedon, 29th August, 284: 
It Ib called the era of martycs, on account of the persecution of tlie Chris- 
tians in the reign of Diocletian. 

DIORAMA. This species of exhibition, which had long previously been an 
object of wonder and delight at Paris, was fli'st opened in London, Sept. 29, 
1S23, The diorama differs from the panorama in this respect, that, instead 
of a circuUr view of the objects represented, it eihibits the whole picture 
at once in perspective, and it is decidedly superior both to tlie panorama 
and the cosmorama in the fidelity with which the olijeclB are depicted, ana 
in tiie completeness of tiie illusion. 
DIPLOMACY OF THE UNITED CTATES. List of ministers plenipoientiai, lo 
Great Britain and France. 

a Tliomaa Pinclinej, olS. C, i 
It John Jay, Qf RY. 
eRufcBldiig, do. 

S wS; PincknS do™ o^ ' 
S John Quincy AdELOJa, Mass. 
.7 Kichurd Rush, Fa. 
S Albert Qallatio, N. T. 

a 'LonlaMcLana,W. 
H M. V«K BurBH, N. T. 
Q AnKii.Vail, cbar^s d'afEire 

H Eilward EvaiGti. Ma^. 
S louia McLme, Md, 
16 George BaiicrnfL, Mas. 

177E B. rraukliu.S. Deaue, & A, Lee, 
1790 Wni. Shorl, of Vb., cbnrgs d'a 
lira Qduv. Mnrria, N. J., roiSsttr 
1799 James Munroe, Va. dc 

IJSa C, C. Pipckney, S. O. ( j- 
1797 E. Gony ^ Jobn Xanbull, \ "" 
1799 Ol. EllBWOTEta, Patrick Heniy, 

1801 It, It. LirlDgBlon, N. Y. dc 

1931 John ArQietronir. io. dc 

1811 Joei Bdriow, Conn. dc 

1813 Wm. H. Crawford, Goo. di 

leili Alben Gallaiin, Pa. dc 



DntECTOET, THE CHURCH. The book so eaJled wois puMslied in England 
at the period of the ciyil war. It was drawn up at the Instance of the par- 
liament, by an assembly of divines at Westminster, wiUi the object that the 
mimstevs might not be wholly at a loss in their darotionG aRer tlie oppres- 
sion of the Book of Common Prayei'. There were florae general hints given, 
which were to be managed at discretion, for the Directory preacribed no 
form of prayer, nor manner of asternal worship, nor erijoined the people to 
make any responses, except Amen. The Directory was estabUshed bj' an 
ordinance of the parliament in IC44. — Bisliop Taiiilor. 
DIRECTORY, French. The Fi'enoh Directory was installed at the little Lux- 
embonrg, at Paris, under a new conatitntion of the government, November 
1, 1795, and bold the executive poiver ibur years. It was composed of five 
members, and ruled in connection with two chambers, the Council of An- 
cieiiteand Conndl of Five Hundred, which xe. Deposed by Bonaparte, who, 
with Caiabac^i*s and SiSyfes, became the ruling power of France, the three 
governing aa consuls, the flrat aa chief, Nov. 9, 1799. 
DI35ENTXRS. The " Dissenters " ftom the CJrnrch of England arose early in 
the Refbrmatiou, contending for a more complete depavtare ft'om the Bomish 
models of chmfchgororument and discipline. They were reproached with 
the name of PuritiuiB, on acconnt of the purity they proposed in. leliglDUS 
worship and conduct ; and the rigorons treatment they endured under Eliza- 
beth and Jamea I. led multitudes of tliem to emigrate to this country in 
those reigna. The first place of worship tor Dissenters in England was 
established at Waadsworth, near London, Nov. 20, 1572; and now, in Lon- 
don alone, the number of chapels, meeUng-hoases, &o., for all classes of Dis- 
senters, amounts to near 200. The great sot ibr the relief of Dissenters 
from civil and religions disabilities, was the statute passed 9 George IV. 
c. 17. By this act, called tho Corporation and Teat Repeal Act, so much of 
the several acts of parliament of the preceding reigns as imposed tlie neces- 
sity of receiving tho sacrament of the Lord's Sapper as a qualification ibr 
certain offices, fee was repealed, May 9, 1828. Several other acts of ameli- 
orating effect have been ainoa passed. 
SIVINATIOt*. - In tbe Scriptures wo find mention mafie of different ktads of 
divination ; and it is mentioned by most of the ancient authors. It was re- 
tained in tne hands of the priests and priestesaeB, lie magi, soothsayers, 
angurs, and other like proftssors, till the coming of Clulst, when the doc- 
trines of Chriatianity and the spnit of philosophy banished such visionaiy 
opinions. The oracles of Delphi began 1263 b. o. Augurs were instituted 
by Nnma at Rome, 710 n. c. See Augmy, Witchcrafi, ^c. 
DIVING-BELL. First mentioned, though obscurely, by Aristotle. B25, B.C. 
The diving-bell was first used in Europe, i. d. 1609. It is said to have been 
used on tbe coast of Mull, in searching for the wreclc of part of the Spanish 
Armada, before a. d. 1669. Halley greatly improved this machine, and was, 
it is said, the first who, by means of a diving-bell, set Bis foot on dry ground 
at the bottom of the sea. Smeaton applied the condenahig-pump to Ibrce 
down ^r. Mr. Spalding and his assistants going down in a diving-bell in 
Ireland, were drowned, June 1, 1783. The Royal Oeorse man-of-war, which 
was soak off Portsmouth in 1782, was first surveyed by means of a diving- 
bell, in May 1817. Lately, and particularly in 1840, it has been employed 
in sub-marine surveys. The fli'st diving-*^ was the wife of Captain Mor- 
ris, at Plymouth, who descended in one a few years ago. 
DIVORCES poE ADULTERY, Of the cailiest institution, both in ecolesi-isti- 
cal and civil law, among the ancients. Fii-st put in practice by Spuriiis Car- 
vihus at Roma, 281 b. c— Blair. At this time morals were so debased, 
that 3000 prosecutions for adultery were enrolled. Divorces were attempted 


DOCKS OP LONDON, They are said to he the most extensive and fineet con- 
structions of the kind, for the purposes of commerce, in the world. InLon- 
don tbere are a, cnmher of ttese docks, of which the following are tha 

Srincipal:— The 'West India doclts, the act for whoae fomiatiott passed in 
aly 1799 ; they irere commenced Febmary 8, 1800, and were opened Aug. 
27, 1802, when the Hemr^ AddmgUm West Indiamam first entered them, 
decorated with the oolora of the different nations of Europe. The Londou 
docks were commenced June 26, 1802, and were opened January 81, 180t. 
The East India docks were commenced under an act passed July 27, 1808, 
and wore opened August 4, 1806. The first stone of the St. Kathorine docks 
was laid May S, 1827 ; aad 2,500 men were daily employed upon them until 
they were opened, Oct. 25, 1828. 
]K)CTOR. This rank was known in the eailieat times. Doctor of the church 
was a title given to SS. Athanaaius, Baail, Gregory Naaianaen, and Chryaos- 
tom, in the Greelc church ; and to S8, .Terome, AugaaUu, aad Gregory the 
Great, in the Romish churoh, a, d. 878, et seq. Doctor of tha hiw was a title 
of honor among the Jews. The degree of doctor was conibrred in England, ^ 
8 Jotn, 1207.— jS^taan. Some give it an earlier date, referring it to the 
time '*f the Venerable Bede and John de Bevorley, the former of whom, it 
is said, was the first that obtcuned tlie degree at Cambridge, about a. d. 725. 
See CoUegiaie Degrsss. 
DOCTORS' COMMONS. The college for the professors of civil and canon law 
residing in the dty of London ; the name of Commons is given fo this col- 
lege ftom the civilians commoning together as in other colleges. Doctors' 
Commons was founded by Dr. Homy Harvey, whose original coUege was de- 
stroyed in the great fire of 166S, but after some yeara it was rebuilt on thu* 
old site. The causes tfikan eogriizance of here are, blasphemy, divorces, 
bastardy, adultery, penance, tithea, mortoaries, probate of wil^, iS«3! See 
article Civil La-m. 
DOG. The chwa de herger, or the shepherd's dog, is the origin of the whole 
race.— 5«_^. Buffon describes this dog as being " the root of the tree," 
assigning as his reason that it possesaes from nature the greatest share of 
instmct. The Irish wolf-dog is supposed to be the earliest dog known in 
Europe, if Irish writers be correct. Dr. Gall mentions that a dog was taken 
fl-om Vienna to England ; that it escaped to Dover, got on hoard a vessei, 
landed at Calais, and ailer accompanying a gentleman to Menta, retmiied 
to Vienna. 
DOG-EATS, The canicular or dog-days, commence on the 8d of July, and end 
on the 11th of August. Common opinion has been acouatomed to regard 
the rising and setting of Sirius, or the dog-star,* with the sun, as the cause 
of eiceasive heat, and of consequent calamities, instead of its being viewed 
as the sign when such effbcts might be expected. The star not only varies 
in its rising, in every one year as the latitude varies, but is always later and_ 
later eveiy year in ail latitudes, so that in time the star may. by the same 
rnle, come to be chained with brhiging frost and snow.— I)/. JfiiMan. 
DOGE. The title of the duke of Venice, which state was first governed by a 

end Qiey csmpule its dtecancs from our eailli m^OO.OJO mmione of miles. Tbey nnunleia IhHt 
a Bounfl wouia nol reacli our eorlh from Siriua in 60,010 years, wid lha,l a cjoiiMi-liall, flying wilh 
lIsuBual vslocivof 49)niilBS£n houI,wsuld consume eS3,311 yeeia toils paseage llientHWouI 


prince so named. Anafeato Paululio, a. d. 697. The Genoese revolted against 
their connt, and ohoso a doge ftom among their nobiiity, and hecame an 
aristocratic repuWic, 1080-4. The ceremony of the doge of Venice marrying 
the sea, "the Adriatic wedded to onr dulie," was instituted in 1173. and was 
observed annually on Aacension-day, until 1797, when Hie ouatom was dis- 
pensed with. See AthiaMe, 
DOMINGO, ST. Discovered by Columbus in his second voyage, in 1*93, The 
city was founded in 14B4. The town of Port-au-Prince waa burnt down, and 
nearly destroyed by the revolted negroes, in Oct., Not._. and Dec, 1791, 
Toussaint L'Oaverture ffoverned the island, on the espulsion of the French 
colonists, after this till 1802, when he was entrapped by Bonaparte, and died 
in prison. His successor, Dessalines, reconunended the blacks, by proclama- 
tion, to imilce a general massacre of the whites, which was accordingly ex- 
ecuted with horrid cruelty, and 2500 were bul^diered in one day, March 29, 
1804. Dessalines proclaimed himself emperor, Oct, 8, 1804. See Hatjli., in 
which article pavticulara will be found up to the independence of St. Do- 
mingo, acknowledged by France, in April, 1825. 
DOMINICA. Discovered by Columbus in his second voyage, in 1498. This 
island was taken by the British in 1761, and was conHrmed to them by the 
peace of 1763. The French toolt Dominica in 1778, but restored it at tho 
subsequent peace in 1783. It suffered great damage by a tremendous hur- 
ricane in 1S06 1 and several devastating humcanea have more recently 
DOMINICAL LETTER. Noting the Lord's day, or Sunday. Tlie seven days 
of the week, reckoned ss beginning on the 1st of January, are designated as 
by the first seven letters of the alphabet. A, B, C, D, E, F, G; and the one 
of these which denotes Sunday i^ the Dominical letter. If the year ,begin 
on Sunday, A is the doroinieal letter ; if It begin on Monday, that letter is 
G: if on Tuesday, it isF, and so on. Generally to find the dominlciil letter 
call New Year's day A, the nest day B, and go on thus till yon come to the 
first Sunday, and the letter that answers to it is the dominicallotter ; in leap 
years count two letters. 
DOMINICANS. A religions order whose power and inflnence were almost uni- 
versal. They were called in France Jacobins, and in England Blactftiars, 
and were founded by St. Dominiok, approved by Innocent in. in I2I5 ; and 
Uie order waa confirmed by a bull of Honorina lU, in 1216, under St. Austin's 
rules, and the founder's particular oonstitnlaons. In 12'r6 the corporation 
of London gave them two whole streets by the liver Thames, where they 
erected a large and elegant convent, and whence that part is still called 
DOOM'S-DAY OB DOME'S-DAY BOOK. I.ider Jiidiciiaiiis vel CmmaUs 
Ar^lite. A book of the general survey of England, commenced in the reign 
of William I. a. n. 1080. The intent of this book was, , to be a register 
whereby to determine the right ia the tenure of estates ; and from this oook 
the quesljon whether lands be ancient demesne or not, is sometimes still 
decided. The hook is still preserved in the Exchequer, fkir and legible, 
consisting of two volumes, a greater and lesser, wherein all the counties of 
England, except Northumberland and Durham, are surveyed. It was fin- 
ished in A, D, 1086, Imving been completed by justices. " This dome's- 
day book waa the (ax-book of feinge William."— CauiifeB, The faxes were 
levied according to this aurvey till 18 Henry VHI. 1622. when a more accu- 
rate aurvej' was taken, and was called by the people the new Doom's-day 

DORIC OitoKR OP AnCHrTKCTURE. The most ancient of the five, the invention 
of the Dorians, a people of Greece. The Dorians also gave the name to 


the Doric muse. The migration of tliis people to the PeloponneEU!: took 
place 1104 e. c. They Bent, in tlieic vaat spirit of enterprise, many colonies 
into different places, wliich aflerwarda bore the same name as their nutivti 
UORl. Here happened on awful inundation of the sea, a. d. IMB. It arose in 
tie breaiing down of thedykea; and in the teiTitory of Dordreclit 10,000 

Eersona wei'e overwhelmed and perished ; and more than 100,000 round Dul- 
trt, in Priesland and in Zealand. Id the last two provinces upwards of 800 
villages were overflowed, and the tops of their towers and steeples wore for 
ages afler to be seen rising out of tiio water. Dort is amoua for the Prot- 
estant synod held in 1618 i a general assembly, to which deputies were sent 
from England, and fi'om all the Reformed churches in Europe, to settle the 
difierences between the doctrines of Luther, Calvin, and Arminius, princi- 
pally upon pointa of justification and grace. The synod condemned the 
tenets of Arminius, — Misema. 
DOUAY, itJ Fkanoe. Ei'eoted into a nnivoraity by Philip II. of Spain, who 
founded hei* the celebrated coDege of Roman Catholics, a. d. 1669. Douay 
wsa taken fi'om the Spaninrds by Louis XIV. in person, in 1667- It was 
taken by the duke of Marlborough, in 1710; and retaken by the i^rench 
next year. This town gives its name to the Catholic edition of thi Bible, 
which continues in almost universal us b h us t of the snc^asivo 
popes among the members of that e mm th only English version 

authorized t)y Catholics ; its test be g p iy plained by the notes 
of Catholic divines. 
DRACO, Laws op. Draco, when ho e d th & of archon, made a 

code of lawa, which, on account of th ty w said to be written 

in letters of Wood : by them idleness as p h dw th as much severity as 
murder; the smallest transgression, 1 d des 1 death, and he could 

not find any punishment more rigorous for more atrocious crim.ea, 6S3 b. c.^ 
iS^onius ate Jtejmt, Athen. 
DRAKE'S CIRCUMNAVIGATION, Sir Francis Drake sailed from Plymouth, 
No, 13, 1677, and sailing round the globe, returned to England, after many 
perilous adventures, Nov. 3, 1680. This illustrious seaman was vice-admiral 
under lord Howard, high-admiral of England, in the memorable conflict 
with the Spanish Armada, July 19, 1588. His expeditions and victories over 
the Spaniards have been equalled by modern admirals, but not his gene- 
rosity ; for he divided the booty be took in proportional shares with the 
common sailors, even to wedges of goldgiven himioretui-nfor hispreaenta 
to Indian chieft.— Stome. Rapiv,. 
DRAMA. We owe both ibvms of composition, tragedy and comedy, to the 
Greeks. The first comedy was performed at Athens, by Snsarion and Dolon, 
on a movable scaffold, 582 b. i. See Comedy. The chorus was introduced 
536 D. 0. See Chmis. Ti'agedy was first represented at Athens, by Thespis, 
on a wagon, 538 b. o. Arwnd. Marb. Thespis of Icaria, the inventor of tra- 
gedy, performed at Athens Akestis, this year, and was rewarded with a 
goat, 633B.O,— PHjij. Anaxandndes was the first dramatic poet who ir^ 
troduced intrigues and rapes upon the stage. He composed about a hun- 
dred plays, of which ten obtained the prize ; he died 3i0 b. o. 
DRAMA TN ROME. The drama was first introduced into Rome on occasion 
of a plague which raged during the consnlata of C. Sulpieius Peticus and 
C. Luclnius Stoio. The magistrales to appease the incensed deities insti- 
tuted the games called Scenid, which were amusements entirely new. 
Actors from Etruria danced, after the Tuscan manner, to the flute 864 b. c. 
Subseqventily came satires accompanied with musio set to Uio flute ; and 


afiiicwards plays were repvesented by Livivia Andronicvis, iviio. abandoning 
Eatirea, wrote plays with a regular and connected plot, 240 b. c. — Lwy, 
Andtonicns was the first person who gave aingiug and dandng to two differ- 
ent performers ; he danced himseir, and gave the singing to a younger 
exhibitor. — Zdtiy. 
DRAMA, MonERN. The modem drama arose early in tte rude atfempta of 
minstrels and bafibons at &irs in France, Italy, and England.— HWicn.. 
Storlea fiom tbe Bible were representad bj the priests, and were the origin 
of sacred comedy.— iiiem- Gregory Nazianzen, an early fiither of the 
church, ia said to have constructed a drama about a. b. 304, on the Passion 
of Christ, to counteract the prof^nlUes of the hcaUien stage, and thus to 
have Md the foundation of tlje modem romantic drama ; cut this is not 
clearly proved. Pitaslepheo, in his Ldfe of TSdbisj & Becket, asserts that 
" London had for its theatrical exhibitions holy plays, and the representa- 
tion of miracles wrought by holy confessors." The Chester Mysteries 
were performed about 1370. Hays were performed at Clerkenwell by thS 
parish clerks in 1897, and miracles were represented in the fields. Allego- 
rical chacact«ra were introduced in the reign of Henry' "VI. Individual 
characters were introduced in Henry 'Vll.'s reign. The first regular drama 
acted in Europe was the " Sophonisha" of Triasino, at Rome, in the pre- 
sence of pope Leo X., iblb.— Voltaire. The English drama became perifect 
in the reign of Elizabeth. The first royal license for the drama in England 
was to master Burbage, and four others, servants to the earl of Leicesier, 
to act plays at the Globe, Bankside, 1574. A license was granted to Shak- 
speare, and his associates, in 1603. Plays were opposed by the Puritans in 
163B, and were afterwards suspended until the Restoration m 1660. Two 
companies of regular perfoiiners were licensed by Charlea H., Killegrew'B 
and Davenant'fl, in 1662. Till this time boys performed women's parts. 
DRESDEN, Bjttle op, between the allied army under the prince of Schwar- 
zeaberg, and the French army commanded by Napoleon, Aug. 26 and 27, 
1813. The aJlies, who were 21X1,000 strong, attacked Napoleon in his posi- 
tion at Dresden, and tlie event had nearly proved fetal to them, but for an 
error in the conduct of eeneral Tandamme. They were defeated with 
diiiadful losa, and were ohlieed to retreat into Bohemia ; but Tandamme 
pursuing them too far, hie division was cut to pieces, and himself and aU 
bis staff made prisoners. In this battle general Moveau csceived hie mortal 
wound while in conversation with the emperor of Hnssia. 
DKESS. Excess in dress was r^itrained by a law in England, in the reign of 
Edward IV., 1465. And again in the reign of Elizabeth, Wi.—Slome. 
Sir Walter Saleigb, we are told, wore a white satin-pinfced vest, close 
sleeved to the wnst, and over the body a brown doublet finely flowered, 
and embroidered with pearis. In the ftather of his hat, a large ruby and 
pearl drop at the bottom of the sprig, in place of a button. His breeches, 
with his stockings and ribbon garters, fl'inged at the end, all white ; and 
huff shoes, which on great court days, were so gorgeously covered with 
precious atones, as to have exceeded the value of GoOOi, ; and he had a suit 
of armor of solid silver, with sword and helt blazing with diamonds, 
i-ubies, and pearls. King James's fiivoiite, the duke of BueMngham, could 
afford to have his diamonds tacked ao loosely on, that when he chose to 
shake a few off on the ground, he obtained all the feme he desired fi'om the 
pickets-up, who were generally les Dmaei de la, Cow. 
DROWNING PERSONS. Societies for the recovery of drowning persons 
were first instituted in Holland, *, n. 1767. The second sodety is said to 
have been formed at Milan, in 1768 ; the third in Hamburg, in 1771 ; the 
fourth at Paris, in 1772 ; and the iifth in London, in 1771. Similar societieB 


300 THE woeld's progress. [out- 

have lieen instituted in other oountriea. Tlie motto of tiie Boyal Huinttoe 
Society in England is very appropriate ; — Ijuteat iciiitiUida. forsmi, — a small 
spark may Inrk unseen. ' 

DRUIDS. A celebrated order among the ancient Gfermans, Ganla, and Britons, 
wlio ttovi. their veneration for the oat (Drys) were so called. They acied 
as priests and magistrates; one of them mas invested occasionally with 
supreme anthorilj. In England they were chosen out of the best familier, 
that the dignity of their station, added to that of tlieit birth, might pro- 
cure them the greater respect. They were versed in sciences ; had the 
administration of all sacred thii^ ; were the interpreters of the gods ; and 
snpreme judges in all causes. The Druids headed the Britons who opposed 
Caesar's first landing, 55 b. o. They were cS'uelly put to death, defending 
the freedom of their country against the Roman governor, Suetonius Pau- 
Itnue, who totally destroyed every mark of Dmidiara, a. d. 69. — Rowlatid'i 
Mima Anii^aB,. 

DRUNKARDS. The phrase "Drunk as a lorf," arose out of an older proverb. 
"Drunk as a beggar;" and we are told that it was altered owing to the vice 
of drunkenness prevailing more among the great of late years. Dmnkec- 
ness was pnnished in many, of the early nations with eseraplary severity. 
In England, a canon hiw restrained it in the clergy so early as a. n. 747., 
Constantine, king of Scots, punished this offence agamat society with death. 
He nsed to say, that a drunkard was hut the mimic of a man, and differed 
fl-om the beast only in shape. *. d. 870, Drunkenness was restrained in tile 
commonalty in Er^land in 976; and by several later hiws. 

DUBLIN. This dty, anciently called Aschded, built *. D, 140. 

DUCAT, First coined by Longinus, governor of Italy, — Pntmjmts, First 
slruck in the duchy of Apulia.— i>ii Cange. Coined by Robert, king of 
Sidly, in a. b. 1240. The ducat is so called because struck by dukes.— Join- 
Sim. It Js of silver and gold, the value of the first being is. Qd,, and that of 
the gold 9s. 6rf. — Pa/rdmt. 

DUELLING ANn KNIGHT-ERR ANTRy, took their rise from the iudicial com- 
bats of the Celtic nations. The first duel in Ei^laud, not of this character, 
took place a.d. 1096. Duelhng in civil matters was forbidden in France, 
1306. The present practice of duelling arose fn the challenge of Francis I. 
to the emperor Charles V., 16ST. The fight with small swords waa intio- 
duced into England, 29 Elizabeth 1687. ^oclamation that no person should 
be pardoned who killed anothei in a duel, 80 Charles II,, 1079. Duelling 
was checked in tiie aiToy, 1792. — See Battle, Wager of; Combat, ^. As 
many as 227 official and memorable duels iveie ibugbt during my grand cli- 
macteric. — Sir J. BuTringUm. A single writer enumerates 172 duels, in 
which 68 individuals were killed and 96 wounded i in three of these oases 
both the com'bfttants were Jdlled, and 18 of the survivors aufffered the sen- 
tence of the—HamdU<m. 

diices. — Cir/aiden. The title lay dormant from tlfe Conquest till the rt 

Edward HI,, who conferred the title on his eldest son, Edward the Black 
Prince, by the style of dulte of Comwali, a. d. 1886. Robert do Vere was 
created marquis of Dublin and duke of Ireland, 9 Richard H., 1885. The 
first duke created in Scotland was by king Robert HI., who created. David, 
prince of Scotland, duke of Kothsay, a title which afterwards belonged \o 
the king's eldest son, a. d. 1398. 
DUKE, Gkand. The Medlei thmily was one of extraordinary greatness and 
■ le wealth. Of this family, Alexander de Medicia was acknowledged 


the cbief of the reptiblic of Tuscany in 1531 ; he waa stablied in the oight ; 
and l5iB son, Cosmo, was created granii duke, the first of that rank, by pope 
PLUS V. in, 1569. 

DUNBAR, BiTTjjE OP, betweon tbe Scottish and Engliah armies, in which John 
Baliol was defeated hy the cai'l of Warreiine, and Scotland sabdued, by Ed- 
ward I., fought April 27, 1296, Battle between the Seota and English under 
Cromwell, who obtained a signal victory, September 8, 1650. 

DUNKIRK. This tt>wn was taken &om the Spaniards by the English and 
French, and put into tlie hands of the Engliah, June 24, 16&S, the last year 
of Cromweira administration. It waiS soH by Charles 11, fbr 600,00(K, to 
Louis XIV., in 1662. The French king made Dunklrfe one of the best for- 
tified ports ia tie kingdom; bat all the worlts were demolished, and the 
basins Med up, in consequence of the treaty of Utreehf in 1718. 

DUNSINANE, Battle of. Celebrated in dramatic stor;" by the immorfal 
Sbakapeai'e, On the hill of Donsinane was fought tie renowned hattlB 
between Macbeth, the tbane of Glammis, and Seward, earl of Northumber- 
land. Edward the Confbssor.had sent Seward on behalf of Malcolm HI., 
whose Hither, Duncan, the thane and usurper had murdered, Macbeth, who 
was signally defeated, fled, and was pursued, it is said, to Lumphanan, in 
Aberdeenshire, and tliere slain, llffiT. The history of Macbeth it the sub- 
ject of Shakspeare's incomparable drama. 

DURHAM, Batti*; op, between the English and Scottish armies, fought at 
Nerill's-oroas, near Durham. The fbrmer array was commanded by queen 
Philippa and lord Plercej, and the latter by David Bruce, king of ScolJand, 
who waa vanqnished. Fifteen thousand of Bruce's soldiers were out to 
pieces, and himself, with many of his nobles and kuigbts, and many thou- 
sand men, were taken prisoners, Oct. 17, 1816. 

DYEING, Art op. The discovery of it attributed to the Tyriane. In dyeing 
and dipping their own cloths, the English were so little skilled, that their 
manu&ctures were usually aent whit^ to Holland, and returned to England 
for sa!e. The art of dyeins woollens was brought from the Low Countiies 
in 1608. "Two dyers of Exeter were flogged for teaching their art m tts 
'luirth," (of England) 1628, 

'llAGLE, The standard of the eaglo waa fiiftt borne by the Persians ; and the 
Romans carried figures of the eagle, as ensigos, in silver and gold, and 
BOraetJmra represented with a thunderbolt in its talons, on the point of a 
spear; they adopted the eagle in the consulate of Marius, 102 b. c. When 
Charleraagoe became master of the whole of the Gferman empire, he added 
the second head to the eagle for his arms, to denote that the empires of 
Roine and Germany were united in him,, a, d. 802. The eagle was the im- 
perial standard of Napoleon; and ia that of Austria, Russia, and Prussia. 
It ia also »iie national emblem of the United States of America. 

SARL. An honor which came from the Saxons, and continued for many ages 
the highest ranh in England, until Edward HI. created dukea, and Richard 
IL oreatwi marquesses, both having precedency assigned above earls. They 
had, anciently, for the support of their state, the third penny out of the 
sheriff's court, issuing out of the pleas of the shire whereof they had their 
title, as in ancient times there were no counts or earls bnt had a county or 
shire for hia earldom. Upon the inwease of earls their revenue ceased, and 
tieir powers were abridged, Al&ed used the tiUe of eail as a substitute for 


EARTH. The globulai- form of tlie earth was first Buggested by ThiHea of 
MiletQB about 640 b. c. Its magnitude was calculated from measuring bd 
arc of the mevidiau by EvatoatheuoB, 240 b. c. The Greeks taught the 
flphericity of the earth, and the popea believed it to be a plane, and gave all 
towards the west to the Mnga of Spain. The first ship that sailed round 
the earth, and thence demonatcated that ite fiirm was globuloi', was Magel- 
lan's, in 1519. The notion of its magnetism was started by Gilbert m 1576. 
The experiments of M. Hicher, In 1673, led Newton to prove the earth to 
be In the shape of an oblate apheroitl. The variation of its axis was dis- 
covered by Dr. Bi-adJey in 1737. See Globe. 

EARTHENWARE. Vessels of this ware wei-e in use among the moat ancient 
nations. Various domestic articles were made by the Romans, 715 b. c. 
The act was revived and improved in Italy, a. d. 1810. Wedgewood's patent 
ware was first made in 1762. His pottei7_ in StaffordsMro was extended to 
a variety of curious compositions, snbseiTient not only to the ordinaiy pur- 
poses of lilte, bat to the aits, antiquity, history, &c., and tiiereby rendered a 
very important branch of commerce, both foreign and domestic. See 
Clima, — Porcelavn. 

EARTHQUAKES. The theory of earthquaites has not yet been fonned ivith 
any degree of certainty. Anaiagoras supposed that earthquakes iicie pio 
duced by sabterraneoua douds bursting out into lightning, which shook the 
vaults tliat confined them, b. c. 435.—l>iog. Zjierl. Kirchar, Des Cailes 
and others, supposed that there were manyvast cavities under ground which 
have a, communication with each other, some of which abound with waters 
others with exhalations, arising from inflammable substances, as mire bitu 
men, sulphur, &a. These opinions continued to he supported till 1749-50 
when an earlibquake was felt at London, and several parts of Britain Dr 
Stnkeley, who had been Bngagad in alBctrioal experiments, tJien began to 
suspect that a phenomenon ofthis kjnd ought to be attributed not to vapom 
or fecmenlAtiona genemtcd in the bowels of the eorfli, h)it to electricity 
These principles at the same time were advanced by Signor Beccana with 
out knowing any thing of Dr, Stnkeley's discoveries, and the hypothesis has 
been confirmed by the experiments of Dr. PriesHey. In many cases, how- 
ever, it appears probable that the immense power of water converted intu 
steam by subterraneous fires must contribute to augment the fbrce which 
occasions earthquakes. Among those which are recorded aa having been the 
most destmotive and memorable, are the following, which are quoted ftom 
the best sources ; It would be impossible to enumerate in this volume all 
that have oceuri'ed : — 



iiiLO the dreadAjl cbaam il c 

inhrtiiiania ; and twelve 
Campania alsd buried 
Ljrfmaehia loBUy buried, nt 





ig LLem Btofkeum and ma- 
Sicily oymurmd,'^" 

m the ruuiB - 1137 

At Naples, whan 40fll» of fla li 
Onele^nLoDclon: p^lofE 

40,000 pemoDS perlBhedT 
LTCblodschan vUDlly destroyed, and 

l^JJOOpBrsanaburfsd luitamns - 
it Botgo di SnQ Sepolci^, an opeuiog 

of the ei^lh awallowed up man; 

taperlBhed u 22, C 

land mad asl^ 

TER. caUdEgdmUSa g C T 

E a. ms ted 6S h d S(. 

osflxdmEngdbSAns in 50 aa d h 


the 2l6t of March. 

EASTERN EMPIRE. Commenced nader Valena, a, d. 364 and ended in the 
defeat and death of Coiistantme Xm., the last Cbrisflac emperor, in 1153. 
Mahomet n. resolved to dethrone him, and possess himaelf of Constan- 
tinople; he laid seige to that city both hj sea and land, and took it by 
assault after it had held out fifty-eight days. The uofortaoate emperor, 
seeing the Turts enter by the breaches, threw himself into the midat of the 
enemy, and was cut to pieces ; the children of the Imperial house were 
roaasacred by the soldiers, and the women reserved to gcalify the luet of tlj.; 
conqueror ; and thna terminatod the dynasty of the Conetantines, and com- 
mraiced the present empire of Torbey, May 29, 1453. See IhiiUaT Viems, 
in this vol. Irom page 61. See also TVwiey. 

ECCI^SHASTICAL COURTS. There existed no distinction between lay and 
eceleaiaatical courts in England until after the Norman conquest, a. d. 1066. 
The following are the causes cognizable in ecclesiastica! courts ; blasphemy, 
apostasy from Christianity, heresy, schism, ordinations, insfitations to be- 
nefices, matrimony, divorces, bastardy, tJthas, incests, fbrnioatiOQ, adi-ltery, 
probate of wills, adminiatrationa, &c. — Blackstone, 


A. D. 1798, tills state was taken possession of by the French, who erected it 
into the " Roman Kapublic." They obliged the pope, Pius VI., to remove 
into Tnscany, and afterwards into France, where he died in 1799. In the 
same year a conclave was permitted to be held at Venice ; and, in 18O0, 
cardinal Chiaramona, who was elected to the papal chair, took the title of 
Pius VII., and resumed the dominion of the Ecclesiastical State. This 
power was held until 1809, when he was deprived by Bonaparte of l;:o 
temporal sovereignty, and reduced to the condition of bishop of Rome ; 
but in 1814 the pope was restored. For succession of popes, see p, 50 rf seg, 

ECLECTICS, Ancient philosophers, also called Analogetid, and Pkilaiethes, 
or the lovers of truth. Without attaching' themselves to any sect thtv 
ohoae what they jndged good froia each : founded by Pole o f Alex- 
andria, about A, D. 1, — Dryden. Also a sect, so callel n the Ch Stan 
church, who considered the doctrine of Plato conformable to the sp r t of 
the doctrine of the Christian. 

ECUPSES. The theo-y of eoUpaes was known to the Chinese at least 120 

B, c, — Qaulnl. An edipae was supposed by moat of the eastern nat n to 
be the effect of magic ; hence the custom among them ol In mm ng dnr ng 
it^ continuance. The first eclipse recorded, happened March 19 7"! b c. 
at 8' 40" p. M, according to Ptolemy ; it was Innar, and was observed with 
accuracy at Babylon.— See Astromymy. The following; were ertraordinaiy 
eclipses of the sun and moon ; — 

In ElKlniid, where it occasioned a dual 

Nai,Kb.'a.) - n.o, S85 Again : Iho ecars ilaible ai cen in the 

oa (Tlmcydides, Hb. Ir,) - 434 momiDg (Camden) - Jime 33, 1191 

Tolalone; Ihtee davs' eupplicauon de- Thotrua 9ud, end lie appsarancc rf 

creed alltome (i(™) - - IBS anoilier, eo dial aaMTiiitinie™ alone 

UDegeneialat thBdeamof JcausChtin could diatin^iah the di^renca bv 

{J&sgftus) - - - A. D. 83 Iheli glasses ICotim. Hlel, Eng.) - 1191 

OnB sjHoms, causing a total flarkncaa Again : hKal darkneea onaued (iimi) - 1831 

at noOQKlay (i*B„) . - . S91 A tola! one ; ilie datftmfB ra great that 

One olB8r™l Bt Constanlinople - 968 dieaarBBhone, and thcbliSwEijltq 

In Prance, when uwasdsrk al noon- rooat alncoiKWiJmJion's Jnnoisof 

day (Da fVemMj) - Juno 29, 1033 Geo. /.) - . April ^ ir,f 


ECLII'SES, cmitiwaed. 

Iteraarkable one, tenlral wi anrmlar I ifrain, in iaia Minor (Paly/mis') - 219 
inllislnleriorofEurnps - Sept. J, isao One ai Komo, predictal bj Q. Sulpdiua 

OB THE MOON. GbIIUB (iJDJ/, lib. Sllv.) - - 168 

BnMm iPbdimy. lib. iy.i - b.o. 721 qneiled Iheit reyoU (IVicidis) A-n. U 
Alolol one, observed al Sacdls (J'Au- 
cydidesjii. vii.) - ■ -4131 

The revolutioii of eclipses was lirat calculated by CalippnB, the Atheniaa, 
386 E. c. The Eg3T>tian3 say they had accurately observed 373 eclipses of 
the BUD, and 832 of the mocai, up to the jjeriod from Vulcan to Alexander, 
who died 828 b. c. 
EDEN, GARDEN op. The question about the site of Eden has gi'eaUy agi- 
tated theologians ; some place it near DiMnaseus, others in Armenia, some 
in Caucasus, others at Hillah, uear Babylon, others in Ai'abie, and some in 
AbyssiDia. The Hindoos refer it to Ceylon : and a learned Swede asserla* 
that it was in SudeiToania ! Several authorities concur in pladng it in a 
peninsula formed by the main river of Eden, on the east side of it, below 
the confluence of the leaser rivers, which emptied themeelvea into it, about 
27° N. lat., now swaEowed up by the Persian Gulf, an event which may 
have happened at the TTniversal Deluge, 2848 b. c. The country of Eden 
extended into Armenia,— Caimjet. The Almighty constructed Eden with a 
view to beauty, as well as usefulness ; not only every plant there was good 
for food, bat such also as wete pleasant to the eye, were planted there. — 

EDGEHILL, Battle op, also called Edgehill Fight, between the Royalists and 
the Parliament army, tlie first engagement of importance in the civil war ; 
Charles I. was personally present in this battle. Irince Rupert eommanded 
the royalists, and the earl of Essex the parliamentarians. Oct. 23, 1612. 

LDICT OF NANTES. This was the celebrated edict by which Henry IV. of 
France granted toleration to his Protestant subjects, in 1588, It was re- 
voked by Louis XIV.i Oct. 2i, 1685. This bad and unjust policy lost to 
Fran(;e 800,000 Protestants, and gave to England (part of these) 50,000 
industrious artisans. Some thousands, who brought with them the art of 
manofticturing silks, settled in Spifalflelds, where their descendants yet 
remain ; others planted themselves in Soho and St. Giles's, and pursued 
the art of making crystal glosses, and various fine works in which they 
eKoellad ; among these, jewelry, then little understood in England. — An- 
derson's Ong. of Englisk C/framei-ce. 
EDILES. Thesewere Homan magistrates, like our mayors, and there were 
two edilea at a time. They had the euperintendence and care of public 
and private works and buildings, baths, aqneduots, bridges, roads. &c. ; 
they also Iwok cognizance of- weights and measures, and regulated the mar- 
kets ftir provisions ; they examined comedies before they were acted, and 
treated the people ivith games and shows at their own expense. TTie duties 
of ediles bave suggested similai oflices in our own polity, and served in 
many instances as models for our magistracy,— ParA™. 
EDINBUHGH. The metropolis of Scotland, and one of the first and finest 
eides of the empire. It derives its name^n andent records, Dwt Edia, 
signitying the "hill of Edin"— from its castle, tbiinded or rebuilt by Edwin, 
king of Northumbria, who. having greatly extended his dominions, erected 
it for the protection of his newly-acquired territories from the incursions of 
the Scots and Picta, a. i>. 626. But it is said the castle was first built by 
Camelon, king of the Picta, 380 b. a. It makes a conspicuous appearance, 
standing at the west end of the town, on s rock 800 &et high, acd beAJre 
the use of great guns, was a IbrUflcalion of comiderahle strei^th. 


EDUCATION IN U. S. Sea Colleges and Sdujols. American Institute of In- 
structian organized at Boston, Aug. 19, 1830. Literary Convention at New 
Yorlt, Oct. 2», 1880. 

iOjOOW. for national education, pro- 


^ parliament by Lord John Eussell and pasEed, 275 to 273, July 9, 

and the Houae of Lords went in a body to aak the Queen to rescind the 
grant, Jaly 11, 1889. 

EGALirfi. EmtaliSy. The surname assumed by Philip Bourbon Capet, the 
infkmonB date of Orleans, to ingratiate liimself with the repuMicans, on tlie 
abolition of monarchy in France, Sept, 11, 1792. He voted for the death of 
Lonis 2V1. his relative; but this did not save him from a hlte doom. Ht 
was guilloOned Nov. 6, 1793. 

EGYPT. The dynasty of iis Pharaohs or kings commenced with Mizraim, the 
Bonof Ham, second son of Noah, 2188 B.C. The kingdom lasted 1663 years ; 
it ^vas conijuered by Cambysea, 525 b, o. In a. d. 639, this country wna wrest 
ed fi'om the eastern emperor Hera,cliuB, by Omar, calif of the Saracens. The 
fiunooa Saladln established the dominion of the Mamelukes, iii 1171. Sellm 
I., emperor of theTurfcs, took Egypt in 1517, and It waa governed by Beys 
till 1799. when a great part of the country was conquered by the Frencli, 
nndei Bonapiite In 1801 the invaders were disposaeased by the British, 
and tlie governraont was restored to the Tnrks.—See Turkey, for modern 
events Spo Tsb ilar View? in this voL page 5 et seq. 

f bia, and 

Bgrpi, Bubdi 

Tbe paliiaich Alii-sham riaila ligjpt 

HBrnnon invonls ihs Egypllan leuers 

iiiiB of all Bgypl (Lenglel) - 
Joeepb ihe Israelite is eoE inla Egypt 

His falhei and lirethieiL eellle bere - 
SesiHiiia reigns; he exiends hia do. 

Faretk, InSa, imd A^ Minor (Lcng- 

Sanlemffiil of ;ha Elhlopisns (Blair) 1616 

Rajnpws, who imposea on bis sub- a.^^,t^^^y^^^'^'^ 

JecCfl Iho buildm£ of walls and pyra- Apnen laEen prlaoner and strangled in 

inids,andDiberlabais,die9<.£^i^^) 1492 his palace (TJiod, Stcufus) - 

Amsnophis l is overwhelmed in Ibe Hio philosopher Pyihagoins cornea 

Redfe,wilhBllhl8anny(isiwie(, ftom Samos Inlo Bgypl, and isin- 

Blmry 1492 Btvuctad in lbs mystetiM of Egyp- 

lUlgn of Egyplus, ftom whom Iba > dan (hsologj ( Usher) 

countty, hltheno called Ml 
novr called Egypt (Blalry 

a of a lira, a ilragon, a tn 

n.o. im 

onteia FaleatTna, ravages 

sofaodquily (Usfwry 

es of iWfiOa men (ITerodo 
jdnesiai- of Babykin iep 

e epoch of ihe reign of Ses 
id by lb! Egyptian prieala 1 


EGYPT, amtinued. 

seaJBtoii-) - 

maJsaodlemsle to 

ctealh a»dni.ke3 

ths countr; a mast 


^"•^'^^"Xif ""^ """ ^""^ 

o; Ihe leinple ol 

Jupiier ATOBion, b 

LI ihei all mriali 

in Ihe liunitng samlB <J«sim) 


A n!™u [infe Liaiu 


WHO 16 trorlaiined kins (if gia) Hi 
Eeypi uDim reduceil by Feisia sndiu 
leraplespillagea([Sj<Er> 350 

Ilia ddest'Hiiirp'mtemj.S' Hie 6- 

B dereatxUiekij^ who, a 
S Iho N le s litovmed and 
n e Poetny and Cleo[ 

I era E"Tp 40 ony and 

her daugliwr by Ills brother (Bioir) 

ELECTORS. Thoae for membera of parliament for conntieB were obliged to 
liave forty shillioga B, year in land 89 Heniy TI 1460, — Ru^i^ad's Stat'ties. 
Among the recent acts relating to electiona are tie Iblloffing: act depriving 
exoisa and oustom-lionae officers, and cODtractora with government, of their 
votes, 1782. lu the U. 8,, tlie qualiflcationa var; ia the digerent stales. 

ELECTOKS OP GERMANY. Originally, ail the members of the Germanic 
body made choice of their head ; but amidat the violence and anarchy which 
prevailed for several centuriea in tJie empire, seven princes who possessed 
the grealest power assumed the eKolusive privilege of nominating the em- 
peror. — Dr. Babertson. An eighth elector was made, in 1648 ; and a ninth 
in fivor of the dulce of Hanover, in 1692. The number was reduced to 
eight, in 1777 ; and was increased to ten at the peace of Limeville, in 1801. 
The electorsiiip ceased on the dissolution of the Gertcan empire, and when 
the erowu of Austria was made hereditary, 1804, 1806. — See Oenaatvff, 
I'LECFBICITY. That of amber was known to Thales, 600 n. c. Eleclrioity 
was imperfectly discovered a, n. 1467. I» was found in various snbstahces 
by Dr. Gilbert, of Colchester, in 1600; he flrat obtained the knowledge of ito 
power, of conductors and non-conductors, in 1808. Ottoguerick fbund that 
two globes of brimstone contained electric matter, 16W. The electricshock 
was discovered at Leydan, 1746, and hence the operation is termed the 
"Leyden phial." Elocteic matter was flrat found fo contain caloric, or fire, 
and that it would fire spirits, 1753. The Identity of electricity and lightning 



was proved by Dr, Franklin, about this period. The electricity of the Au- 
rora Borealis was discovered by meana of the electric kite, in 1760. 
ELECTEO-GAL VANISH. It owes its origin to the discoveries of Dr. L. Gal- 
vaai, an emiHeat Italian philosopter, in 1789. Volta pureued the inquiries 
of this good man (for he was alike dialiaguistiedby his virtues andgeniuB), 
au3 discovered the mode of coml)imng the metala ; construeted what iS 
very properly called the Voltaic pile ; and extended the wliole science into ft 
system whidi ahould rather be called Voltaiam than GalvaDisin. 
FXECTSO-MAGNETISM. Analogies between electricity and magnetism were, 
discovered by Oersted of Copenhagen, in 1807. This analogy was establishe;. ' 
in 1819, and was confirmed by subsequent experiments in England, France, 
Germany, the United States and other countries 
ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. Experiments in electricity, having more or less 
bearing upon its prss:ttcal use in telegraphic commnnication, were made by 
WinckIer,atLeipsicl746; La Monnier, m Paris | Watson, in London, 1747; 
Lomond, in 178i; Betancour, at Madrid, 1798. tialy.tni's discovery of 
" Galvanism," at Bolonga, 1791. Prof Voita's " Voltaic Battery," at Pavia, 
1801; Soemmerring, at Munich, 1807. The practical use of Galvanism in 
telegraphs, as prophesied by John Redman Cose, of Phila., in 1816. Grea- 
advance made by Prof Oersted at Copsjihagen, in 1819. The electro-mag- 
netic agency first faljy developed and applied by Prof. Morse, 1882, patented 
1840. The first telegraph by this agency in the United States, was between 
Washington and Baltimore, in 1M4. Cooke &, Wheateone's patent in Ep- 
ghuid, 1840. Bain's patent in England, first, 1842; applied in United States 
in 1849. House's in 1848. The telegraphic lines in fJie United States, in 
Jan. 1850 extended 6,679 miles.— See StppUment. 
ELEPHAUT. This animal, in the earliest times, was trained t» war. Tb „,3- 
tory of the Maccabees informs us, that " to every elephant they appointed' 
1000 men, armed with coats of mail, and 500 horse ; and upon the elephants 
were strong towers of wood," &c. The elephants in the army of Antiochoa 
were provoked to fight by showing tbem the " blood of grapes and mulber- 
ries." The first elephant said to have been seen in England, was one of 
enormons size, presented by the king of France to oui" Henry HI-, in 1238.— 
Baker's Chrmt. 
ELEUSINIAN MASTERIES. A great festival under this name was observed 
by the .Athenians and other nations : these mysteries were the moat celebra 
ted of all tlie religious ceremonies of Greece, and wei'e instituted by Eumol- 
pus, 1866 B. 0. They were so superstitiously observed, that if any one 
revealed them, it was supposed that he had called divine vengeance upon 
him, and he was put te death. The mysteries were introduced from Eleusis 
into Rome, and lasted about 1800 years, and were at last abohshed by Theo- 
dosius the Great, i. n. 389. 
ELGIN MARBLES.- These admirable works of andent art were derived 
chiefly from the Parthenon, a temple of Minerva in the Acropolis at Athena, 
of which temple they formed part of the IVieze and pediment, built by Phi 
dias about .500 b. c. LordF^gin began the collection of these raai'blea during 

the 1 . 

EMBALMING. The ancient Egyptians believed that their souls after many 
thousand years, would come to reinhabit their bodies, in case theai» latter 
■ preserved enth-e. Hence arose their praotioe of embalming the dead 



but it retained its flill proportion of eize, Eymmetry of features, and personal 
likenesa. Ttey called the embalmad bodies mvmmKS, Borae of which, buried 
SOOO f earE ago, are perfect to this da?. The art of snch embalmini; is dow 
lost. When Nicodemua came with Joseph of Arhnathoa, to pay the last 
duties to onr Sariour after his crucifixion, he brought a mixture of myrrh 
and aloes to embalm hia body. — Join xix. 38. 

EMBARGO JN ENGLAND. This power is invested in the ci'own, but it ia 
rarely exercised except in extreme eaaea, and sometimes as a prelude to 
war. The most memorable iUBtanoes of embargo were those for the preven- 
tioQ of corn going out of the kingdom in 1766 ; and fbr the detention of all 
Rusaian, Danish, and Swodiah ahips in the sereral ports of the kingdom, 
owing to the armed neutrality, Jan. 14, 1801. See Armed Neutral^. 

EMBARGO IN THE UNITED STATES. Embargo on all " essels in the porta 
of the United Stales, passed by Congress with reference to the qaarrel with 
Great Biitain after the attack on the V. S. frigate Chesapeake, 1807. Re- 
pealed and non-inl«rcourse act passed, 1809, Emhai'go again laid fcr 90 
days, April, 1812. War declared June 19, 1812. 

EMBER WEEKS, Ohserred in the Christian clim-ch in the third century, to 
implore the blessing of God on the produce of the earth by prayer and 
fasting. Ember Ddva, three of whidi fall in these weelta, and in which 
penitents sprinkle the ashes (embers) of humiliation on their heads. Four 
times in each year were appomted ftir these acta of devotion, so as to answer 
to the four seasons, spring, summer, autumn, and winter, 

EMBROIDERY, Its invention is usually ascribed to the Phrygiana; but we 
learn from Homer, and other ancient authors, that the Sidonians partlcu^ 
larly excelled in this decorative spedea of needle-work. Of this art very 
aarly menljon ia made in the Scriptures. — Es^as xixv, 35, and xsxviii. 23, 
An ancient esisting specimen of beautiful embroidery is the Bayeux tapes- 
try, worked by Matilda, the queen of William I. of England. See Bayenx 

EMERALD. The precious atone of a green coior is found in the East and in 
Peru; inferior onea in other places. It has been alleged tlmt there were no 
true emeralds in Europe i)efure the conquest of Pern; but there is a gen- 
uine emerald in the Paris Museum, taken from the mitre of popa Julius n., 
who died in 1518, and Peru was not oonciuered WU 1546 ; hence it is inferrecl 
that this emerald was brought Itoia AA'ica, or the East. 

^MIGRATION. Of late years emiwationa from Britain have been considera- 
ble. In the ten yeaiB ending 1830, the emigrations to the North American 
colonies. West Indies, Capo of Good Hope, New South Wales, Swaa Biver, 
Van Diemen'a Land, &c. were, according to olficial returaa, 164,291. In the 
decennial period to 1840, the eraterations advanced to 277,696, esclnaiveiy 
of the vast numbers settling in the United States of America. Thenuia- 
ber of emigrants to the United States in onB yean- endmg Sept. 80, 1848, were 
registered as bom in 

Grefll Britain and Iislsiid - ■ 148,319 1 DHiinarll ■ - ■ - 310 

Germouy .... 68^18 Swiiietloni 319 

Fmiic* 7,748 Other cumliles or unlnown - -3,M3 

Sweden and Norway ■ ■ 903 1 

EMiR. A title of dignity among the Turks and Persians, fii-st given to caliphs. 
This rank was first awarded to the descendants of Mahometliy his daughter 
Fatimo, about a, d, 650.— Ricaiii. To the emirs only was originally given 
the privilege of wearing the green turban. It is also given to high officers 
(another title being joined). 

EMPALEMENT. This barbarous and dreadful mode of putting criminals to 


!& Staked 

. .. . _... .er, previoiisly to being bnriod, in England,— SoiiiAe™. Wit 
liams (who committed suicide) tie murderer, of the Marr family, in Rat- 
eliffa Wighvaf, Locdoa, Deo. 8, 1811. was staked in his ignomioioua grave. 
This practice has aince been abolished there, See Btirpi^ Alive, 

EMPEROR. Originalh'. a title of honor at Rome, conferred on victoriouB ge- 
nerals, who were Bret sainted by the soldiers by that name. Angustna 
Cfesar was tlie first Roman -emperor, 27 n. c. Vaiens was the first emperor 
of the Eastern empire, a. d. 864. Charlemagne was the first emperor of 
Germany, crowned by Leo III. a. n. 800. Ottoman I., founder of the Turk- 
ish empire, was Hie first emperor of Turkey, 1290. The Czar of Russia 
was the first emperor of that couBtry, 1722. Don Pedro IV. of Portugal 
was the first emperor of Brazil, In 1825. 

EMPIRICS. They were a set of early physicians who contended that all hy- 
pothetical reasoning rospcoting the operationa of the animal economy was 
naelesa, and that experionco and oljaervntion alone were the foundation of 
the art of medicine. The sect of Empirics was instituted by Acion o' 
Agrigentnm, about 473 b. o. 

EKAMSaJuIKG. The origin of the art of enamelJmg is doubtful. It was 
practised by ttie Egyptians and other early nations; and was known in 
England in the Inmes of the Saxons. At Oxford is an enameHed jewel 
which belonged to Alfred, and which, as appears by the inscription, was 
made by hia order, in his reign, about a. d. 887. 

ENCAUSTIC PAJNTCNG, known to the ancients. This very beautiful art, 
after having been lost, was restored by Count Caylus and M. Bsoholier, 
A. D. 174&. 

EWCYCLOPjEDIA. The first work to which tliis desiffnation was expressly 
given, was that of Aballiu'ius, an Arabian writer, in the iiiu^teenth century. 
Many were published as eai'ly as the fifteenth century, but none alphabet- 
ically. Chambers' Dictionary was the first of the ciPcle of arts and sciences, 
Jn England, fii-st published in 1728. The great French work, Encycloped-U 
Methodigae, to which Voltaire, Biderot, D'Alembert, and other aavans contri- 
buted, was published in 1782eisef., in 200 quarto volumes. The British En ^ 
cyclopedia, printed in Philadelphia in 1798, by Thomas Dobaon, was th< 
first in Hie United States. The Bdiitbvrgh Eneijclopidia, edited by Sir DaT;_ 
Brewater, was published, 1810 et stg., and republished in the United Statea. 
Rees' Cyclopedia republished in the United States in 1822. The cost of 
the 7th edition of Encycl^dia BrUatmica, edited by Proftssor Napier, and 
published byA.&C. Black, Edinhnrgh, in 1840 etc, ivas stated to have been 
.£120,000, of which je23,000werepaid to the contrihutora. This was pro- 
bably themost costly imdBrfalting of IQiekind ever achieved by private enfer- 
priae. The Eacyclepedia MeiropoHtana was commenced in 1815 and finished 
In 18i5. Both of these works comprised articles by the most distinguished 
writers in (Jreat Briton. The German CimversaWms LexUim, published 
1796-1830, and upon the basis at thii the E?wycUipeilia Ameruana vias com- 
menced in Philadelphia in 1829-30. Famy Oycl. (Knight's) finished 184i. 

KKGINEERS. This name is of modem date, as enghiBers were formerly called 
Trench-masters. Sir Wilfiam PeUiam offlciatea as trench-master in 1S22. 
The chief engineer was called eamp-master-general in 1634. Captain 
Thomas RndOad the rankcf chief engineer to the king, about 1650. The 
corps of engineers was formerly a dvO corps, but was made a military 
force, and directed to rank with the artillery, April 25, 1787. It has a 



colonal-Jii-chiaf, and a eeoond, and five colonel-commandants, and twenty 
colonels. The Asaociation of civil engineers ivas established in 1S28, The 
Bureau of Topographical Engineers of the U. 8. Army, established at 
e:SGLA!SD. See Britain. So named by order of Egbert, first ting of Eng- 
liiod, in a general eoimdl held at Winchester, a. d. 82B. TbiB appellativo 
had been used as (ar back as a. c. 688, but had nevar been, nntil then, rati- 
fied by any assembly of the nadon. It came from Angles, a tribe of Saions, 
irnd land, the Saxon for countiy. For English history and successiott of 
Soveieigns, see Tabular Views, beginning on r. 76 in this volume. England 
and Wiea were united a. d. 1283, and SeotKind was rniited to both in 170T, 
nnd the three were then atyled Gfreat Britain. Ireland was incorporated 
with these coantries by the Act of LegialatJve Union, Jannary 1, 1801, and 
the whole willed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 
ENGLAND, NEW. See Nsw England. 

P.NGLrSH LANGUAGE. See article Languages. From the Jfigli Dutch or 
TftutODic sprung: (among others) the English language, now one of the 
most copious and beautiful of EuTOpe. Law pleadings were made in En- 
glish by order of Edward HI. instead of the French laneiittge, which had 
been continued irom the time of the Conqueror, a. n. 1863. The English 
tongue and English apparei weie ordered to he used in Ireland, 28 Henry 
VUI. 1536. The English was oi'dcred to be useil in all lawsuits, and tiie 
LaHn disused, May 1781. 
EfiGKATTNG. The engraving of gems is a branch of art of the highest an- 
tiquity. The eai'liest writers make mention of ecgrUTed seals and seal 
rings, and there still esist many antique eDgravicgs equal to later produo- 
tioua of similar artists. Engraving ivota. plates and wood is chiefly of mo- 
dem invention, having its origin about the middle of the fifteenth century. 
Engraving on glass was perfected to an art by Boudier of Paris, 1799. The 
art of engraving, io vai'ioua styles, haa made great progress in the United 
States during the last ten years. 
ENGRAYING on COPPER, Pi-ints fram engi-aved copper-plates made their 
appeai'anoe ahout a. d. 1450, and were first produced in Germany. Masso, 
sumamed Finiguerra, was lie first Italian artist in this way, 1450. The 
earliest date known of a cojjper-plate engraving is 1461. Rolling presses 
ftir working the plates were invented in 1645, and many improvements of it 
followed. Of the art of etching on copper by means of a^jiafortis, Francis 
Mazaouh, or Pannagiano, is the reputed inventor, about a. n. 1582. — 
De Piles. 
ENGRAVING, Lithographic. This is a new branch of the art, and Alois 
Sennefelder may be regarded as tlie inventor of it. It was first announced 
on the Continent in 1798, and became more known as polyaufography in 
1808. It was introduced into general use in England by Mr. Ackermann of 
London in 1817. 
ENGRAVING, Mezzotinto. The art was discovered by Sicgen, and was im- 

S raved by prince Rupert in 1648 ; Sir Christopher Wren fiirther improved 
; in 1633. Aquatinta, by which a soft and beautiful effect is produced, 
was invented % the celebrated French artist, St. Non, ahout 1662 ; he com- 
municated his inventJon to Le Prhice. Barrabe of Paris was diatiilgaished 
for his improvements in this kind of engraving,' 1768. Chiaro-oscuro en- 
graving originated with the Germans, and was first practised by Mait, oca 
of whose prints bears date li91. See Zaicogra^hy, if^c. 
ENGRAVING on STEEL. The mode of engraving on sott steel, which, after 
it haa been, hardened, will multiply copper plates and line impressions, in- 


312 THE WORI-D's PROGRESS, [ i:r'i 

definitely, was in^^o<Iuced into England by Messrs. Periilna and Heath, of 
Philadelphia, in 1819. 

ENQRAYtNG on WOOD, took its rise from the 4ri«/maSters, or mann&cHirera 
of playing-cards, about a. d. 1400 ; and from tins sprung tlie inyeiition of 
printing, first attempted by means of wooden types not mOTftble. See 
PrinUng. The art la referred by some to a Florentine, and by others to 
Kbuss, a German; it was greatly improveil byDurer and Lucas Van LeydeT 
in 1497 ; and was brought to peribction in England by Bewick, his brotlier, 
and pupils, Neabett, Anderson, &c., 1789, el. seq. The earliest wood en- 
graving which 1ms reachad our times is one representing St. Chriatophep 
carrying the infant Jesus over the sea ; it bears dale *.. s. 1423. 

ENTOMOLOGY. Thia hranch of natural history cannot be regarded as rant- 
ing as a science until the arrangement of LiniKens, i. D. 1739. The London 
Entomological Society was instituted in 1809; it is directed chiefly to the 
study of inaecta found in Great Britain ; and inquires into the beat methods 
of destroying' noxious inaecta, and malting known auoh as are useful. 

ENVOYS. They enjoy the protection, but not the ceremonies of ambaasStioi-a. 
Envoya Eitraordinary a,\-e of modem date. — Wicqiiefort, The court ot 
Prance denied to them the ceremony of being conducted to court hi the 
royal carriages, i ~ ■"""" 

~ s for the temnle of Diana, w ^ .— 

IS 425 (bet lon^ and 200 broad, 
and cost 230 years of labor. Ctesiphon was the ohiefai'Chiteet, and 12T kings 
contributed to its grandeur. The temple waa burnt by ErostratuB, solely to 
perpetuate hia memory, 866 b. c.—Pling. It rose from its ruins, and was 
richer and more splendid than before ; bat it was again burnt a. d. 360. — 
Umm. Hid. 

EPHORI. Powerfnl magisirafes of Sparta, Srst created by Theopompus to con- 
trol the royal power, 760 b. o. They were live in number, and acting aij 
censors in the state, they conld check and restrain the authority of the 
kings, and even imprison them, If Ihey were g:uilty of irregularifles. 

EPIC POETRY. Homer's Iliad and Od/ijisey the first epic poems. See 

EPICUREAN PHILOSOPHY. Epicurus of Gargettus, near Athena, was the 
founder of it, about 300 b. c. and taught that the greatest good consists in a 
happiness, springing not from sensual gratifloations or Tidous pleasures, but 
from virtue, and consisting in the peace and hai'mony of the soul wil' 
itself. His clisdples'had all things in common; and the pleasantneas of his 
system, and its ease and luxury, made him many followers. 
EPIGRAMS. They derive their origin ft'om the inscriptions placed by the 
aneienta on their tombs. Marcus Valerius Martialis, the celebrated Latin 
epigrammatist, who flourished about ,i. d. 83, is allowed to have excelled all 
others, anraent or modem, in the taateftil and pointed epigram. The fbllow- 
ing Latin epigram on the miracle of onr aaviour in tumiog waler into wine 
at Cana (John iii.) is a beautiful example; — 

" Videt el erubidt lympha pu^ica Deum." 
And Dr. Johnson has declared that the subjoined English epigram, by Dr. 
Doddridge, on the words Dana vivimws vivamus, is the flneat specimen in 
onr language : — 

" I,[.B while WB lira 1" Ihe epicure win sav, 

" And male Ihe pbaaurta of ihe presem day," 


EPIRUS. Kaown by Ilia great warlike achievements of Pjn'lras. Its early 
history is Tery obBcure, and it is only during the veign of this sovereign, 
ivlio was tJie last, that it becomes interesting. The first PyrrhuB (Neopto- 
Jeimis) settliid in Epirua alter tlie Trajan ivai', 1170 b. c. Ha was killed in 
the ttiiiphi of Di^lplii, about 1105 e. c. 

HisfaTlTainnVilhtLlloiiiana ' - 274 Annesod to [he OLloman empire a. d. 1459 
Ho i^kni Mmiloi. iiom Amigonua - 871 

EPISCOPACY. The government, by its Wshops, of the Christian church. It 
may be said to have been instituted j. d. 33, when Peter sat in the biehop's 
chair at Rome.— Sitffe?*. Episcopacy commenced in England in the second 
centuiy ; in Ireland about the same Ume ; and in Scotland, in the fourth cen- 
tury ; but historians dispute with theologians upon this pohit. See Bishops, 
la Seotland, episcopacy was finally abolished at the period of theroTolulion, 
1688-9. The sect called Episcopalians first appeared aboot the year 500.-- 

EPISCOPAL CHDRCH, in the Uniteq States. Episcopiicy estabUshed in New- 
Tork by law, 1S93 ; intioduced into Connecticut, 1706. The first bishops of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in America were bishop White of Penn- 
sylvania and Provost of New-York, consecrated in London. 1787. First 
Episcopal convention, 1789. Bishops ofVermont, New Jersey, Kentncky, and 
Ohio consecrated at New- York, Nov. 2, 1882. 

EPITAPHS. They were used by the ancient Jews, hy the Athenians, the Ro- 
mans, and most of tlio nations of antiquity ; their date is referred in Eng- 
land to the earliest times. In the epitaphs of the anclenW arose the 
epigram .—BoUewa. 

EPITHALAJMHTM. Tislas, the lyric poet, was the first writer of a nnptial 
complimentary aon^, or epithalamium. He received the name of Sfesicho- 
rns from the alterations made by him in music and dancing; 636 a. c. — 

EPOCHAS. Tliese are periods in history which are agreed upon and acknow- 
ledged by the respective historians and chronologcrs, and which serve to 
regulate the date of events. The following are the epochas thus particu- 
laSy adopted. — See Eras. 

CalUDgofAbtsham ■ - - 1921 The Seleucids - . - ■ - 313 

iSuoIionor'^V ' - ' - -118* ThEChiislianeia"- - a.d. 1 

iBlOLympiai - - - - 77fl | Diocleaan - - - - 584 

EQUINOX. The precession of the equinoxes was confirmed, and the places 
and distances of the planets were discovered by Ptolemy, a. d. 130. When 
the Eun in bis progress through the ecliptic comes to the equinoctial circle, 
the day and night ore eqaal all over the globe ; this occurs twicfi in the year ; 
once in the first poult of Aries, which is called the vernal equhios ; next in 
the first point of Libra, which is the autumnal equinox.— .Biaw'. 

EQUITY, COURTS op. To detennhie causes according to the rule of equity 
and conscience, ralhtr than according to strict law, a. d. 1067.— See Chan- 


tha ZBtroiiomical obeen-ations made at Babylon were leokoned, began Feb. 
26, 717. The era of tie Seleuoiclre (used by the MaccabeeB) commeiioed 
312 B.C. The Olympiads belong to the GreeianB, and date flom llie year 
776 B. c, i bat tiey subsequently reckoned by Indictlons, tie first begiiming 
i. D. 318: these, among ehronologera, are still used. — See IndieH<nts. TheEo- 
inans reckoned from the building of their dty, 753 e. c. ; and afterwards 
from tba 16th year of the emperor Augustus, which reckoning was ado^t/'d 
among the Spaniards until the reign of Ferdinand the Catholic The disci- 

Sles of Mfttomet began tlieir Hegwa from tte fligbt of their prophet from 
leoca, which oc'ourred a. d. 622. 
ERAS OP THE CREATTON and REDEMPTION. The Jews and Christisns 
have had divers epocias ; hnt in historical computation of time are chiefly 
nsed. the most extraordinary epochs, whieli are two, the Creation of the 
World, and the appearance of our Redeemeh, which last the Christians haye 
made their era. They did not adopt it, however, until the sixth centnry, 
when it was introduced by Deuya the Little, a Scythian, who became abbot 
of a monaslery near Rome ; lie was the first who computed tjme ftum lie 
birth of Chiist, and fixed that great event according to the vulgar ev&. — 
Cassiodoms CAron. Tliis computation began in Italy, a. d. 525, and in Eng- 
land in 810. It is the only one now in general use, and is that observed in 
this work. — See Creaiion, and CArisiiaii Era, 
ESCUEIAL. The palace of the bmgs of Spain, one of the lai'gest and moat 
magnificent in the world. It was commenced by Philip II. in the year 1662 ; 
and the first expenditure of its erection was 6,000,000 of ducats. It forms 
a vast square of polished stone, and paved with mai'ble. It may give some 
notion of the surprising grandeur of this palace to observe, that, according 
to the computation of Francisco de los Santos, it would take up more than 
four days to go through all its rooms and apartments, the length of the way 
being reckoned thirty-throe Spanish leagues, which is above 120 Engli'n 
milea. Alvarez de Colmenar also asserts, that there are 14,000 doors, and 
11,000 windows belonging to this edifice. 
ESQUIRES. Among tlie Greeks and Romans, esquires wei-e armor-hearers to, 
or attendants on, a knight. — Bltmnt, In England the king created esqu'res 
by putting about their necks the collar of S 8, aad bestowing upon them a 
pair of silver spurs. A British qoeen Is recorded as having married the 
imiiigerwTt, or esquire, of her deceased husband. The distinction of esquii* 
was first given to persons of fhrtune not attendant upon knights, a. d, 13''' 

ETHER. It was known t« the earliest chemists. Nitric ether waa first dis- 
covered by Kunkel, in 1681 ; and muriatic ether was first made from tlie 
chloride erf tin, by Courtanvaux, in 1769. Acetic ether was discovered b; 
count Lauraguais, same year ; and hydriodio ether was first prepai'ed by 
Gay-Luasae. The phosphoric was obtained by M. Boullay. Ether is said 
to have been first applied to the purpose of causing insensibility to p^n by 
Dr. Horace Wells, of Connecticut, in 1846. This, however, is disputed, for 
ahont the same time Dr, C, T. Jackson, of Boston, well known as a eeologist 
and chemist, euggested the use of ether in surgery; but to Dr. Morton, of 
Boston, probably belongs the credit of first demonsfeattog, by actual experi- 
ment, the use of ether in dentistry and swgery, as an annibilator of jam. 
It was used in surgical cases, in that year, by Drs. J. C. Warren, Charming, 
and Morton, of Boston, who afterii'arda publislied the results of their experi- 
ments. The practice was'flrst copied in Europe by Dr. Robertson, of Edin- 
burgh, and Dr. Booth, of London, the same year. The sulphuric ether is 
inhfled from an apparatus with flexible tube, &«. Etherization was first 
used in operative midwifery, in the United States, May, 1847- The subsfan' 


called chloroform, originaUy discorored by Soubeiran, in 1831, wm alao first 
employed for eimilar purposes in 18i7, by professor Simpson, ofEdinbnrgb. 

ETHICS. Tlie doctrine and system of morality ; a science wbieh is scarcely 
more inculcated, by religion and virtue, than it is influenced by manners and 
government; the Chinese, who are said to have been acquaiDtod witli 
astioacmy at least 3000 years before tbe birth of Cbrist, were so refined in 
the earliest ages, that Uiey studied ethics, vie are told, a thousSind years 
before that event ; and hence they must have lived at that time under not 
only civilized and enlightened, but refined and moral governments. 

KINA, MOUNT. Hera were the fabled forges of the Cyobps ; and it is caUed 
by Pindar the pillar of heaven. ErupUons are mentioned by Diodcrns 
Siculus as happening 1693 b. c., and Thucydides speaks of three eruptious 
as oocnrring, 784, 477, and 425 d. c. There' were eruptions, 125, 121, and 48 
B. c—Umj. Eruptions *, n. 40, 253, and itO.—Camra. One in 1012,— 
Geojrey de VUsrba. Awful one which overwhelmed Catania, when 16,O0G 
inhabilanls perished in the burning ruins, H39. EniptionB aaually awfnl 
and destructive, 132B, 1408, 1444, 1536, 1637, 1664, and in 166S; when tens 
of thousands of persons perished in the streams of lava which rolled over 
the whole country for forty days. Eruptions in 1766, 1787, 1809, 1811, and 
in May 1830, when severw villages were destroyed, and showers of lava 
reached even to Rome. Another violent eruption, and the town of Bronfe 
desti-oyed, Nov, 18, 1832. 

EUCLID, Elements op. Enolid was a native of Alexandria, and floarished 
' there ahont 800 s. c. The Elejixnis are not whoUy his, for many of the invalu- 
able truths and demonstrations they conlain were discovered and invented 
bj Thflles, Pythagoras, Eudoxus, and others ; but Euclid was the first who 
reduced them to regular order, and who probably interwove many theo- 
rems of his own, to render the whole a complete and connected system of 
geometry. The Ele^ienis were first prhited at Basil, by Simoa GryuEeas, 
ui A. D. 1538. 

EUNUCHS. This species of mutilation is first mentioned among the Egyptian 
and Assyrian nations; tfiA eunuchs in the earliest times were attenifents in 
courts. The first princess who was waited upon by eunuchs in her cham- 
ber, was Semiramis, queen of Assyria and Babylon, about 2007 n. o.—Leng- 
let. Numbers of this class of persons are in the quality of attendants on 
the ladies of the Seraglio in Turkey. 

fcO^ATIA, ST, This island was settled hy tlie Dnfch in 1832 : it was taken 
by tlie French in 1680 ; by the English in 1690; and again by the British 
ferces, under admiral Rodney and general Vanghan, Faomary 3, 1781, It 
was recovered by th» French ander the marquis de Bouill^, Nov. 26, same 
year; and was again captured by the British in 1801, and 1810; but re- 
stored in 1814. 

EVANGELISTS. Mark and Matthew wrote their Gospels in a. d. 44 ; Luke In 
5-5 ; and John in 97. In 95, John was thrown into a caldron of boiling oil 
at Rome, whence, being taken out unhurt, he was banished to the lale of 
Patmos, and there, in the year 96, he wrote the Apocalypse, and died in 100. 
— Biitler. At the council of Nice in 326, there were 20O varied versions of 
the adopted Evangelists. 

ETESHAM, BATTI.E op, between prince Edward, afterwards Edward I., and 
Simon de Montfort; eavl of Leicester, in which the harons were defeated, 
end the earl, h!s son, and most of his adherents slain. Henry HI. at one 

Serlod of the battJe was on the point of being cleft down fay a soldier who 
id not Icnow his rank, but was saved by his timely esclomation, " Do aot 



kill me, soldier, I am Henry of Winchester, thy ting I" This Ticfory broke 
lip the ti'easonable conspiracy of the harona ; fought August i, 1266. 

EXCHANGE, One called CoUegmm Meiiatorn.m, esisted at Rome. 4Q8 b. c. 
The Exchange at Amsterdam was reckoned the finest strncture of the kind 
in the world. Many ediflces of this name in the "United Kingdom are mag- 
nificent. The exchange of London waa ftunded hy sir Thomas Gresham, 
June 7. 1568, and was called RoyaX, hy Elizabeth, on her paving ita visit in 
Jan.isn. Destroyed by fire in 1668 and in 1838: rebuilt and, pened in 1844. 

EXCHANGE (Merchants') in NEW YORK, The present bnilding, on the site 
of the one destroyed in the great fire of 1836, was commenced m ISSfi, and 
finished in 1840. It isof blue eranite.andcoBt il,800,000. Thatof Boston, 
also of Qnincy granite, floishad In 1846. 

EXCHEQUER. An institution of gi'eat antiquity, consiatiog if officers whose 
functions are financial or judicial: the chanoeUor of the exchequer is the 
first of these, and he formerly sat in the court of eseheqiier above the 
barons. - The first chancellor was Eustace de Fauconbrldge, bishop of Lon- 
don, in the reign of Henry HI., about 1221. The exchequer stopped pay- 
ment from Jan. to liiay the 24tb, Charles n. 1673, — Slmne. The English 
and Irish escheqnera were consolidated in 1816. 

EXCISE, The excise system was established in England by the Long Parlia- 
ment ; was continued under Cromwell and Charles II. ; and was organized 
as at present in the Walpole administration. It was first collected and an 
office opened in 1643, and was arbitrarily levied upon liquors and provisions 
to support the parliament forces against Charles I. The excise office 'vaa 
built on the site of Gresham College, in 1774, The officers of excise and 
customs vfere deprived of their votes for membera of parliament in 1782, 
See JReiseaAie. 

1744 Greal Briain - ■ Si^lMfni I 1830 Uolled Kinglooi - il8,9«,™5 

I7B6 Dicw . - ■ S,M0,II4 1834 Who - - lfl,8!7,aS2 

1803 Dillo . - - 19,867,914 183r Dillo - - - W,Eie,l«J 

1820 Ditio - - - 56^1,702 IMO . Diuo - - - 12^,766 

1827 Cniced Ktnsdom - - 20,995,324 1 1845 Ditm . - - 13,586,583 

EXCOMMUNICATION. An ecclesiastical anathema, or interdict from Chris- 
tian communion. It was originally instituted for ]w«serving the purity of 
the church | but ambitious ecclesiastics converted it by degrees into an en- 
gine for promoting their own power. Some suppose escommunicaljon to 
be of Hindoo ofi^ in the Pariah caste, and that it was adopl«d by t^e 
Jews (who had three degrees of it), and from these latter by the Chrisi. -a 
churches. The Greek and Roman priests and even the Druids had similar 
punishments in aid of their respeoMro religions. — Phillips. 
EXCOMMUNICATION st the POPES. The Catholic church excommun: 
cates by bell, book, and candle. — See Beli, Book, amd Candle. The popes 
bare carried their anthorily to such exoess.aa to excommunicate and depose 
sovereigns. Gregory TO. was the first pope who assumed this extravagant 
power. He excommunicated Henir IT. emperor of Germany, In 1077, ab- 
solving his sUbjecla from their allegiance ; and on the emperor's death, 
" his exoommnnicated hody" was five years abote ground, no one daiing to 
hnry it. In England were many excommunications in Henry H.'s reign ; 
and king John was excommunicated hy Pope Innocent HI. in 1208, when all 
England lay under an interdict for sis years. The citizens of Dnblin were 
esoommnnicated by Clement IV". in 1206, Bulls denouncing hell-fira (4 
queen Elizaheth accompanied the Spanisii Armada, and plenary indul- 
gences were offered to idl who should assist in deposing her. 

EXECUTIONS. See a-ime. In the reign of Henry VUI. (thirty-eight y" 




it is shown that no less a number than 72,000 erfminala were executed, — 
Stows. In the ten years between 1820 and 1S30, there were executed in Eng- 
land alone 797 ci'iminals ; but as oar laws became lesa blixxiy, the number 
of executions proportionally decitased. la the three years ending 1820, 
the e±eontions in England and Wales amounted to S12 ; in the three years 
ending 1880, they were rednced to 178] and in the three years endhig 1810, 
they had deoruased to 62.— P<wi. Reiunis. 

- 17 In Ihe year II 

HI 1841- 

ir; Peacock, ditto; Porpoise, brig; Beliel, Flying Fish, and Sea G , 

smaller vessels, under Lieut. Wilkes, TT. S. N., aailed fium Hampton Roads, 
Ta., Aug, I9th, 1838. Antarctic continent discovered, July 19, 1889. At- 
tack on the Fejees for murdering two of the officers, July 26, 18i0. The 
Peacock lost on the bar of Corumbia river, July 1841. The Vincennes 
(flag-ship) returned to New Tork, after an absence of nearly four years, 
June 11, 1842. Captain Wilkes's NfUTative of the Expedifion, in 6 vols. imp. 
Svo. and quarto, was published in 1845. The scientific reports of the ex- 
pedition term about 20 quarto and folio volumes. 
:XPORTS, AND IMPORTS of the United States prom 1791. 
Years. Immrrs. Exporls. 

1791 ■ »6a^x)j»o - si9iiia,«i 

'■™ 31,600,000 - aO,r63,OBS 
— . 36,109,673 


, ^^'$1'^ 



■ 7^^ 



- 31,3l>]^3 




■ ill^lsial 



e.T,t. nf tmHR 

1817 _.^ _,... 

-~ 93,281,133 

- 70,142,621 
EXPORTS, Great Bhitain. Edward III,, by his encouragement of trade, 
turned the scale so much in fevor of English merchandiae, that' by a balance 
of trade taken in his time, llieexported commodities amounted to 394,000*., 
and the imported f -. only iS UOOi. 

In 170 

-£51,733,113 [ In 1842 - - £102,180,817 

- 66,7K1,44S In 1843 - - 100,280,101 

- 78,376,732 In ie« - - 117,877,278 
. fl7fi'S-726 I In 1S45 - - 1315M,B03 

- 102,705,3rS In 1346 - - 134,609,1111 


318 THE WOKLd'S PltOGaESS. [_I'AI. 

The amounts above given relate to the exports of the United Kingdom 
of Bnlish anil Irish produce only. The total exports, including foreign and 
colonial produce, were, according to official retunis, as foDows ; 

In 1843 - - 116,903,668 1 In IM4 ■ • 131,833^1 | In 1346 . - 1C0^,M6 

In the year ending 6th January 1840, the amount of imports into the 
United Kingdom was 85,281,958i; and the halance of trade in fkvor of Eng- 
land, deducting this sum from her flsporta, was 65,698,02K. Bat even this 
great balance has been exceeded in recent years, as, for instance, the year 
unmediately precedmg, when it mounted to opwai'da of seventy miilions.— 
Srit, Rstxinae Bel/wnts. 
EIXAU, Battle of, between the Frencli and Russians, one of tbe most 
bloody of Napoleon's wars : it terminated in favor of Napoleon, who com- 
numdeii in person ; but both armies by this and other recent battles were 
iio mneh reduced, that the French retired to the Tistuhi, and the Russians 
on the Pregel : the loss to Uie victor was 15,000 men, and the Ruesian loss 
in slain alone was 20,000. Feb. 8, 1807. 

PABII. A noble and powerfnl ftmily at Rome, who derived their name from 
/ofta, a bean, because some of their ancestors cultivated this pulse : ttiej 
were said to be descended from Fahius, a supposed son of Hercules, and 
were once bo numerous tJiat they toot upon themselves to wage war againel 
the Teientea. They oamH to a general engagement near tte Cremera, Ir 
which ail the flimily, consisting of 306 men, were slain, b. a, 477. There 
only remained one, wboac tender age had detained him at Rome, and fror 
him arose the noble Fabii in the following ages, 
FABLES. " Jotham's fhble of the trees is the oldest extant, and as beaui'"''' 
as any made since." — Addismt. Nathan's thbie of tbe poor man (2 Sain- 
lii.) is next in antiquity. The earliest colloetiouof fables extant is of east 
ern origin, and preserved in the Sanscrit. The Ihbles of Vishuoo Sarma, 
called Pilpay, are the most beautiftil, if not the most ancient, in the world. 
— Sir WdHam Janes. The well-known .^sop's CihleB (loiicisee), weio 
written about 640 years b. c- — Pliata^eh. 
FACTIONS. Among the Romans, fectiona were parljes that fought on eha 
riots in the cirque, and who were distinguished bytheh* difiisreut coIoi-h, 
a green, blue, red, and white, to which Domidan added two otheia, on o 
coats embroidered with gold, a second wearing scarlet, about i. n. 90. Both 
the emperors and people had generally greater ioclination for some parti- 
cular color than the rest; but upon a quarrel happening in JuaUnian'a reigti^ 
between the hluo and green, when 40,000 were killed on both sides, th 
name of fiiction was abolished. With ns, fiiction means a party or sect iv 
religious or civil matters, and is always taken in an ill sense. 
FAIRS Aso WAKES. They are of Saxon origin, and were first instituted in 
England by Alti^d, a. d. SS&.—Speiman. They were established by order of 
Gregory Vir. In 1708, and teimed Ferice, at which the monks celebratuttht 
festival of their patron saint; the vast resort of people ooeasioned a great de- 
mand for goods, wares. &o. They were called wakes from the people hiakin; 
merry during the vigil, or eve. Fairs were eatabliahed in France and Eng 
land by Charlemagne and William the Conqueror, about i. d. 800 in th. 
first, and 1071 in the latter kingdom. The fairs of Beaucaire, Falaiae, an', 
Leipsic, are the most fiunous in Europe. 
FALKIRK, Battle op, between the English under Edwacd I. and the Scola, 
commanded by the heroic Wallace, in which 40,000 of the latter were slai:; 


feu] nioTioBAiiy of batrs. 319 

(he whole Scotch army was broken up, aiid was ctiased off the field with 

dreadful slaughter, July 22, 1298. 

the seven years in Egypt bagaii 1708 e, c, — Vshsr; Blair. Id a fimiine that 

raged at Rome tliousauds of the people threw tliemaelves into the Tiber, 

48B H. c. U-pij. 

Awful famliiB In Esyp ad 42 isnreil he flesh of horas, dogs cats, 

AtRomB.alLenaedVpl^ue ^ffl and r -mm A 9 1316 

In Biilain, BO griBTOua ha people a e 1 On r r Rapt ) 1353 


ml laa 

^ ong the lao 

was borrowed from the East Fans toffether Tt th MUfTs niatSs a d felee 
hair, wereflrstdevised by the harlots in Italy and we ab U(^littoE gland 
from France, — SUrme. The (bxl was used by fumales to hide theii; fiicea in 
. church. — Pardon. 

FARCE. This speciefi of dramatio enterfiuTiinent originaled in the droll shows 
which were exhibited by charlatans and their buffoons in the open street. 
These were introduced into oar theatres in a ludicrous and more refined 
form; and they are now only shorter, but ofWn superior to the pieces called 
comedies. See article Draiaa. 

FASTING, AND FASTS, They were practised and observed by most nations 
from the remotest antiquity. Aonual fiists, as that of Lent, and at other 
stated times, and on particular occasions, begun in the ChiTstian church, 
to appease the anger of God, in the second centaty, a. d. 138. Retained as 
a pious practice by the reformed churches. — Evisebias. 

■iTIASTS AfTO FESTIVALS. The ftast of the Tabernacles was instituted by 

■ Moses in the wilderness, 14B0b.c., but was celebrated with the greatest 
magnificence for fourteen days, upon the dedication of the temple of Solo- 
mon, 1O06 B. a.— Josep&its. In the Christian church, those of Chviatmaa, 
Easter, Ascension, and Pentecost or Whitsuntide, were first ordered to be 
obseiTed by all Christians, s. d. 68. Rogation days were appointed in 469. 
jubilees in the Romish church were insiituted by Boniface Till, in 1300. 
See JuMlees. For fixed ftstivals observed in the church of England, as set- 
tled at the Reformation, el seq., see Boole of Common Prayer. 

FEBRtTART. The second month of the year, so called from Febnia, a feadi 
which was held therein in behalf of the manes of diseased persons, when 
sacrifices were performed, and the last offices wete paid to tlie shades of the 
dead. This month, with January, was added to the year, which had pre- 
viously but ten months, by Numa, 713 e. c. See Calendar, and Year. 

FERRARA. A city in the papal dominions, evacuated by the Anstrians, ex- 
cept the citadel, Dec. 23, 1^7. 

FEUDAL LAWS. The tenure of land, by anit or service to the lord or oivner 
of it, was introduced int« England by the Saxons, about a. d. 600. The 


Blavery of this tenure was increased nnder William. I. in 10G8. This was 
done by dividing tlie kingdom into barorxies, and giving them to certain 
peraons, requiring them to fliroiali the king with monay, an'd a stated num- 
ber of soldiers. These laws were discounlenanced in Prance by Louis XI. 
in 1470- The vassalage was restored, but limited by Henry Til. 1495. Abol- 
ished by statute 12 Charles II. 166B. The feudal system was introduced into 
Scotlomd by Malcohn II. in 1008 ; and ivas finally abolished in that kingdom 
20GfeorgeII. 1716.— LMetois; Rafhead; Black^te. 
TEDILLANS. Mejnbersof a society fbrmed in Paris to coraiteract the intrigues 
and operations of the Jacobins, named from the Penillan convent, where 
their meetings were hold, early in the revolution. A body of Jacobh.i 
Snveated ilie building, burst into their hall, and obliged them to separate, 
Deo. 26, 1791. 

FEZ. Tad ancient MawUania, founded by Edms, a Eai'bary annei", about 
i. n. 696. It soon afterwards became the capital of all the western Bl, roco 
States. Leo Africanus describes the Manrltani aa containing more than 
seven hundred (emplES, mosqnes, and other public ediflces, in the twelfth 

FICTION LAW. Invented by the towyers ta the reign of Edward I. as a meari 
of carrying cases fiom one court to another, whereby the courts became 
checks to each other. — Hiime. Memorable declaration of Lord Mansfield, 
in the court of King's Bench, emphatically uttered, that "no pictcoh op law 

PREVENT THE EXECUTios OF JU.^TicE," May 31, 17M. This constitutionfJ 
maxim is now a rule of law. 

FIEF. In France we find fieft-men mentioned as early as the age of Childebert 
I,, A. D. 511. They were introduced into Italy by the Lombai'ds. Into Spain, 
before (he invasion of the Moors, *. d, 710. Into England by the- Saioc , 
(see li^dai Laws). Into Scotland, dkectly from England, hy MolcolmlL, 1008. 

FIELD ov TBB CLOTH op GOLD. Henry YIU. embarked at Dover to meet 
Francis I. of France, at Ardres, a small town near Calais in France, May SI, 
1520. The nobility of both kingdoms here displayed their magnificence with 
such emulation and proflise expense, as procured to the place of interview 
(an open plain) the name of TSe fHdd of the Clea of Gdd. Many of tiie 
king's attendants JDVolved themselvea in great debts on this ocoaaion, and, 
were not able, by the penury of the rest of their lives, to repair the vair: 
splendor of a ffew days. Apaintiug of the embarkation, and another of th. 
interview, are at Windsor Castle. — BuSei: 

FIFTH MONARCHY-MEN. Fanatical levellers who arose in the time of 
Cromwell, and who supposed the period of the Millennium to be just at 
hand, when Jesus should descend from heaven and erect the flfth nniversi.l 
monarchy. Theyactually proceeded to elect Jesus Christ king at London! 
Cromwell dispersed them, 1663. 
FIGtJEES. Atjthmeticai figures (nine digits and zero), and the method of 
computing by them, were brought into Europe from Arabia, about a. a. 90^*. 
They were first known in England about the year I2B3, previously to whicn 
time the numbering by lett^ waa in use there. See Arit/imetic. 
FIRE. It is said to have been Svat produced by striking flinfa together. The 

Enets suppose that fire was stolen from heaven by Prometheus. Zoroaster, 
ing of Bactria, was the founder of the sect of the Magi, or worshippers of 
Fire, since known by the appellation of Gaebres, still numerous in the coun- 
tries of the East, 2115 B.c.—Jusiinf PHay. Heraclitns maintained that the 
■world was created from fire, and he deemed it to be a god omnipotent, and 



BATES, 331 

tai^ht this theory about 506 b. c.—Neuv. Diet. In the Scriptnrea God is 
saia often to have appeared In, or encompassed w!th five — as to Moses in the . 
burning bnsh, on niount Sinai ; and to the prophets Isaiah, Eaeltiel, and St. 
John. The wrath of God is described by a consuming Are, aad fha angels, 
as hia ministeta, are compared to it. See the Bible. 

FIRE-ARMS. Small arms were contrived by Schwartz, a. b, 1378; they were 
bron^ht to England about 1388. Fire-arms were a prodigious rarity in Ire- 
land in 1489, when six muskel^ were sent from Germany as a present Co the 
earl of Kildare, who was then chief-governor. Muskets were first used at 
the Eiege of Rhegen, in 1635. The Spaniards were the first nation who 
armed the foot soldier with these weapons.— UUoa. VoJtaire states, that the 
Venetians were the first Co use guns, in an engagemeuC at sea against the 
Genoeae, in 1877; but our historians affirm, that the English had gvuisat the 
battle of Cressy, in 1340; and the year following at the siege of Calais. See 

PTRE-ENGINES. The fire-engine ia of modem invention, although deforcing 
ptimp, of which it ia an application, is more than two centuries old. Tlie 
fire-engine, to force water, was consti'ucted by John Tander Heydun, about 
the year 1663; it was improved materially In 1752, and from that time to the 
present. The fire-watch, or fii-e-gviard of London, was instituted November 
1791. The fire brigade was established in London in 1838. 
:(PIRE-SHIPS. The^ were Brat used in the sixteenth century. Among the most 
formidable contrivances of this kind ever used, was an explosion vessel to 
destroy a bridge of boats at the siege of Antwerp, in 1685. The first use of 
them in the English navy was by Charles, lord Howard of Effingham, after- 
wards earl of Nottingham, lord high admiral of England, in the engagement 
with the Spanish Armada, Jaly, 1688.— .Bopin,. 

FIRE- WORKS. Are said to have been fiuniliar to the Chinese in remote agee : 
they were invented In Europe at Florence, about a. d. 1800 ; and were first 
exhibited as a spectacle in 1688. At an exbibitaon of fire- works in Paris, 
in honor of the marriage of the dauphin, afterwards Lotus XVI., the pas- 
sages being stopped up occasioned such a crowd, that the people, seized with 
a panic, trampled upon one another till they lay in heaps ; a scaffold erected 
over the river also broke , down, and hundreds wete drowned ; move than 
1000 persona perished on this occflsion, June 21, 1770. Madame Blanchard 
ascending from TivoW Gardens, Paris, at night, m a balloon aurronnded by 
(ire-works, the balloon took fire, and she was precipitated to the gi'ound, and 
dashed to pieces, July 6, 1819. See BaUoon. 

FIRES. Some of the most noted and destructive in North America. 

In New York, dBalroylng 601 

la nspstt 

- ec.lS, If 

.t GhaTlutoD, &. n. ; 146 hi 

Philndelnhia ; 52 buiiaingB; :oss, 

*m>m ■ ■ ■ Oct. 4, 1839 

PiilBburgh, Pa. 1,000 Uuildings, and 

properLV valued aboul S6,03,DDa 

April 10, 184^ 
auebeo, Canada; IJiOO housEa hnnit. 

John's, Newfo 

, and property wonli 

uQi^liuKl : neaxly tha 
lrojed--6W0 paopla 
RdjbI ; 47 psnoM 

buildup, valued 

- July 13, ; 

rniUa, Md., enpldded, 

May 17, IS 
July 9, la 



FIRE OP LONDON, the GREAT. Destroyed in the Space of four days eighty- 
nine cliurcliea, including St. Paul's ; the city gates, the Royal Esehange, the 
Custom House, Guildhall, Sion College, and many oiher public buildings 
besides 13.200 houses, laying waste 400 streets. This eonti^ation happened 
(not without strong suspicion of treason), Sept. 2, 1668, and continued three 
(lays and nights, and was at last only extinguished by the blowing up of 
houses. — Hw/ae; Rapin; Carte. 
.FIRST FRUITS. PrimUia: among the Hebrews. The)[ were offerings which 
made a large part of the revenues of the Hebrew priesthood. First fruits 
were instituted by pope Clement V., in a.d. 1306; and were eoDected in 
England in 1816. The first year's income of every church benefice in Eng- 
land was given to the popes till the 2Tth of Henry VUL, 1535, when the" 
first fhiits were assigned, by act of pai'liament, to the king and his sncces- 
Eors. — Carte. Granted, together with the tenths, to inci'ease the incomes of 
the poor clergy, by queen Anne, Feb. 1704. Consolidation of the offices or 
First Fruits, Tenths, and <iueen Anne's Bounty, by Statute 1 Yict., .Ipril 
FLAGELLANTS, Sect op. They established themselves at Perensc, a. d. 
1260. They maintained that there was no remission of sins without flagel- 
lation, and publicly lashed themselves, while in pi'ocession, preceded by t^T 
cross, until the blood ftowed from their naked baclcs. Their leader, Conrat. 
Schmidt, was burnt, 1414. 
FLANDERS. The country of the ancient Belgte ; conquered by Julins Ctesar, 
47 s. c. It pa^ed into the hands of France, i. d. 412. It was governed by 
Its earls subject to that crown from 864 to 1869. It then came into the 
house of Austria by marriage ; but was yielded to Spain in 1666. Flanders 
shook off the Spanish yoke in 1672 ; and iu 1725, by the ti-eaty of Vienna, it 
was annexed to the Geiman empire. — PriesUey. Flanders was overrun by 
the French in 1792 and 1794, and was declared part of their Republic ^ 
was made part of the kingdom of the Netherlands in 1814, and was erectei 
into the kingdom of Belgium in 1881.— See Belgimi. 
FLAX. The flax seed was first planted in England in a, d. 1538. Foe many 
ages tlio core was separated from the flax, the bark of the plant, by the hand. 
A mallet was next used; hut the old methods of breaking and scutohing the 
flax yielded to a water-mUl which was invented in Scotland about 1750. 
See article Hemp, 
FLODDEN FIELD, Battle op, between the English and Scots. James IV. of 
Scotland, having taken part with Louis XII. of France, against Henry VHI. 
of England, this battle was one of the consequflnces of his unfortunate policy ; 
and James, and most of his chief nobles, and upwards of 10,000 of his army 
were sliun, while the English, who were commanded by the earl of Surry, 
lost only persons of smidl note. Henry VHI. was at the thae besiegiog 
Terauenne, near St, Omer ; fought Sept. 9, 1513. 
FLORENCE. It is said to have been founded by the soldiera of Sylla, and en- 
larged by the Roman Triumviri. It was destroyed by Totila, and was re- 
built by Charlemagne. This city is truly the seat of the arts. In its pal- 
aces, university, academies, churches, and libraries, are to be found ti, i 
rarest works of sculpture and painting in the world. The Florentine acad- 
emy, and the Accademia delta Omsca, were instituted to enrich the literature 
and improve the kingnage of Tuscany; the latter is so named because It 
re.jecfa like iran all words not purely Tnscan, Florence was taken by the 
French in July 1796, and again in Mai-ch, 1799 ; and was restored in 1814. 
FWRIDA, now one of tlie United Slates, was discovered by Sebastian Cabot 
sailing under the English flag, in 1487. Ponce de Leon, a Spanish adven- 


DATES, 393 

tmer from Hispaniola, explored the country in 1512 and 1516. In 1539, 
Hernando de Soto, who had been an officer midar Pizurro, overran the penin- 
eula with an armed force, but most of his followers were cut off a few years 
after. In 1768 Florida was ceded fo Great Britain by Spain in exchiuige for 
Havana. Tlie Spanish reconquered it in 1781, and ceded it to the United 
Stales in 1819. It waa admittedinto the Union in 1845. First war with the 
Sominoles in Florida in 1818, when general Jackson subdued them. Another 
protracted and expensive warfare there commenced and continued until 
1842. General Jeasup, geneitil Taylor, and others, were engaged in it. The 
Seminole chief, Osceola, was captured, 1837. Popnlataon 5n 18S0, 34,728; 
in 1840, 54,477 iuciuding 25,717 slaves. 

FLORIN. A coin first made by the Florentines. A fioreit was issued by Ed- 
ward III, which was current in England at the value of 6s., in 1337. — Cuni- 
den. This English coin was called fioren after the Florentine coin, because 
the latter was of the best s°^i..—Aske. The florin cf Germany is in value 
2s. U. ; tliat of Spain 4s. ^d. ; that of Palermo and Sicily 2s. 6i ; that of 
Holland i,s.--AyUge. 

FLOWERS. The most delightful and fragrant among the ornaments of our 
gardens are of foreign production. The modem taste for flowers came, it is 
said, tVom Persia to Constantinople, and was imported tbence to Europe for 
the first time in the sixteenth century ; at least many of the productions of 
our gardens were conveyed by that channel.— Becimanii. With what good- 
ness does God provide foi' our happiness and eiyoymenls. hy making even 
the most remote countries contribute towards them I — Siurm. From the 
roignof Henry that of Elizabeth, our present common flowers were, 
for the most part, introduced into England. The art of preserving flowers 
in sand was discovei'ed in 1688. A mode of preserving tham Grom the effects 
of frost in winter, and Iiastening their vegetation in summer, was invented 
in America, by George Mon-js, !n 1792. Among the flowers, the periods of 
whose introduction to English gardens have been traced, Haydn gives the 
following : — 

J, i64n 

iQweKd, Cape 

GUljflower, F]iinl1< 

lolS-pIaiH, Ja 

er, Irloiieir 

Heath, perfumed. Gape 

Ijibumun), Hungary 
Laurel. Aleitandriart, Fonnga] 
LaureailiiB, souih of Europe, t 
LaiendBr, sanLb of Eunipe, be 
Lily, luily, before - 
Lily, gicaalic, N. South Wale 
Lily, raA-colorel, Soulh Aineii 

Magnolia (see Magnolia'), N. i 


leaved, N. A 


FLOWERS, eonHnusd. 

HUfc-wort, greaX-flowefed, Cape - 
Milk-wort, ahowy, Cape 

Itock orange, aoiiai of Europe, bel 

Mjitl^ wooUy-iBavcdj China - 

OUre, Cap'o, Cape - ' - 
OUre, Bweatscenlea, Cbina 
Oleander, red, soulb of Kuvopa 

SE&'KT.""""- ■ 

Rf^, Ihe dfiEoafilEf Marseilles, a 
ItDBfi, the Japan, uiina 

[he moak, Italy 
(as Ptuvence, Plandera - 
"~ iI-sceTUefl guelder, f 

Roae, BiTBel 
Chioa - 

Rofie, nber fivm Java an 
™wi out oras, 

HoaeiDu;, soulJi of Eurc 

Safe] Meiican, Meideo 
Saaaafraa iree, N. America* before 

^lowdrop, GanoliTia 


Ttumpet-nower, Cape 

Tulip, Vienna. - 

Virginia creeper N. America, bofo 

Weeping wtUoWrLoTanljb-'' — 

FLTTTE. Invented by Hyagnis, a Phrygiai 

The flufe, harp, lyre, and other in3tm._ _. 

and the flute waa so prized in antiquity, that seTeral female deities lay 
oiaimto its invantioa. It was in far more geneval use sa a concert insteu 
ment than the Tiolin, until early in the last oeiituiy, when the worlo of Co- 
reUi came oyer.-^ee MnsU. 
FLUXIONS. Invented by Newtoo, 1869, The differential calculus hy Leib- 
nita, 1684. The finest applications of the calculus are by Newton, Euler. 
LaGrangie, and La Place, 
FLYING, Ahtipicijl. It has heen attempted in all ages. Friar Bacon main- 
tained the possibility of the art, and predicted it wonid be of general prac- 
tice, 4. D. 127S. Bishop Wilkins says, it will yet he as nsnal to hear a. man 
KiJl ftjr his wings when ho is going on a iouroey, as it ia now to hear him 
call for his boots, 1651. We appraheiid that many ages will pass away pi-e- 
Tlously to the accomplishment al these predictions. 
FONTAINEBLEAU, Peaob of, concluded between France and Denmark in 
1B79. Treaty of Fontainebleau between the emperor of Gfennaiiy and 
Holland, signed November 8, 1785. Treaty of Fohtainohlean between Na- 
poleon and the royal femily of Spain, Oct. 27, 1807. Concordat of Fon- 
tainebleau between Napoleon and pope Pins VII. January 26, 1818. Fon- 
iainebleau was entered by the Austrians, Feb. 17, 1814. And here 
Napoleon resigned his imperial dignity, and bade a ferewell to his army, 
April 5, 1814. 
FOSTENOr, Battle op, near Toumay, between the French under count Sase, 
and the English, Hanoverians, Dutch, and Aostrians, commanded by the 
duke of Cuiaberland. The battle was fooghtwith great obstinacy, and the 
carnage on both sides was constdcrablB, the allies losing 12,000 men, and 
the Fi-encli nearly an equal number of Uvea ; but the allies were in the end 
defeated. Count Saxe, who was at the thae III of the disorder of which 
he afterwards died, was oai'ried about to all the posta in a litter, assarinj 
his troops that tlie day would ha their own ; April 30, 1746. 
FONTS. Formerly the baptistry was a small room, or place partitioned off in 
a church, where the persons to be baptized (many of whom in the early 


ages were adultaj, were submerged. Preyioualy to these artificial reser- 
voirs, lakes and rivers were resorted to for immersion. Fonts for the iaitia- 
fion into Chriatiaulty were instituted in a. d. 167. 
FOOLS, Fbbtitai.3 op, at Paris. They were held on the first of January, and 
were continued for 240 yeais. In their celebration, we are toM, all sorts of 
abautdities and indecencies wei-e committed, i.n, 1198. Fools or licensed 
Jesters were kept at court in England (as they were at other courts of Eu- 
rope), and were tolerated up to the time of Charles 1. 1S25. 

FORESTS. There were in England, eyen in the last century, as many as SS 
forests, 18 chases, and upwards of 780 parks. The New Forest in Hamp- 
shire was made by William 1., who for tliat purpose desti'oyed 36 parishes, 
pulled down 86 churches, and dispeopled the country for 80 miles round, 
A. D. 1078-86.— Sioiue, 

TORGERY IN England, Tholbrging of, or giving in evidence foi^d deeds, &c., 
made punishable by tine, by standing in the pillory, having^ both ears cut 
off, the nostrils slit up and seared, the forfeiture of land, and perpetual 
imprisonment, 5 Elizabeth, 1662. Forgery was first punished by death ia 

FORGERV, Remarkable Executions fob. The uoforhinate Daniel and Ro- 
bert Pen'eau. brothers and wine-merehanta, were banged at Tyhuni, Jao- 
uary 17, 1776. The rev. Dr. Dodd was found guilty of forging a bond,, in 
the name of Lord Chesterfield, for 4,2001. : the greatest interest was made, 
and the highest infiuence was exerted to save him, but when the case came 
before the council, the minister of the day said to George HI,, " if your 

majesty pardon Dr. Dodd, you will have murdered the Perreaue ;" and he 
was hanged accordingly, June 27, 1777. Mr. Henry Faantleroy, a Loni" "~ 
banker, was hanged, November 30, 1824, Joseph Hunton, a quaker m 

chant, suff^ed deatji, December 8, 182S. The last criminal hanged for 
forgery at the Old BaUey, was Thomas Mayoard, December 31, 1829. 
FORKS. They were in use on the Continent in the 13Ui and 14th centuries.— 
VoUaire. This is leasonably disputed, aa being too early. In Fynes Mory- 
son's lUneranj, reign of Eiiaabeth, he says, " At Venice each person was 
served (besides his knife and Epoon) with a fbrk to bold the meat while he 
cuts its for there tbey deem it ill manners that one should touch it with his 
hand." Thomas Coryate deacriljes, with much solemnity, the manner of 
using forks in Italy, and adds, " I myself have thought it good to imital« 
the ftalian fashion since I came home to England," a. d IWB 

I^ORTIFIOATION. The Phcenidans were the first people who had fortified 
cities. Apollodorus says that Perseus fortified Mycenie where statuei 
were afterwards erected to him. The modem system was introduced about 
A. D. 1500. Albert Dnrer first wrote on the science in lo27 , and imptove 
menis were made by Vauban, towai'ds 1700. 

FOTHERINGAY CASTLE, Northamptonshire, Built a. », 1408, Here Richard 
III, of England was bom in 1448 ; and Mary queen of Scots, whose death 
is an indelible stain upon the rei^ of our great Elizabeth, was beheaded 
in this castle, in which she had been long previously confined, February 8, 
1587, after an uti.imt and cruel captivity of aimost nineteen years in Eig|- 
land. It was ordered to be demolished by her son James I. of England. 

FOUNDLING HOSPITAL. " A charity practised by most nations about ua 
for those cliildreo esposed by unnatural parButa."- Arfrfisnm, Foundling 
hospitals are, comparatively, of recent institution in England, where it 
would appear none existed when Addison wrote. The foundling hospital 

' "" " - ■ B n., was an immense and costly ediSce, in 

re encGored. 




FRANCE. This country was Itnoiyn to tlie Romans by the name of Gaul, In 
the dedine of their powar it was cononered by the Franks, a peopleof Ger- 
many, then inhabiting what is stiil called Franoonia. These invaders gave 
the name to the liingdom ; but t)ie Ganla, being; by ihr the most numerous, 
are the real ancestors of lie modem French. Previous to tlie revolotlon, 
France was divided into 83 provinces; Mid after that era it was divided, 
first into 8i, and anbaeqnently into 103, departoenta, including Corsica, 
Geneva, Savoy, and other places, chiefly conquests. TaS. Vieies, 65 et aeq. 
rolm n. j aled aucld™lj in iha Samj, 

phJiL (See arcicle Datip^ 

..,a Charles Vli' the Vict jioiiB. 
1461. LDub XL, delesled for his 

1, tho lUTablo. 

c of hia People.' 

died of a wounc 

743. ChildBriB lu, the Slupid , 

pri3oned in a muQasieiy. 
SW. Cfiarles II.. aumamed the Bald; poi- 

879! CailoHjan and Looia' IH. The larar 
died, 6S3. OarlQtnsn reigned alone. 
?3t Charles Ihe Fal ; an usurper. 

993. Rudolph.''™™' 

HW Loui3lV,,d>OulreIoer;dledtiyafaU 

Uf^, Lulhatre IlLpdamed; It is EsJd by 

336. Louis y. rtie Indolenlj poisoned bj^ 

[he ^iC6 of ChE^lerEmgne. 

Ser, Hugh Capel. frotn whom, *ia ntoo of 
996. HoS^SBgl P^'"'S'ans. 

1031. Benr; I. 

lOSQ. PhiUp I^ ;he Fair. 

lice. Louts vL the LuBt7. 

1137. LduIb VIL, tJia YoiiDg. 

1181^ l^jiip n., AuADBtuB. 

ISSl LouiB VIIL, ila Lion. 

1S1». Louie IX., F«1l«d SC Louii; chad in 

127a Fhil!p™SflIieHa'nlT™*' '™"^'"' ' 

1285. Fhliip IV., Ihe Handsome. 

1314. Lonis X., iHiiiin. 

I31C, Phillji v.. Lhol^nv. 

1498. Louis 

nets 11, ; 

Henij in. eleole'd khi| of Poland ; 
01eMnl.BDu°intnican^rta?. ^^*^s 

llenrj IV.j'lhs Qreal, of BouiDon, 
CIS Ilsrlllae <Ste EaviUae ) 

Louis XI V*, the Greal, ala. sljled 

ror, Ma, 18, 
pope, Cec. a 

italj, Apr. 5, 

May 3, 1814: dies. Sept 16. 1834, 
i. Cliaries X. ; deposed, Snij 30, 1830, 

I ; declared " king ti 



FRANCHISE, A privilege, or exemption from ordinary jurisclictioQ; and an- 
ciently an asylnm or Ganctnury where tlie person was secure. In Spain, 
diordies and monasteriea were, imtil lately, franchiaes for criminals, as they 
were formerly in England. Tbe elective ftanchise was conferred for coun- 
ties on persons having iOi, a, year in land, 89 Henry VI., 1160. — Rafflisad's 
Slaiulcs. See Etectors. 
rRANCiSCANS. An order of ftiara, called also Gray Friara, in tlia Church 
of Rome, founded by Francis de Assise in a. d. 12(&, or, according to some 
autliorities, about 1220. Their rules were chastity, poverty, obedience, and 
very austere regimen of life. In 1224 they are said to hav& appear ed i n 
England, where, at the time of the dissolution of Monasteries by Henry ViU., 
they had fifty-flve abbeys or other houses, a. d. 1586-S8, 
FRANKFORT on Tae Maih. Many ages a free city ; it was talien and retaken 
several times dm'ing the wars of the late and present centuries, and felt the 
iroa rule of Bonaparte from 1803 to 1818, when its independence was guar- 
anteeii by fie allieii soyereigns. The diet of the princes of Germany was 
established here by tlie Rhenish confederation in 1806. 
FREDERICKSHALL, Siege op. Rendered memorable by the death of 
Cliarles XH., of Sweden, who was killed by a cannon-shot before ita walls, 
and chile in the trenches, leaning against the parapet, examining the works. 
He ivas fonnd in that position, with his hand upon bin sword, and a prayer- 
book in his pocket, Dec. 11, 1718. It is now generally" supposed that a pis- 
tol flred by some near and traitorous hand closed the career of this cele- 
brated monarch, who was too aptly styled tbe " Madman of the North." 
FREE5IAS0NRF". It is of great antiquity. Writers on xnasowy, themselves 
masons, affirm that ib has had a being " ever since symmetry began, and 
harmony displayed her eharuia." Masonry is traced by some to the build- 
ing of Solomon's temple ; and it is said tbe architects &om tbe African coast, 
Mahometans, brought it into Spain, about the sixth century, as a prot«c- 
tioa against Christian f^atics. Its introduction into Great Britain has been 
flied at tbe year a. d. 674 ; although by other authorities it is assigned .a 
much earlier date. The grand lodge at York was founded a. d. 926. Free- 
masonry was interdicted m England, a. d, 1424 ; but it afterwards rose into 
great repufa. In 1717, the grand lodge of Enghind was established j thai 
of Ireland was established in 1730 ; and that of Scotland in 1786. Freema- 
sons were excommunicated by the pope, in 1738. 
/FRENCH LANGUAGE. The language of France and many of the Fi'ench 
laws and customs were first introduced into England by William I. 1066. 
The laiwnage, and fashions in dress and diet were then very general in Eng- 
land. Law pleadings were changed ftom French to English, in the reign of 
Edward lU., 1862.— .Siowe. 
FRENCHTOWN, Canada. This town, was taken ftom the British by tbe 
American general, Winchester, January 22, 1818. It was retaken by the 
British forces under general Proctor, immediately afterwards, and tlie Ameri- 
can commander and his troops were made prisoners. 
c'RERCH WAR, in North America. The fli'st war between France and Eng- 
land, which was carried on also by the American colonies, 1689. The 
French destroyed Schenectady, N.T.,Casco, Me. ,&c., 1690; but were defeated 
by Schuyler at La Prairie, 1601. Peace of Rj^Wyck, 1B97. " Queen Anne's 
war," 1702. French and Indiana ravaged Maine, 1708. French and Spanish 
invade Cnroiina, 1708. Expedition from Hew England against the French 
in Port Royal, 1707 ; and against Canada, 1710 ; both failed. Peace of 
Ufrecht, 1713. Another wai' declared by En^and. 1744; Louisbourg and 
Cape Breton taken by Englisli colonists, 1746- Peace, 1749- French e»- 



croachiaent on English colonies, 1750, leads to tlie noted Prench war, 1752-8. 
Waehington'a mission, 1764. Braddock'fl defcat, 1766. Oswego, &o, taken 
by Fcendi, 1756, and fort. William Henry, 1757. LouiBbonrg taken, ty the Eng- 
lish general Amherst, and fort Du CJaesae by general Forbes. 1758, Tioon- 
deroga, Crown Point, Niagara, and Quebec taken by tha Englieh (air W. 
Johnson and General WoUb), 1759. Canada sarrendered to Great Britain, 
Sept. 8, 1760, and secured to her by the peace of Paris, 1763. 
French alliance with the United Slates in the war of the revolution, Feb. 6, 
1778. French revolntion and politiea caosed sei'iona diseensions in the 
United States, 1793-6. French spoliations on American commerce, 1797. 

FRIDAY. The sixth day of the week ; so called from Friga, a goddess wov 
sliipped by our forefathere on this day, commonly supposed to be the same 
with Venus. Friga was the wife of ITior, and goddess of peace, fertility, 
and riches. Good-Friday is a fiust in the church of England in memory of 
oui' Saviour's crucifljcion, April 3, 33. See Oaod Friday. 
FRIEDLAND, Battle of, between the allied HusBian and Prussian armies on 
the one aide, and the French, commanded by Napoleon in person, who com- 
plelely vanquislied the allies, with the losa of eighty pieces of cannon, and 
60,000 men, June 14, 1807. This victory lad to the peace of Tilsit by wbict 
Russia lost no territory, but Prnssia was obliged to siirrendei' nearly half hei 
FRTENDLT ISLES. These islands were discorered byTasman, .i.n. 1642. 
Visited by Wallis, who called them Keppel Isles, 1767 ; and by capt. Cook, 
who called them by their present name on acoonnt of the fiiendly disposi- 
tion of the natives, 1773. 
FRIENDLY SOCIETIES, Enolaho. These useful institutions originated in 
the clubs of the industrious classes ; and since they began to spring into 
importance they have been regulated and protected by various leglslaUve 
enactments. They have now, witb other similar institutions, more than 
twenty millions sterling in the public funds. Laws regarding Friendly 
Societies consolidated by statute, Jmie, 1829. See Chterilies. 
FRIESLAND. Formerly governed by its own counts. On the death of prince 
Charles Edward, in 1744, it became subject to the king of Pi'uaaia ; Han- 
over disputed its possession, but Prussia prevailed. It was annexed to Hol- 
land by Bonaparte, in 1806, and afterwaids to the French empire; but 
Prussia I'egained the country in 1814. The term Chsvaiix de Fiise (some- 
times, though rarely, written Ckeval de Prise, a Frksiand Horse) is deriveC. 
tirom Friealand, where it was invented. 
FROBISHEB'S STRAITS. Discovered by sir MarMn Frobisher, tie first Eng- 
lishman who attempted to find a northwest passage to China, in 1676. 
After exploring the coast of New Greenland, he entered this strait, which 
has ever since been called by his name. Frobisher returned to Ehgland, 
bringing wiHi him a quantity of black ore, which visa supposed to contMn 
gold, and which induced queen Elizabeth to patronize a second voyage, and 
lend a sl6op of war for the purpose. The delusion was even kept up to a 
third expedition ; but all of them proved fruitless. 
FROSTS. The Euxine Sea frozen over for twenty days, a.d. 401.— Djmjj. HaL 
A frost at Constantinople which commenced in October, 763, and continued 
until February of the next year ; the two seas there were frozen a hundred 
miles from the shore. — Univ. Hist. A frost in England on Midsummer-day 
was so violent that it destroyed the fruits of the earth, 1036.— Spiwd. The 
fr'ost in Russia in 1812 sui'passed in inlenseness that of any winter in that 
country for many preceding years, and caused the total destniction of the 
French army in its retreat from Moscow, at tJie close of that memorab!" 



year. Hapoleon commenced, hie retreat on the 9tli November, when the 
frost eovcred the ground, and the men perished in battalions, and the horsea 
fell bj hundreds on the roads. What with her loss in battle, and the effects 

FRUITS OF FOEEIGN COtTNTRIES. Several varieties of fruit are mentioned 
as having been introduced into Italy, 70 i. c, e( seq. Exotic fi'uits and 
flowers of various kinds, previously nnknown in England, were brought 
thither in the reigns of Henry VII. and VHI., and of Mary a.nd Elizabeth, 
between the years 1500 and 1578. See Gardening, and Flowers. Among 
others of less note, were musk-melons, plum-trees, and cnrrant-pIaDts of sun- 
dry sorts, the mnsk and damask rosesi tulips, &«. ; also saffron, woad, and 
other drugs for dyeing, hut these last were attempted to be eoltivated with- 
as.—Hacklv^; Lord Kaimes. The following are among tie iVuJts 

whose introduction 

Apple, ^e Oaiga, ditto 

Chefrj-ixeBfl, FmiluB 
Cornelian rherrj, AubWb - 

Fig, the Botany-bay, New Sooth 
Gooeoberrles, Flana«rs, belbi'e 

trapse, Fortugal 
:3, Ponugal - 

n traced ;- 
I Multerrj 

pMcies^ Ps 

i, from Notlh 

Sooth Wales 1789 

Pippins, Neiheria 

Raspberry, ihe flowering, N. America 
Baap''errj,lheVirginMq, ditto, belbre 
Sitawbcrry, PlanrteiB . - ■ 

Strawheny, Ihe Orienlal Lovenl 
Walnut, ±B black, a. America, before 

iS40. The English funding system, or the method of raising the auppliej 

fbr the public service in Englnnd, by anticipations of the public 

(the or^n of the national debt), introduced at the Revolution, 1"' 

time's Sreker. The funding system is coeval with the comme 

tiie Bank of England. — Anderson. The Three per cent, annuities ware crea^ 

ted in 1726. The Three per cent, consols were created in 1781, The Three 

Ccent. reduced, 1746. Three per cent, annnities, payable at the Sonth Sea- 
ise, 1751. Three and a-half pei' cent, annuities created, 1768. Long annni- 
ties, 1761. Foar per cent, consols, 1793, Five per cent, annuities, 1797, and 
1802. Five per cents, reduced to four, 1822. See jVoiiontiZ Debt. 

FUNERAL GAMES are mentioned by most early writers. Amon^ the Greeks 
they were chiefly horse races; and among the Romans, processions and the 
mortal combats of gladiators around the funeral pile. These games were 
iibolished by the emperor Claudius, a, n. 47. Funeral orations have a hea- 
then origin. Solon was the first who spoke one, 580 b, c. They ware iti- 
dispensahle among the Romans ; the custom of led horses took place a. n 
12ie. A tax laid on fiinerals in England, 1793. 

FUNERAL ORATIONS. The Romans pronounced harangues over their dead, 
when people of quality, and great deeds, and virtues. Theopompns obtain- 
ed a prize for the best l\ineral oration in praise of Mausolus, 858 n. c. Po- 
pilia was the firat Roman lady mho had aa oration pronounced at her ftmera] 


330 THE world's progress. [ GAR 

which was done by her son Crassus ; nod it ia observed by Cicero that Juhus 
CiBsar did the lilte for his aunt Julia, and his wife Cornelia. In Greece, 
Solon was the first who pronounced a funeral oration, according to Herodo- 
tus, 580b. o. 
ETJR. The reflced nations of antiquity never iised fara: in later times, aa lux- 
ury advanced, they were uaed by princes as lini^ for their teuts. They 
were worn by our llrst Henry, about a. b. 1135, Edwai'd HI. enacted tha* 
all such persons aa could not spend lOOi. a year, should be prohibited this 
species of finery, 1837. 

GALLEYS. The ancient galleys with three rows of rowers, tii-temes, were 
invenWd by the Corinthians, 786 e. a.—Blnir. They were built at Athens, 
786 B. c. For an account of their construction and the method of fighting 
in them, See Polyiius. 

GALVANISM. The discovery of it is recent; it was first noticed in 1767, by 
Saltaar; but it was not tjU about 1789 that Mrs. Qalvani. wife of Dr. Galvani 
of Bologna, accidentally discovered its extraordinary effects on animals i and 
fl'om the name of the discoverer it was called galvanism. Mrs. Galvant 
having observed the convnlsiona produced in the muscles of frogs by th^ 
contact of mefals, directed her husband's attention to the phenomenon : ai.i 
in 1791, Galvani announced the result of his observations on this snlyect. 
Smoe that period a great many esperimente have been made, an4 many cu- 
rious fiicts observed, which have eici ted duch attention among philoeopherj'. 
See Electro- Gaivamsm. Bonaparte, after the discovery of the true principles 
of galvanic eiectridty by Volta, presented hira with a goM medal, and SOOO 
livres, in 1808.— PMMips. See Mesmerism. 

GAME LAWS. The laws restricting the killing of game are peculiar to ih» 
north of Europe, and partake of l^e nature of the forest laws imposad by 
WiUiam the Conqneror, who, to preserve liis gams, made it forfeiture of 
property to disable a wild beast, and loss of eyes for a stag. buck, or boar. 
Of these laws the clergy were zealous promoters : and they protested against 
ameliorations under Henry HI. The first game act in EBgland passed in 
149C. Ganie certiflcafea were first granted with a duty in 1784-5, Nume- 
rous statutes have been passed on t^s subject from time to tjme. 

GAMINGi Excessive. Introduced into England by the Saxons; the loser was 
often made slave to the winner, and sold in traffic like other merehandiee. — 
C/^tdm I StovK. Act, prohibiting, gaming to all gentlemen (and interdicUng 
tennis, cards, dice, bowls, &c., to inferior people, except atChristmas time), 
83 Henry Till. 1541. Gaming-honsM were licensed in London in 1620. Act 
to prevent excessive and fi'audulent gaming, when all private lotteries, and 
the games of Faro, Basset, and Hazard were suppressed, 13 George II. 1739. 
— Jtaffitead's Stahdes. The profits of a well-known gaming house in London 
fbr one season have been estimated at ISO.OOW. In one niglit a million of 
money !s said to have changed bands at this place.— Le^A. 

GAMES. Those of Greece and Rome will be found under their respectiva 
heads. The candidates for athletic games in Greece used to be dieted on 
new cheese, dried figs, and boiled grain, with warm water, and no meat. The 
games were leaping, fbot-racea, darting, quoits, wreathng, and boxing. See 
the Capitoline, Is&iiian, Olympic, PyMian, Secnlar, waa other Games. 

GARDENING. Gardening was one of the first arts that succeeded the art of 
building houses.— VFaipafe. Noah planted a vineyard, and drank of the win( 
Of OTiit, flower, and Idtchen gardens, the garden of Eden was, no doub 




the protolype. — Idem,. There wants nothing but the embroidery of a par- 
terre to malie a earden in the reign of Trajan serve for a deacription of one 
in that of onr William In.— Zrfrai, The art of gardening hecatae better 
nnderstood In England about a. d 1500, hetbra which time many of our 

'-'-' e unpocted from Brabant. The era of the art was the reign 

"■"' '""" "lodem mode of gardening was introduced about 
e from the counfi^iea respectirely named :— 

"''""■ - Damascus 

■ Cjmua 

■ Cypi™ 


■ lid7 

). Willow 

Husk-melons and other rich fliiits that are now cultivated in England, and 
the pale gooseberry, together with salads, garden-roota, cabbages, &c., 
were brought from Fianders, and hops flum Artoia, in 1530. The damaak- 
rose was brought hither by Dr. Linacre, phyaioian to Henry Till., about 
1540. Pippins were bronght to England by Leonard Mascal, of Plmnatead, 
in Snasex. 1625. Currants or Corinthian grapes were first phmted in Eng- 
land in 1538, brought A«m the Isle of Zauta. The musk-rose and several 
aorta of pluma ware brought tiom Italy by lord Cromwell. Apricots came 
ftom Epirus, 1640. The tamarisk plant ivaB brought &om (jermsny, by 
arclibianop Grindal, about 1570 ; and about Norwich, the Flemings plaBted 
flowers unknown in England, as gilly-flowera, oamations, the Provence rose, 
&a., 1567. ■ Woad cams oci6i.ually from TouIoubb, in France. Tulip roots 
from Vienna, 1578 ; also, beans, peas and lettuce, now in common use, 
1600 See Mmeerst PtkHs. 
GARTER OaoER of tbb. This institution outvies all other similar (ustitu- 
t a the world. It owes its origin to Edward III., who conquered France 
and Sc tland, and brought .theu' kings prisoners to England. Edward, 
w tl a w of recoTBring Franca, wbiSi deacendad to him by right of his 
m th was eager to draw the beat soldiers of Europe into his interest^ and 
ISxe oup nprc^ectingtherevivalof king Arthur's round table, he proclaimed 
a 1 mn tilting, to mvlto fbreiguers and others of quality and courage to 
the eiercise. The king, upon New Yeai''s day, 13*4, published royal 
I tters f protection for the safe coming and returning of such foreign 
kn ghfs as had a mind to Tenhire their reputation at the jousta and tour- 
nam about to be held. The place of the solemnity was Windsor ; it 
wa b g n by a feaat, and a (able was erected in the caatle of 200 feet dia- 
D t n imitation of king Arthur's at Winchester, and the kuighlB were 
ente -ta ned at the king's own expense of 1002. a week. In 1343, Edward 
ga bis gartor for the signal of a battle that had been crowned ivith suc- 
cess ( upposed to be Creasy), and being victorious on sea and land, and 
ha mg I^vid, king of Scotland, a prisoner; and Edwaiii the Black Prince, 



his son, having expelled, the reliels ia Caetile, and enthroned the lawful so- 
Teraign, Don Pedro, he, in memory of these esploiM, institated this order 
A. D. April 23, 1349-60. Edward gave the garter pre-emmence among the 
ensigns of the order ; it ia of blue velvet bordered with goM with the in- 
scription in old French — " £hni mt qui inal y yemae " — evil to him who evil 
thinks. The knights are always installed at Windsor, and were styled 
Equilea aurea PerisceliMs, knights of the golden garter. — Beaisim. 

GAS. The inflaminable aeriform fluid was first evolved from coal hy Dr. 
Clayton, in 1789.— PAi'i. Trams. Its application to the purposes of illumi- 
nation was first tried by Mv. Murdoch, in Cornwall, in 1792. The first dis- 
play of gas-lights was made at Boulton and Watt's foundry, in Birminghani, 
on the occasion of the r^'oicings ibr peace in 1802. Gas was pennanently- 
used to the exclusion of lamps and candles at the cotton mills of Phillips 
and Lee, Manchester, where 1000 buniers were hghted, 1805. Gas-hghts 
were first introduced In London, at Gfolden-lane, August 16, 1807. They 
were used in lighting Pall Mall, in 1809 i and mere general through London 
in 181i. They were first used in Dublin in 1819, and the atreeta there ge- 
nerally lighted in October, 1825. The gas-pipes in and round London ex- 
tend to 1100 miles. The streets in New York (the first in the United States) 
first lighted with gas, 1823-4. 

GAZETTE. A paper of public intelligence and news of divers countries, first 
printed at Venice abont the year 1620, and so called (some say) becanse 
vma, gazetta, a small piece of Venetian coin, was given to buy or read it. 
Others derive the name from gssa, Italian for magpie, i. e. chatterer. — 
Tntsler. A gazette was printed in Prance in 1631 ; and one in Germany In 
1716.— Nim.^. £Hct. BUt. 

GAZETTE. THS LONDON. See iVewspaperj. The firet English gaaetle was pub- 
lished at Oxford, the court being then there on account of the plagne, Nov. 
7, 1665. On the removal of the court to the capital, the title was changed 
to the London GazeH^, Feb. 6, 1666. Ijmdon GazeUes Bxtraordmary are 
used foi the publication of extraordinary official news. One of these latter 
was forged with a view of affecting the flmds. May 22, 1787. The il'aud 
sncceeded, but the planners of it were never discovered.— PSfflipj. ■ The 
Dublin Gazette was first pubHshed in an official form about 1767. 

GENERAL ASSEMBLY of SCOTLAND. The first General Assembly of the 
church was held December 20. 1660. The General Assembly constitutes 
the highest ecclesiastical court in the kingdom ; it meets annually in Edin- 
burgh in May. and sits about ten days. It consieta of a grand commis- 
sioner, appointed by the king, who represents his majLSty and delegates 
from presbyteries, roya\ boroughs, and universities some being laymen. 
To this court all appeals from flie inferior ecclesiastical courls fie, and its 
decision is final. See CMwck of Scotland. 

GEPJEEALS. This rank hae been given to commanders fr )n» very remote 
times. Matthew de Montmorency was the first officer honored with the 
title of General of the French armies, a. q. 1203 —HeaauU It is observed 
by M. Balaac that cardinal Kichelien first coined the word Generalissimo, 
upon his taking the supreme command of the Fiench armies in Italy, in 

HENEVA. Part of the empire of Charlema^o, about t. d. 800, The Repub- 
31c was ibuuded in 1512. It became allied to the Swias Cantons in 1584. 
Memorable inBiiiTeelion here, February 1781 : about 1000 Genevans, in 
consequence of it, applied, in 1782, to earl Temple, loi-d lieutenant of Ire- 
land, for permission to settle in that country; tlie Irish parliament voted 
60,000J. to defray the expenses of their journey, and to purchase them 
lands near Waterford, called New Gfeneva. Many of the tHigitives came tc 


Irelimd in July 1783, but they soon after aliaiicloned it; at thiE period many 
Genevan families settled in England. Another revolution, July 1794. Ge- 
neva was admitted by the diet into tlie Swiss ConfederatloD, iu 1818. 

GENOA. Its aJicient inlmliitanta were Uie Liguces, wlio snbmitted to the Ro- 
mans, 116 b. c, and undecvrent the revolutions of the Roman empire till 
A. D. 950. The Genoese revolt against their count, choose a dogo and oilier 
magistrates &om among their nobility, and became an aristocratic Republic, 
108O to 1084. Several revolutions ocouiTed up to 1628, when the celebrated 
Andrew Doria rescued bis country from the dominion of foreign powers. 
Bombarded by the French in 1684, and by the British in 1688 and 1716. 
Gienoa was taken by the Imperialists, Deo. 8, 1716 ; but their oppression of 
the people was such, that tjie latler suddenly rose, and expelled their con- 
querors, who again besieged the city the next year, August 17, without 
effect, Genoa lost Corsica 1730. The celebrated bank Ihiled 1750. The 
city sustained a siege by a British fleet and Atislrian army, until literally 
starved, and was evacuated by capitulation. May 1800 ; but it was surren- 
dered to the French soon after tJieir victory at Marengo. The Jiieurian 
Hepnblic was founded upon that of Genoa, in 1801, and the d(ge sofemnly 
invested, August 10, 18tS. Genoa annexed to the French empu'c. May 26, 
1805. It sarrendered to the combined English and Sicilian army, April 18, 
1814 ; and was transfen'ed to the king of Sardinia in 1816. Insurrection 
against Tictor Emmanuel, April 1 ; subdued April 11, 1819. 

GENTLEMEN. The Gauls observing that, during the empire of the Romans, 
the SeulaTii and OenSHes had the best appointments of all the soldiers, ap' 
plied to them (he lenM eomers andgeni^shomwes. This distinction of gen- 
tleman was much in use iu England^ and wa^ given to the well descended, 
about A. D. 1430.—Sid>iep, 

REOGRAPHy. The first correct record we have of geographical knowledge 
is from Homer. He describes the shield of AchilSes as representing 
the earth, surrounded by the sea. — IMad, He accurately describes the 
countries of Greece, ishwds of the Archipelago, and site of Troy. The 
priests taught that the temple of Apollo at Delphos was the centime of the 
world. Amximander of Miletus was the inventor of geogcaphioal maps, 
about 563 B. c. Hipparchns attempted to reduce geography to maHemati- 
eal bases, about 135 b. c. It was nrst brought to Europe by the Moors of 
Barbary and Spain, about a. d. 1201. — Z-englet. The invention of the mari- 
ner's compass is the important connecting link between ancient and modern 
geography. The modem maps and chaite were introduced into England 
by Bartholomew Columbus to illustrate his brother's theory respecting a 
western continent, x. d. 1489. 

GEOLOGY. The science of the earth has been the subject of philosophical 
speculation t>om the time of Homer ; and this science is said to have been 
cultivated in China many ages before the Christian era. When the theories 
and discoveries of geologists were first propounded, they were condemned as 
being opposed to the statements of the Bible ; but in this enlightened age the 
astronomer and geologist, in proportion as their minds are expanded by 
scientiSc investigation, see that there is no collision between the discoveries 
in the natural world, and the inspired record. We are not called upon by 
Scripture to admit, neither are we required to deny, the supposition that 
the matter without form and void, out of which ibia globe of eaith was 
framed, may have consisted of the wrecks and relics of more ancient worlds, 
created and destroyed by the same Almighty power which called our world 
into being, and will one day cause it to psss away. Thus while the Bible 
reveals to us the moral history and destiny of our race, and teaches us that 
man and other living things have been placed but a f^w thousand years 


334 'JllE world's PllOCRESS. [ UEP 

upon the earth, the physical roonumants of our glote bear viitneas to tha 
same truth ; and as satronomy unfblda to ub mymds of worlds, not spoken 
of in the aaered reepids, geology in like manner proves, not by arguraeni;! 
drawn fl-om analogy, but by tha ineontrovertihle eyidenee of physical phe- 
nomena, that there were former conditiona of our planet, separated ftora 
each oUier by vast intetTale of time, during which tfiJs world waa teemiisg 
with lift, ere man, and the tmimalB which ai'e his contemporaries, had beeT 
called into being'.— i*-. MimteU and Biskoii BUnaJkU. 

GEOMETRr. Its origin is ascribed to the Egyptians ; the annnal inundations 
of the Nile having giyen rise to it by carrjii^ away the landmarfes, and the 
bonndaiies of &rms. ITiales introduced geometry into Greece about 6CC 
B. c. Enolid'fl Elements were compiled about 2w) h. o. The doctrine of 
curves originally attracted the attention of. geometricians from the conic 
Beetions, which were introdnced by Plato ^bout 390 e, c. The conchoid 
curve waa inyenfed by Micomedes, 220 b. c. The science of geometry was 
taught in Europe in the thirteenth century. Books on the subject of geo- 
metry and astronomy were desti'oyed in England, being regarded as infected 
with magic, 7 Edward Tt., 1562.— iSicMie. 

GEORGES' CONSHRACT. The memorable conspiracy in Franco ; general 
Moreau, general Pichegru, Georges Ca^Iondal, who was commonly knoi. j 
by the name of Georges, and others, arrested nt Paris, oliargad with a conapi- 
moy againet the life of Bonaparte, and for the restoration of Louis XVni., 
Peb. 33, I80i. The conspirators were tried June 0, when savBnteen were 
sentenced to death, and many to impriaomnant. Moreau was suffered to leavs 
France, and was escorted from the temple to embark for .America, June 22. 
In 1818 he received his mortal wound before Dresden, vihick see. 

GEORGIA, one of the United States, waa granted by George II. to Gen. Ogle- 
iioipe, who, with forty followers, founded Savannah, Feb. 1, 1733. Satan ■ 
nah ta&en by the British in the revolutlonarv war, Dec. 20, 1778 ; the tcwn 
and Slate evacuated by them in July 1782. The State unanimously adopted 
the Federal Constitution, Jan. 2, 1788. Population in 1790, 82,684; in 1840, 
691,392, including 280,944 Blavea. Staple commodities, cotton and rice. 

GERMANIC CONFEDERATION. Napoleon had fletennined that the German, 
or Holy Roman Empire, as it was called, should no longer exist ; but that . 
instead thereof, a confederation of states should be formed; and this ar- 
rangement was adopted in 1815, by the allied Bovereigns; and Germany is 
now governed by a diet, consisting of seventeen voices, and tn case aiy 
alteration be requisite in the constitution, they are then to take a new divi- 
sion, and the general asBemblj then to be formed is to contain sixty-five, 
divided according to the relative consequence of the states. See Addends,. 

GERMANY. From Germamni, warlike men. First mentioned by the Roman 
historians about 211 b. c. : it waa anciently divided into several independent 
states until 25 b. c, when the Germans withstood the attempt of the Romans 
to BuMae them, although they conquered some parte; but by the repated 
efforts of the Germans they were entirely expelled., about a.d. 2S0. In 48?. 

l\s adds a secjnd hpad w Lhe e&gle, lo liis reign 

denulQ Lhat the empires of Rome oiid The Genual 

fiermamt are uoiled in him - - S)9 pendence, 

I*ats(i>BSoBjiaire)aeparaleaGeiiaaQv [TheetecU>r 

ftiml^DCe - - ■ - S14 this time. 


GERMANY, amiinued. 

neign of Henrj 1, aing) flurnamal t&e 
Fnwlei'j he vauquisheB Uie Hrnis, 
Danes, vaiidola, rau\ Bohemtona - 9 

omwned empeiot bv Ihe popa - a 

The Guelph and GhilKJine fi 

Germaa Porliainent moels nl Frant- 

forl - - - IHaylS,l8 

The aichduke, John of Austrip, elecuid 

Sths parliament as hjrd-lieuleDBm 
Ihe Bmplrs - < Jaae SS, IS 

He ja loatallad at Fmnkfoiti and namea 

Ihe Turks in many battles, and obliges 
Ibeni Id raise the siege ol Vienna • 1G 

Tbe PraginaUe mnciion (lohich see) - 17 
pied wtihwaiBagabiallhB Turks, and 
m eslablishhig Ibe Pregmalio aanc- 

daudbur, Maria TheresB, marneil ta 
Ihe duke of Lorraiae - in I to 17 
Francis 1., Duke of Lowflino, momee 

Maria Tbeceaa, quoon of Hungaiy ; 

and ia eleclefl empemr ■ - 17 

Jospb n. Bi:iendB h^ dommloos bv Ihs 

dlamemtermeiM of Poland - -17 

Agaifu hy the ibialparlidouof that de- 

voioil kingilom - - - 17 

[In the rumous warebelween Germany 

mtliaa of Ihe CoofedoTation o^ Ihe 
Rhine - - - July 12, 18 

General af^ation among the people. 

3 Bern U \ 

6. Henry IV. ; deposed. 

7. Bodoiphus; UUedinbaUla. 
<L Henry TV. ; re.iriGEB.Ted. 

%. L^re'n. 
a Conraalll, 

0. SiilmioDd, king of Hungary. 

7. AJDerLILjdoke of Austria and king of 

D. Frederick HI,, archdnke of Ausbrla. 

Howled byGoogIc 

336 THE wojii. 

GERMANY, cantimied. 

1493. Mutmlltel.ihemamedlheli 

1619. Charlea'l!!kjMDf Spain. 
1BB8. Ferdinand I., k&g of Hungary 
\SM. MuLimlUao 11. 

1612. Matiluaa I. 

16L9. FBrdiiunillL,kin£oflIungarf 

T. FBcdliund Dl!, dilio. 
i<aS. I.eopolil I., dllLo 
-1705. Joseph n,. dilVi, and of Si 
1711. ChaffesVI. 
17sa. Charles VIL 

There are about 20 GJerman pnncipalitit '5 with feintories equal to Entlisli 
counties. The free towns are Hamburg Breinen Frankfbit on the Maine 
(one of the greatest trading places in Europe) and Labeck which was the 
head of the femoaa Hanseatic League, formed in that city in 1164 
GHENT. Anciently the capital of the Nervii. Prince John, thirij eon of Ed- 
ward m. of England, was bom here, and hence named JoAn of GaaiU. 
Pacification of Ghent, November 8, 1576. Ghent was taken by the duke of 
Marlborough in a. d. 1700, aud several times taken and retaken by the con- 
tending armies during the late ware. The peace of Ghent between Great 
Britain and the United States, was signed here, December 24, 1814. 
GIANTS. The emperor Miiximua was eight feet and a half in height ; he was 
also of great bulk, and used the bracelet of his wife aa a ring for hie thumb, 
and his shoe was longer by a foot than that of an ordinary man. — ZavngUiis. 
"The tailest man that hath been seen in our age was one named Gabara, 
who io the days of Claudius tlie late emperor was brought cut of Arabia. 
He was nine feet nine inches high." — Pliii/y. John Middleton, of Hale, in 
. Lancashire, born in 16T8, was nine feet three inches high. Patrick Cotter, 
the celebrated Irish giant, bom in 1761, was eight feet seven inches 'in 
height ; his hand, iW)m the commencement of the palm to the extremity of 
the middle flnger, meaaured twelve inches, and his shoe was seventeen inch- 
es long; he died in September 1806, in his 46th year. Giants' bones 17, 18, 
20, and 30 feet higii, were once reported to have been found ; but there ia 
DOW no doubt that they were organic remains of colossal quadrupeds. 
GIBRALTAR. A fortrese, whose immense sti-engt3i eicites wonder and admi- 
ration, and renders it impregnable: it ia tJie ancient Calpe, which, with 
Abyla on the opposite shore of Africa, obtained the name of the PillarSj^o. 

~ " " ' icoording to Cuvier, is 1437 English 

iderTartk ((ji&tTVi!;, Mountain of 

, ^ a. 712. In the year 1462 the king of 

Castile took Gibraltar from the Moors ; and the Eng-ush, under sir George: 
Rooke, the prince of Hesse Darmstadt, sir John Leake, and admiral Byng, 
bravely won it, July 24, 1701 It was b urrendered afte a dreadl 1 cannon- 
ade, to the Biitiah, by the governor themarqmsdeSalnes a d tfassnce 
contmued an appendage to the Biitish crown 


GILDING. First practised at Rome, abcat 146 b. c. The capitol was tlie first 
tuilding on wMch IMs emicliment was bestowed. — Plin^, Of gold leaf ft>r 
gilding the RomLLOS made but 160 leaves, Ibur fingers Bcruare, out of a whole 
oanco.—Plinp. It conBeqnently was raore like our plaimg.— Tnisla: A 
single grain ol gold may now be etretehed out under the hflnimor iato a leaf 
that ym cover a house.— D?-. BaBey. Gilding with leaf gold on bale ammo- 
niac was first introduced by Margaritone, in 1273. The art of gilding on 
wood, preyiously Itnown, was improTOd in 1680. 

GISOES, Battle op, in Fi'ance, between tLe amiiea of Fmiice and England, in 
which the former was signally defeatirf by Richard I., whose parole for the 
iJnyvisa" Dieaetmjm drmC — "God and my right;" and ftom this time it 
was made the molto to the royal arms of Eogland, 4. D. 1198. 
JIATORS. They were 

jr captives who fought fL_ „ 

ceremonies of the Romans, 263 b. c, probably following the Greek coetom 
of sacrificing to the manea of deceased warriors lie prisoners taken m battle. 
Gladiator fights afterwards exhibited at festivals, about 216 b. c. When 
])acia was reduced by Tr^an, 1000 gladiators fougM at Rome in celebra- 
tion of his triumph for 123 days, a. o. 108. Their combats on public thea- 
Ijes were suppressed in the East by ConstanWne the Great, *. d. 326. Fi- 
nally suppressed by Theodoiiok, iu the year 600.— i-cng-tet. 

GLASGOW. Erected into a butgh In a. d. 1180. Its chatter was obtaiited from 
James 11., in 1461, at which period tlie university was ftiimded. Its earliest 
conunerce was in salmon, about 1420. 

GLASS. The Egyptians are said to have been tnuglit the att of malting glass 
by Hermes. The discovery of glass took place in Syv'm.—Pli'ay, Glaes- 
hoiises were erected in Tyre, wJiere glass was a staple manufiictnro for 
many ages. Tills article is mentioned among the Romans in the time of 
Tiberius; and we Icnow, from the ruins of Pompeii, that windows were 
formed of glass before a. t>. 79. Italy had the fli-st glass windows, next 
France, whence they came to England. TTsed for windows in private houses 
In the reign of Henry n., 1177, but imported.— .il«dcr.!D!t. Themanufecture 
was established in England at Cmtched-friars, and in the Savoy, in 1557.— 
jSSoioe. It was Improved in 1G35, and was brought to great perfection in tlia 
reign of William III. The duties on glass in England were entii'ely remits 
ted, 1846. 

GLASS, Painting oh. This was a very early art. It was practised at Marseilles 
in a beautiflil style, about a. d. 15IX). It is said the art existed in England 
towards the 12th century. It reached to a state of great perfection about 

GLENCOE, Massaohe op. This was the horrible massaci-e of the unoffending 
and unsuspectinginhabitauts, the Macdonalds, merely for not snrreudering 
in time to Eing 'William's proclamation. About 38 men were brutally aJain; 
and women and children, their wives, and oaring, were turned out nalted 

wliifi aiDBll craft foi diaBmbuldng (hs l^»s coTsred the l«y. Foe weSra logelher. fiOOO ehells 
■e dnitj [brown into ilio town : ojicl <hi a eiiigla occafflon, aMO torrela of gunpowder were oi- 
Ica) by tbe enemy. Tel in om nzgbl, [heir Soating balteriee WBi-e fleelmyed Willi red-bot bairs, 
Ibeir whole linn of woi'ia onnibiLaled by s awUa ftom Ibo nirrison, commanded hT gonsral 
iol, Not. 27, 1781. Tbo enemy's loss in miiniUnna of war, on aia nkhl alone, was ealimated at 
vatds o!2,S»,«KX. sloi'ling. Bnl tJieir grand dofsal by a gairlson ofonly 7000 Brttipb, occurred 


in a dart and freezing night, and perished by cold and Imnger ; this black 
deed was perpetrated by the earl of Argyle's regiment, May 9, 1Q91. 
GLOBE. The globular form of the earth, theflvo zones, someof thepnncipal 
circles of the sphere, the opacity of the moon, and Oie true cause of lunar 
eeiipses, were taught, and aa eclipse ui'edloled, hy Tbalea of Miletus, about 
640 B. 0. Pythagoras demonstrated from the varying altitudes of the stara 
by change of place, that the earth most be round ; that there might bo an- 
iipodes on the opposite part of the ^lobe; tibat Venus was the morning and 
evening star ; that the universe consisted of twelve spheres— the sphere of 
the earth, the sphere of the water, the sphere of the air, the sphere of fire, 
the spheres of the moon, the sim, Venus, Mercuiy, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, 
and the sphere of the stars, abont 506 s. o. Ai'istorchus, of Samoa, main- 
tained that the earth turned on its own axis, and revolved about the sun ; 
which doctrine was held by his contemporaries as so absurd, that the phi- 
losopher had nearly lost hia life to his theory, 280 b.o. The first voyage 
round the globe was performed by Picaro, commanding a ship of Magel- 
lan's squadi'on, 1520-4. The fii'st English navigator who performed the same 
enterprise was air Francis Drake, 1677. — See O^cwnmavigation, and EarSi. 
GLORY. The glory or nimbus drawn by painters round the heada of saints, 
angels, and holy men, and the. circle of rays on images, were adopted fl'jm 
the CfBsars and then' fintterers, by whom they 'mere used in the flrat centnry. 
Ttie doxology of the prayer Gloria Falri was ordained in the church of 
Rome, and was called doxology because it began with BJJo, glory, A.n. 

GLOVES. Ttiey were in use in very early times. In the middleagos, the^ving 
of a glove was aceremony of investitm'e in bestowing lands and dignities ; and 
two Bishops were put in possession of their sees by each reoeivmg a glove, 
A n. 1002. In England, in the reign of Edward 11. the deprivation of gloves 
was a ceremony of degradation. The Glovers' company of London was in- 
corporated in 1556. Emhroidered gloves were introduced into England in 
15^, and are presented to judges at maiden assises to this day. 

GNOSTICS. Ancient heretics, who were famous from the fii-st rise of Christianity. 
The tenelfl of this sect were revived in Spain, In the fourth century, by the 
PriscIUianlafs ; but the name, which was once glorious, at length became in- 
ftimons. The Gnostics wei'e not so much a particular sect of heretics, as a 
complioation of many sects ; and weie so called, because they pretended t 
extraordinMT illuminations and knowledge, one miun branch of which c/i.. 
sisted in their pretended genealogies or attributes of the Deity, in which 
they differecl among themsS-vos aa much as they did from others. 

GOBELTN-TAPESTRY. Tapestry so called from a noted house at Paris, in the 
suburb of St. Marcel, formerly poasessad by fiimous wool-dyera, whereof the 
chief, called Giles Gobelin, who lived in the reign of Francis I., is said to 
have found the seci'et of dyeing scarlet^ which was from him called the 
scarlet of the Gobelins; the house and river that runs by it also took the 
same name. Tbia honse ivas purchased by Louia XIV. for a manwSictoiy 
all manner of cnrious works ftir adorning the royal palaces, under the dii-eo- 
tion of Mons. Colbert, especially tapestry, designs for which were drawn by 
the celebrated Le Brun, by appointment of the king, a. d. 1666.~Dii fres- 

GODFATHERS AND GODMOTHERS. The Jewa had godfiitheiti in the cir- 
cumcision of tlieir sons. In the Christian church sponsion in baptism arose 
in the doske of assuring that the child should be of the reli^on of Christ. 
It was first ordained to be used, according to some, by pope Alexander; 
according to others, by Sixtns, and others refer it to Telespborus, about a p. 



130. In Catholic eonnfi'ies tliey have godfathers aad godmothers in the 
baptism of their bells. 

GOLD. Tlie purestand moat ductile of all the metals, for which reason it has, 
from the earliest ages, been considered hy almost all natioDS as the most 
T^uable. It is too soft to be used pure, and to hai'den it it is alloyed with 
copper or silver r in its puw state it is twenty-four carats ; that used in onr 
coin is twenty-two carats, and two parts of copper. In the early ages no 
metals were used but those found pure, as gold, silver, and copper. The 
smelting of ores was a compaiatively lata invention, and ascribed both to 
ol^ervations on volcanoes and to the burning of forests. 

GOLD MINES. Gold is found in various parts of the earth, hut is most 
abundant in Africa, Japan, and South America, in which Iset gold was dis- 
covered by the Spaniards in 1492, from which time to 1731, thej imported 
into Europe 6000 millions of jiieces of eight, in register gold and silvet, ex- 
cluaively of what were unregistered. In 1780, a piece of gold weighing 
ninety marts, equal to sixty pounds troy fthe mart being eight ounces), 
was found near La Paz, a town of Peru. Gold was discovered in Malacca, 
in 1731; in New Andulasia in 1785; in Ceylon in 1800; inVii'gicia 1829; 
in North Carolina 1824; South Carolina 1829; in Georgia 1830: in Cali- 
fornia, April 18J8. 

GOLD AND SILVER. Quantity produced in forty yeara from 1790 to 1880, as 
stated in the Mining Jmirnal : 

SEeifco iii,«(>,io3 = ii'g'sisoK 

Chili ...-..-- •2,7m,-m ~ 1,832,0^ 

K - .7 182,671 

£nftaftlO = ±170,326610 

Tlie mines of North and South America !iad, in 1840, sent to Europe SJ 
times more gold, and 12 times more silver, than those of the other hemis- 

Shere, The gold mines inYirginia, Worth and South Carolina, and Georgia, 
iscovered 1S4-30, iiad produced altogether up to 1835, $4,877,600. ITiose 
of California, discovered in the spring of 1848, had produced up to Feb. 
1850, at least 25 millions of dolhu's in value, a considerable part of which, 
was sent to Europe. The amount of Caliibmia gold coined at the U. S. 
mint in 1849 was about $6,000,000. The total annual production of gold in 
the world was estimated in 1840 at about 36 tons, proportioned thus : North 
and South America 11, Europe and Asiatic Russia 6J, Indian Archipelago, 
4|, Africa 14, See Coin. 

GOLDEN FLEECE. Jason, the Argonaut, sailed with his companions from 
lolcboa to Colchis to avenge the deaUi of his kinsman Phvyxus, and to re- 
cover his treasures, which the peTfidious.EEte3,ltingof Colchis, had seized, 
after murdering their owner. The ship in wiiich Pliryxus had sailed to 
Colchis, was adorned with the figure of a ram on the poop ; which gave 
occasion to the poets to pretend that the journey of Jason was for the re- 
covery of the golden fleece, 1263E.C. 

(lOLDEN NUMBER. The cycle of nineteen yeai's, or number which shows 
the years of the moon's cycle; its invention is ascribed to Meton, of Athens, 
about 482 b. c.-^Plinnj. To find the golden number or year of the Lunar 
cycle, add one to the date and divide by nineteen, tlien the quotient is the 
number of cycles since Christ, and the remainder is tiie Golden number. 

GOOD FRIDAY. From the earliest records of Christianity, this day has been 
held as a solemn fkat, in remembrance of the cruciflsion of our Saviour on 
Friday, April 8, a. d. 88. Its appellation of good appears t* be peculiar to 
the Church of England : our Saxon ibretiiliiers denominated it Long Pii- 


340 THE woklb's pkooeess. [ aov 

day, on account or tlio great leugtli of the offices obserred, and festings eE- 
joined on this day. 

GORDIAN KNOT, The knot made of the thongs that served aa harness to 
the wagon of Qordius, a husbandman, who was afterwards king of Phrygia, 
Whosoever loosed this knot, the ends of whiuh were not diacoTerable, the 
oracle dedai'ed. should be emperor of Persia. Alexander the Great cut 
away the knot with his sword nntil he foTiiid the ends of it, and thiis, in a 
miUtary sense at least, thia "ooGC[ueror of the world" interpreted the ora- 
cle, aso B. c. 

GORDON'S "NO POPERY" MOB: oc«iaioned by the aeal of lord George 
Gordon. It consisted of 40,000 persona who assembled in St. George's 
Fields, under the name of the Protestant Association, to carry np a pehitioi; 
to parliament for the repeal of the act which granted certain indulgence* 
to the Koman Cathohcs. The mob once raised, could not he dispersed, hut 
proceeded to the most daring outrages, pillaging;, burning, and pulling down 
the chapels and, private houses of the Cathoiics first, but afterwards of several 
other persons ; breaking open prisons, setting the prisonera free, even at- 
tempting the Bank of England, and in a word totally overccming the civil 
power for nearly six days. At length, by the aid of armed associations of 
the citizens, the horse and foot guards, and tlie militia of several counties, 
then embodied and marched to London, the riot was quelled. It com- 
menced June 2 1 and on the 3d, the CatlioMc chapels, and numerous privatJ>. 
mMisiona, were destroyed, the bank attempted, and the jails opened; 
among these were the King's Bench, Fleet, and Bridewell prisons; on the 
6th, thir^-six fires were seen blaaing at one time. In the end, 210 of the 
rioters were killed, and 248 were wounded, of whom 75 died afterwards in 
the hospitals. Many were tried, convioted, and executed. Lord George 
was tried the year after for high ti'eaaon, but acquitted, June 2 to 7, 1780. 
— Ati/miai Register. 

GOSPELS. St. Mark ivrote his gospel a. d. 41 ; St. Matthew in the same year; 
St. Luke in 65 ; and St. John in 86-7. The gospel of Matthew was found 
buried in the t»mb of St. Bai-bus, and was conveyed to Constantinople in 
i^.—BuSer. John wrote his gospel at Ephesos two years after he was 
thrown into a caldron of burning oil, from which he was taken out nuliurt, 
and banished to the isle of Patmoa.— JAmj. The gospel is the glad tidings 
of the actual coming of the Messiah, and hence the evangelical history of 
Christ. — Haamnsnd. Dr. Robert Bray waa the author of the first plan fi>r 
propagating the gospel in foreign parts. Society for the Propagation of toe 
Gospd in Foreign Countries, incorporated in 1701. 

GOSPELLERS. The came which was given to the followers of Wlckliffe, who 
first attempted the reformation of the Church from the errors of popefy : 
it was affixed to them by the Rornan Catholics in derision, on account of 
their professing to follow and preach only the gospel, a. n. 1877. — Bishop 

GOTHS. A warlike naUon that inhabited the space between the Caspian, 
Pontus. Eaxine, and Baltic seas. They attaclied the Roman empire ji. .k 
251. They were defeated by Clandiua, and 820,000 slain, y. d. 2S9. Aft«r 
the deatraction of tie Roman empire by the Horuli, the Ostrogoths, under 
Theodoric, became masters of the greater part of Italy, where they retained 
their dominion till a.d. 558, when they were Anally conquered hy Nai'ses, 
Justinian's general. The Visigoths settled in Spain, and founded a khig- 
dom, which continued until the country was subdued by the Saracens. 

GOVERNMENT, cost op, in EUROPE akd the UKrTED STATES. In an 
elaborate article in the American Almanac, 1847, this result is reached, viz. ; 






In France, HMorfing to Chs 

111,1833, me COS. was aliou 


d, iabubiiant - - 83 

Thus, Fraace wa abool 
dnies, and Greal Britain five 

eapei-haad - - 42 38 

KX)]f Che populelionis 

UiiiledSlalea (.Sss Admin 


._._ _.. iBTImWSli 

n England, acciuding to 

GRACE AT MEAT. The table was considered tiy the ancient Greeks as Uie 
altar of frlendaliip, and held Bocred upon tlint ;tccoiint. They would not 
partake of any nieat until they liad first offered part of it,as tlieflratftuits, 
to tLeir goda ; and hence came tlie short ptayer said before and after meat 
in all Clu'istian ootmtrieB from the earliest times. — Leaglet. 

GRAMMAEIAHS, ob CRITICS. Anciently, the most eminent men in litera- 
ture were denominated grammarians. A society of grammarians was formed 
at Rome so eailyas 276 ^.c.—Blnir. Apollodoms of Athens, Varro, Ci- 
cero, Messala, Jnlius CieBar, NIoias, jEiins Donatus, Kemmiua Palemon, 
Tyraonion of Pontaa, Athenceua, and other diBtingnished men, were ol^ 
this class. Cobbett declared Mr. Canning to be the only purely grammati- 
cal orator of his time ; and I)r, Parr, Bpeaking of a speech ,of Mr. Pitt's 
said, " We threw onr whole grammatical mind upon it and could not dis- 

GRANAR1E8. The Romans formed granaries in seasons of plenty, to secm'e 
food for the poorer citizens; and all who wanted it were provided with com 
irom these reservoirs, In necessitous times, at the coat of the public liea- 
sury. There were three hundred and twenty-seven granaries at Rome. — 
Umv. Hilt. Twelve new gi'anaries were built at Endewell to hold 6000 
quarters of corn, and two store-hoases for sea-coal to hold 4000 loads, 
thereby to prevent the sudden deamess of these articles by the great in- 
crease of inhabitants, 7 James I., 1610.— Stowe. 

GRANICCS, Battle op, in which Alexander the Great signally defeated the 
Persians. The Macedonian troopa crossed the Gi'anions in the iUce of the 
Persian array, Edthough the former did not exceed 30,000 foot and 6000 
horse, while the Persian army amounted to 600.000 foot, and 20,000 horse. 
—Judm. Yet the victors lost in this great battle but fifty-five foot soldiers, 
and sixty horse. Sai'dis capitnlated, Miletus and Halicamassus were taken 
by stoiTu, and numerous other gieat foivns submitted to the conquerer, 33i 
B, c. — Bossiiet. 

GRATES. The hearths of the early Britons were fised in the centre of their 
halls. The fire-place originally was perhaps nothing more than a large 
stone depressed below the level of the ground to receive the ashes. There 
were arched hearths among the Anglo-Saions ; and chafing dishes were 
' 'n nse nntU the general iutrodactlon of chimneys, about a. d. 1200. 

GRAVITATION. This, as a supposed innate power, was noticed by the 
Greeks, and also by Seneca, who ppeaks of the moon attracting the waters, 
about A. D. 38. Kepler enlarged upon it, about a, n. 1615; and Hook pub- 
lished it as a system. The prindploa of gi'avity were proved by Galiieo, at 
Florence, about 1638; and Oiey were svibEoquently adopted by Newton, 
about 1687. 

SR^CIA MAGNA. That part of Italy where the Greeks planted colonies, 



d's progress. 


bnt ilfl botmdaries are very uacertain. Some say that it esfended to the 
aoutliei-n pajts of Italy i aud others suppose that Magna Grajcia compre- 
hended, only Campania and Lucania. To these is added Sicily, which mab 
likawise peopled by the Greek colonists.— J>mpwe. 
GREECE. The first inhabitants of this justly celebrated oonntry of the an- 
cient world, were the progeny of Javan, ibnrth son of Japheth. Greece 
was so called fi'om n very ancient king named Grcacna ; and another king 
named Hellen, gave his aubjects the appellation of HeUeniata. Homor calE 
the inhabitants, indifferently, Myrmidious, Hellenists, and Achains. JTor 
ancient Grecian hisfory, see Taimlar Vieios, p. 5 e( leq. 

I The Am Uensnian woe ■ b.o. 7^ 

Kingdom of Ai^s liegQQ iEiaeMtes) - 
aaigo of Ogjeos in Bceotia (fdeoi) - 
gaonGoffi lo Lhe soia &\Si inuxiducM in 

According Lo Boiue authore, Slctod was 

^ PF% 

l9 ^<^ t 

icor^, belwoeo 

^ s^''isn™ 


bat dljmplc ^mes celabmud at I 
by ihe /dW Daclvti (Eatebim) 
on disaivered b; loe Idai Dact^ 


The FytMiin guraee by &, 

TteAraaionianwar; ibi 

oflho 'ih^of tlwmonlh'rhar^^on 
(BriliMii;,or Uili Jim-' 

M^StSn^f Ihe JSollKii 
Bstllempat of Ihe louiait 

i of Manlin 


BaaieU wor endsd bj PhiUp, who lafcoa 

all Ihecjtissofihe PbDceaoB . 3 

BwleorOiffiiaiies - , - .3 

deslra^a Lho dLy of Tliebes - - 3 

A]oxaiidergoe9toSuaa,audB^tff on the 
Uirona ofDftriuH 

The ompiro imdi 

Gisoca mosteied by Iho Latins - - m 

lU-conquered ■ ■ - . l:i 

tivada^j Iho Turks ■ - -It 

IB final oysnhiDW. SeeEasKmBm- 

[miBcountty.solop" [llqatrioiis for Iha 
millmiy eiploils, tho learnins, end 
aria ofils poopiB bccaniB of laio 

^ieU Willi ois Tiirks,'in°oi™[''lo"i& 
galnilaindj^eodonco, ondths coun- 

Qtaal GlrugglB Ihr toflopoiKiBiiee - \T. 


mcTioMAity ( 


GSKECE, catiiimed. 
lOyiOOTi te,i 

Lamented deatt of Loifl Bjj,™, allais- 

T& Ptoviaonal G 


« of Enaland 
SiMO of Miaaolonglii : Ihe liesi^ng 

ThQ Dreeks diauetse the Ollomen fleet 
Jan. S8, 

GREEK CHURCH. A difference arose in the eighth century between the 
eastern aod western charches, which, in the course of two centuries and a 
half lennjnated in a separaHon : this chui'ch is called Greek in contradis- 
tincldon fi-om the latter, or Homan chnrch. The Greek cliuroh cluima prior- 
ity as usini: the language in which tlie Goapel was fii'st promulgated, anil 
many of ill forma and oeremoaiea ai'e similar to those of ttie Roman Catho- 
lics; but it disowns the supremacy of the pope. It is the established reli- 
gioQ of Russia. 

GREEK FHtE. A oompoation of combostible matter invented by one Calli- 
■ ' 'is engineer of Heliopolis, in Syria, in the seventli century. 

' The Hlaughler laBled 10 injs ; 
iDteedby Ibo conauis of Engloiul, Francs and Austria, J( 
de^ TiolMian, and crime, whilo^ iafidel arm/ was let loose upon Ibe captured oily, is too iMg 



in order to destroy the Saracens' Ghips, whict was efffeoled by (be general 
of tlie empoinr Pogonat's fieef,- and 30,000 raeii were killed. The propertv 
of thia ft'e was to burn briskest in water, to diffuse itself on all eides, ac- 
cording to the impression given it. Nothing but oil, or a, mixture of viiie- 
gai'i wine, and sand, could quench it. It was blown out of long tubes of 
copper, and shot out of crofls-boivs, and otlier spring instruments. The in- 
Tention was kept a secret for mauy jeai's hy the court of ConafanUnopltj 
but it is now lost, 
GrKEEK LANGUAGE. The Greek lancnage was first studied in Europe 
about A. D. 1460— in France, 1478. William Grocyn, or Gcokeyn, a learned 
English prolfessor of tills language, fi'avelled to acquire its true pronunciu 
tiou, and introduced it fttOsford, where he had the hontr to teach Erasmus, 
1400.— Fboifs Athen. ttora. 

_ . intry. It was visited by Frobiaher, In 1678. The first ship from England 
to Greenhind was sent for tbe whale fialiecy by the Muscovy Company, 2 
Jamea I. 1604, In a voyage performed in 1680, eight men were, left behind 
by accident, and suffered incredible lisfdsllipa till the following year, whei\ 
the company's ships brought them home. — 'IHTuial, The Greemaud Fishing 
Company was incoi'porated to 1693. 
GREENWICH OBSERVATORY. Built at the solidtation of sir Jonas Moore 
and sir Christopher Wren, by Charles II,, on the summit of FJamsfead-hiU, 
so called from the great astronomer of that naoie, who was the flist astro- 
nomer'roysl here. The English began to compute the longitude ftoia the 
meridian of this place, 1075 ; some make the date 16T9. This observatcry 
oontatoa a transept circle by Troughton ; a transit instrument of eight f«et 
by Bird ; two mural quadrants of eight feet, and Bradley's zenith secto'i. 
The telescopes are forty and sixty inch achromatics, and a six-feet re- 
flector ; and among other fine instrumenls and objects is a famous camera 

states of Europe in that year ; into most other ata,te» In 1710 ; and adopted 
by England in 1752. To the time of Gregoiy, the defidency in the Julian ca- 
lendar hod amounted to fen days ; and m ike year 1752 it had amounted to 
eJeven days. See Calendar, and Ifew Siyle. 

GRENADA. Conqnered by the Moors, a. n. 716i it was the last kingdom pos- 
sessed by them, and was not annexed to the crown of Caatije until 1491 ; 
the capital of this province is magnificent. New Grenada was conquered 
by the Spaniards in 1586. Grenada, in the West Indies, was settled by the 
French, 1660; it was taken ftom them by the English in 1762, and was 
ceded to England in 1768. The French possessed themselves of it again,in 
1779 ; but it was restored to the English at the peace of 1783. In 1795 the 
French landed some troops, and caused an insuirection in this island, which 
was not finally quelled till June, 1796. 

GROCERS. One of the oldest trades in England. The word anciently meant 
" ingcossers or monopolisers ," as appears by a statute, 87 Edward III. The 
Gi'ocers' Company is one of the twelve chief companies of the dty of Lon- 
don, incoi-poralod in 142S. 

GUADALODPE. Discovered by Columbus, a. n. 1498. Itwaa colonised by 
the French in 1636. Talten by the English in 1789, and restoi'cd in 1763. 
Again taken by the English in 1779, I7H4, and 1810 ; and in order to allure 


s'uv} mcrioNARSf of dates. 345 

the SwL'des into the eoalLUon againEt Prance, gave themliia island. It was, 
liowever, by the conaent of Swedun, reatored to Fi'anee in 1814. 
GUELPHS AND GHIBELINES, These were party names, and are said to have 
been derived from Hiewelf and Hiegihliu, the names of towns. The desig- 
nation began in Italy, i. d. 1139, and distinguished the oonteading armies 
during the tivil ware in Germany ; the Guelphs were Ibr the pope, and the 
Ghilielineg were for the emperor. Guelph is the name of Hie present royal 
thmily of England. — See Brunsmici:. The Quelphic order of knighthood 
was iostituted for the kingdom of Hanover, hy the prince regent, afterwards 
George IV., in 1816. 
GUILLOTINE. An engine for decapitation, which has made an otherwise 
obscnre name immortal. A similar instrument, but of rader foim, may be 
soen in an engraving accompanying the Spiibolica QuestUnms of Achillea 
Boocbiiia, 4to, 1655 (see the Travels of Fatiier Lahat in Ilalv) ; it is there 
called the Mamuna. In Scotland, also at Halifes, England (see Halifax ; 
Maiden), soon af^ It was in nse, and served to behead its introducer, the 
regent Morton. Dr. Guillotin, ahont 1785, recommended its use in France, 
from motives of humanity, aa a substitute for the more cruel gibbet, and his 
name was applied to it, at first from mere waggishnesB. Its nnwilhng god- 
father vas imprisoned during the revolutionary troubles, and ran some 
liasard of being subjecled to its deadly operation ; but he (contrary to a 
prevailing opinion) escaped, and lived to become one of the Ibimders of the 
Academy of Medicine at Paris. He died May 2S, 1814, aged seventy-six, 
enjoying to the last the esteem of all who knew bim, ftir his mild virtues. 
GDINEAS. An English gold coin, so named from, their having heeu first 
coined of gold brought from the coast of Gumea, a. d. 1678, They were 
then valURtt at 30s, and were worth that sum in 1696. They were reduced 
in cun'ency feoia 22s. to 21s. by parliament in 1717. Broad pieces were 
coined info gninefis in 1732. The original guineas bore the impression of 
an elephant, on account of their having been coined of this African gold. 
GUNrOWDER. The invention of gunpowder is geDeraUy ascribed to Ber- 
tholdus or Michael Sohwai'tz, a Cordelier monic of GosIm', south of Bruns- 
wick, in Germany, about a., d. 1820. But many wiiters maintain that it was 
known much earlier in various parts of the world. Some say that the Chi- 
nese possessed the art a number of centuries before. Its composition, 

ver, is expressly menUoned by our own f^Dils Roger Bacon, in his 

le De NnUUate Magiie, whiob was published at Oxford, in 1216. 
G0NPOWDER PLOT in ENGLAND. The memorable conspiracy known by 
this name, fbr springing a mine under the honaes of parliament, and des- 
troying the three esta,teB of the realm — king, lords, and commons— there 
aseemoled. was discovered on Nov. 6, 1605. This diabolical scheme was 
projected by Robert Catesby, and many high persons were leagued in the 
enterprise. Guy Fans was detected in the vaults nnder the House of Lords, 

\s did Gny Faux, January 81, 161)6, The vault called Guy FauA cellar, r 
which the' conspirators lodged the barrels of gunpowder, remained in the 
late houses of parliament till 1825, when it was converted into ofBcea. 
GUT'S HOSPITAL. This celebrated London hospital is indebted for its origin 
to Tliomas Gny, an eminent and wealthy bookseller, who, after having be- 
stowed immense sutos on St, Thomas's, determined to be the sole founder 
of another hospital. At the age of seventy-six, in 1721, heoomraenced the 
erection of thu present buildmg, and lived to see it nearly completed. It 


346 Till! WOULD's PROGItESS. [ HAW 

coat Mm 18,798(., in adilltioii towhicli he left to endow it, tte immense sum 
of 219,4992. A Bplendid bequeat, amounting to 200,00OZ. was made to tliia 
ioapital by Mr. Hnnt, to provide additional accommodation for 100 patients-,' 
his will was proved Sept, 24, 1829. 
GYMNASnjM, a place among the Greeks, where all the pnblic exercises were 
performed, and where not only wrestlers and dancers exliibited, hut also 

Shilosophera, poeta, and rhotorlciaiM repeated their eompoaitions. In wiosV 
ng and boxing, Hie athletes were often naked, whtnce the word Gymna- 
sium— ^«mmoj, miKfes. They anointed themselves with oil to hraee their 
limhe, and to render their bodiea slippery, and more dlificnlt to be graaped. 
The first modern treatise on the suljject of Gymnastics was ptibflsbed in 
Germany in 1793. London society formed, 182S. 
Gri'SIES, OR EGYPTIANS. Asti'angecommonwealthof wanderers and peon- 
liar race of people, who made their appearance fiist in Germany, about a. d. 
1517, having quitted Egypt when attacked by theTmia. Theyare the des- 
cendants of a great body of Egyptiflna who rev olted from the Turkish yoke, 
and being defl-ated, diaperaed m smaJl parties all over the world, while their 
supposed skill in the black art gave them an universal reception In 'hat age 
of credulity and superstilioti. AlthoHgh expelled IVom France in 1660, and 
from moat countries booh after, they are yet fband in every part of Europe, 
aa well as in Asia and Africa. Having recovered theirfooting, they have eon- 
trlved to maintain it to this Say. In England an act was made against their 
itinerancy, in 1530; and in the reign of Charles I. thirteen persons were ex- 
ecuted at one aasizea for having associated with gypsies for about a month, 
contraiy to the statute. The gypaey aettlement at Norwood, neai' London, 
waa broken up, and they were treated aa vagrants. May IT97. There were 
In Spain alone, previous^ to the year 1800, more than 120,000 gypaiea, and 
many communities of them yet exiat in England; and notwitlistanding tliair 
interoourae with other nations, they are still, like the Jews, in their manners, 
customs, visage, and appearance, wholly unchanged. 


HABEAS CORPUS, The aubjecta' Writ- of RigM, paased for the secnrily and 
liberty of individuals. May 27, IBJD. This act is nest in importance to 
Magna Charla, for BO long as the statute remains in force, no subject of En- 
gland can be detained in prison, except in cases wherein the detention la 
shown to be justifled by the law. The Baieas Corpus Act can alone be sus- 
pended by tie authority of parliament, and then for a abort time only, and 
when the emergency is eitrerae. In such a case, the nation parts with a 
portion of ila liberty to secure itfl own permanent welfare, and snapected 
persons may then be arrested withont cause or purpose being aasigned. — 

HACKNEY COACHES are of French origin. InFrance, astrong kind of cob- 
horse (Jmqttenie) was let out on hire for short joumeya : these were latlerly 
harnessed (JJO accommodate several wayfarers at once) to a plain vehicle 
called coche-h-haqiieneet hence the name. The legend that traces tlieir til- 
gin to Hackney, near London, is a vulgar error. They were first licensed in 
1662, and sntgected to regulations, 6 William and Mary, 1694.— Sunieff of 
London. The nnmber plying in London fixed at 1000, and their fiures raised, 
1771, The cabriolets are of Pai'ision origin; but the aristocratic taste, of 
Englishmen snggeated the propiicty of oHiging the driver to be seated on 
the ontside of the vehicle. 

HAGUE, Once called the flneat village in Europe : the place of meeting of the 
Statea-Gicneral, and residence of the former earls of Hohand, the princes el 



Holland, &o. Here the States, in 1566, abrogated the authority of Philip 
n. of Spain, and held a conference in 1610, npon the Are articles of the re- 
monstrants, which occasioned the synod, of Dortr Treaty of the Hagao, 
entered into with a view to preserve the equilibrium of the North, siened 
hy England, France, £|nd Holland, May 21, 1669. Da Witt was torn in pieces 
here, August 20, 1672, The French took possession of the Hague in Jann- 
ary I 1795 ; favored by a hard h-oit, they marched into Holland, where tiie 
inhahitants and troops declai'ed in their Ikvor, a ^neral revolution ensued, 
and the steidtholder and hie family were comfielled to leave the country and 
escape to England. Tlie Hague was evacuated in November, 1813, shortly 
after the 1:>attle of Lclpsic, and tlie stadiJiolder returned to his dominions 
and aiTived here in December, that year. Treaty of Commerce bolween 
England and Holland, December 16, 1887. 
HAIR. By the northern nations, and in Gaul, hair was much esteemed, and 
hence tiie appellation QaUia c&mata; and cutting off the hair was inflicted 
as a punishment among them. The royal femily of France had it as a par- 
ticular mafk and privilege of the kings and princes of the blood, la wear 
long hail', artfiilly dressed and curled. The clerical touBure Is of apoatolio 
insntution. — ZsidwJts Bispidensis. Pope ABicetus forbade the clergy to wear 
long hair, t. d. 155. Lone; hair was out of fashion during the Protectorate 
of Cromwell, and hence ttLe term Rmmd'heads. It mas again out of feshion 
in 1795; and very short hsur was the mode in 1801. Hair-powder came into 
use in 1690; and in 1T95 a tas was laid npon persons using it in Enghuid, 
which yielded 20,000[. per wanaaa. 
HALCYON DATS, in antiquity, implied seven days before and as many after 
the winter solstice, because Uie halcyon laid bar eggs at this time of the 
year, and the weather during her incuhation was always calm. The iihraaa 
was aftei-warda employed to express any season of transient prospeiity, or 
of brief tranquillilj', the wptero pladdi dies of human Me.^Buller. 
HALLIDOW HILL, Battle op, near Berwick, between the English and Scots, 
in which the latter were defeated with the loss of 13,000 skin, while a com- 
paratively small number of flie English sufifered, reign of Edward III., July 
19, 1333. After this victory, Edward placed Edward Ballol on the throne of 
Soot^nd .—Robertson. 
HALIFAX, YoHicaHmB. Here prevailed a reraarkaWe law. The woollen ma- 
nufacture being very great, and prodigious quantities of cloths, kerseys, 
shalloons, &c. being continvially on the tenters and liable to ba stolen, the 
town, at its first incorporation, was empowered to punish capitally any crim- 
inal convicted of steaUng to the value of upwards of thirteen pence halfjieony, 
by a peculiar engine, which beheaded the offender in a moment; but khig 
Jamas I. in the year 1620, took this power away : and tlie town is now under 
the ordinary course of jostioa. See Maiden. 
HALLELUJAH akd AMEN. Hebrew expressions frequently used in the 
Jewish hymns : from the Jewish they came into the Christian church. The 
meaning of the first is Praise the Lord, and of the second So be it. They were 
first introduced by-Haggai, the prophet, aboflt 68i b. c, ; and their intro- 
duction from the Jewish into the Christian church is ascribed to St. Jerome^ 
one of the primitive Latjn Ikthers, about a. d. ZW.— Cave's Hist. Lit. 
HAMBURGH. The company of Hambro' merchuits was incorporated in 1296. 
Franco declared war upon Hamburgh for its treachery in giving up Napper 
Tandy, (see Napper Tandy,) October 1799. British property sequesti'aled, 
March 1801. Hamburgh taken by the French after the battle of Jena in 
1806. Incorporated with France, January 1810. Evacuated by the French 
on Mie advance of the Russians into G!erraany in 1818 ; and restored to its 


348 THE world's pnoGBEi^s. [iiai-- 

indepeodence by the allied sovereigns, May 1814. Awfvil fire lieio, ivliich 
destroyed nimioi'ous eliuvehea and public buildings, and 2000 houses ; it con- 
tinued for three days. May 4, 1842. 
HAMPTON-COURT PALACE. Built by cardinal Wolsey on the sita of the 
minor-houae of the knighls-hospitallers. In 1526, the cardinal presented it 
to his royal master, Heniy- VIII. Here Edward VI, was born, and his 
mother, Jauo Seymour, died ; ani) Maiy, Elizabeth, Charlea. and others qf 
our soyereigns, resided. Most of the old apartments were pulled down, and 
the grand inner court built, by William HE. in 1694. In this palace was 
held, in 1604, the celebrated conference between the Presbyierians and the 
members of the Esiablished Church, ivhich led to a new translation of the 
Bible. See Conference. 
HANGED, DRAWN, and QUARTERED. The flrat InfliotJon of this barbar- 
ous punishment took place upon a pii'ate, named William Maiise, a noble- 
man's son, 25 Henry III., 1241. Five gentlemen attached to the duke of 
Glouceatar were anaigned and condemned for treason, and at tlie place cf 
execution were hanged, cut down alive instantly, then stripped naked, and 
their bodies marked for quartering, and then pardoned, 26 Henry VI, 1447. 
— Stowe. The punishment of death by hanging has been abolished in nu- 
merous cases by various statutes. See Dsoih, ywoAshiaeni of. Hanging in 
chains was abolished 4 William 17., 1834. 
HANOVER. This country had no groat ranlc, although a duchy, until George 
I. got possession of Zell, Saxe, Bremen, Verden, and other duchies and 
principalities. Hanover -became the ninth electorate, a. d. 1692, It was 
seized by PniBsia, April 8, 1801 ; wais occupied by the French, June 5, 180S ; 
and annexed to Westphalia, March 1, 1810, E^ained to England by the 
crown prince of Sweden, Norember 3, 1818, and erected into a kingdom, 
Oct. 13, 1814. The duke of Cambridge appointed lieutenant governor, in 
November, 1816. yiated by George IV, m October, 1821. Ertieat, duko 
of Cumberland, succeeded to the throne, June 20, 1837 ; he granted freedom 
of the preSiSand other concessions, March 17, 1848. 
HANOVERIAN SUCCESSION, established by hiw, June 12, 1701, when an 
act passed limithig the suosesslon of the crown of England, aftra the demise 
of Wilhaia IIL and of queen Anne (without issue), to the princess Sophia, 
of Hanover, and the heira of her body, being Motesiants, she being tijo 
^'anddaughtcr of Tames I. Gieorge I. Uie son of Ernest Augustus, duke of 
Brunswick Luneburgh. elector of Hanover, and of Sophia, ascended the 
throne, to the exclusion of the exiled Ihniily of the Stuarts, August 1, 1714. 
HANSE TOWNS, A commercial union caUed the Hanaeatio league, was 
formed by a number of port towns in Gfermitny,,in support of each other 
— r — i,.._ _- — : — "^1-1 Swedes and Danes: this assodaMon began in 
ligned In 1341. At first it consisted only of towns 
le BaJtic Sea, but its sti'ength and reputation In- 
creasing, there was scarce any trading city in Europe but desired to be 
admitted into it, and in process of time it consisted of sixty-six cities. They 
grew so formidable as to proclaim war on Waldemar, king of Denmark, 
about the year 1848, and against Erick in 1428, with forty ships, and 12,CGa 
regular troops besides seamen. This gave umbrage to several princes, who 
ordered the merchants of their respective kingdoms to wiUidraw their 
efiects, and so brolte up the greatest part and stren^^h of the association. 
In 1680, the only towns of note of this onco powerful league retaining the 
name, were Lubeck, Hambui^, and Bremen. 
HAPSBURGH, House op. One of the most iUugtrJous fiunilies in Europe, 
Hajishurgh was an ancient castle of Switzerland, en a lof^ eminence, near 
Schintanncli. This castle was the cradle, as it wore, of flie house of Austria 



whoso ancestors may lie traced back to the heginning of the 13th century, 
when Rodolpii. count of Hapsburgh, was elevated to the empire of Gerraanr 
and ai\;hduc1iy of Austria, t. t>. 1273, See Qertaan^. 
HAHLEQIHN". This term is derived from afaiuous anii droll comedian, who 
so much fretliicnted Mr. Hurley's house, that his friends and acquaintance 
iiscd to call him Harle/piino, little Harley.— Jfma^e. Originally the name 
juipiieii a merry andrew, or buffoon ; hut it now means an expert dancer at 
a play-house. 
11 AELOTS. Women who were called by synonyma eonreying the meaning of 
harlot, were tolerated among the Jews, Greeks, and Romana. The celebra- 
ted Lais of CoriDth, a beaatiftil courtesan, but remavkable for her vicious 
amours, was assassinated in the temple of Tenus, by the women oA TheS' 
saly, in oi'der to prevent her corrupting the fidelity of their husbands, ahout 
350 B. t. It is affirmed that the mother of Willian\ I., of England, a fur- 
rier's daughter of Fakise, whose name was Ailotta, was of so infemona a 
character, tliat our odious term harlot is derived ftom her namii. — Dr. JuAn- 
soa. In England, harlots were oblU;ed to wear striped hoods of party colors, 
and their garments the wrong side outwards, by statute 27 Edward III., 
HARMONIC STRINGS. Pythagoras is said to have invented harmonic strings, 
in consequence of hearinfi four blaclamitlis working with hammers m har- 
mony, whose weights he found to be six, eight, nine, and twelve ; or rather 
bj squares, aa thirty-sis, sixty-four, oighty-one, and ono hundred and forty- 
fom'. The harmonica, or musical glasses, airs from th t es f th m w re 
first formed by an Irish genfloman named Puckeridge — F Aft Th 
venlioB waa impioved by Dr. Franklin in 1760. 
HARP. It is traced to the earliest natiouH. David pi y d n th h rp 
befere Saul.— 1 Sam. xvi. 28. The lyre of the Gi-oek is tl I rp f h 
modems. The Romans had their harp ; so had the J btthl y 
few strings. The Cimbri or Engliah &ixoaa had this i t um t Th !»- 
limted Welch harp was strung with gut ; and tlie li'ish h -p Ilk tl m re 
ancient harps, ivilji wire. 
HARRISON'S TIME-PIECE. Mr. Harrison's first instrument was invented in 
1735 ; his second in l'r39 : bis tliM in 1749 ; and his fourth, which procured 
him the reward of 20,00IK., advertised 18th. Anne by the Board of Longi- 
tude, was produced a few years after. His celebrated time-piece was per- 
fected in 1772. 
HARTFOHD CONTENTION. The celebrated convention of delegates fl'ora 
the New England States opposed to the war and to the administration of 
Madison, met Dec. 15, 18li. 
HASTINGS, Battle op, one of the most memorablo and bloody, and in which 
more than thirty thousand were slain, fought between Harold U. of Eng- 
land, and William, duke of Normandy, in which the former lost his life and 
kingdom. Williajn, hence sutnamed tJie Conqueror, was soon after crowned 
king of England, and inti'oduced a memorable epoch, known as tlie Con- 
quest, in the annals of the country, Oct. 14, 10S6. 
HASTINGS, WARREN, Thial or. Mr. Hastings, governor-general of India, 
tried by the peers of Great Britain for high crimes and misdemeanors, but 
acquitted, although he had committed many acts during his government 
which, it was thought, ought to have led to a different result. Among other 
cliargeB against him, was his acceptance of a pi-esent of 100,000/. from the 
nabob of Onde, and this was not a sobtary instance of liis irregular means 
of aoeumulating wealth. The trial lasted seven yeais and threo months, 


350 THE \VORI.d's riOLTE = fllEU 

1783-96. Sheridan's celebrated speech on the impeachment of Mr. Has- 
tings, attracted universal admii-atioa 

RATS. See article Caps. Firat made by a Smw at Paris a. t>. 140i. Thej 
are mentioned in history at the period when thailea VII made his trinm- 
phal entry into Rouen, in 144B. He woie a hat hned with red velvet, and 
am'wounted with a rich plunie of featliers It is firom this rei^ that the 
use of liats and caps is to he dated, which hentefoiward began to take place 
of the cliaperooiis and hoods that had been worn before in France. Hats 
were first manuiii^tured in England b^ Spaniaids in 1510: before tliis time 
both men and women wore cloae-knit woollen caps —Sloilie. Veiy high 
crowned hats were worn by queen Elizabetli t, eomtiers , and high crowns 
were again introduced in 1783. A sfamp-dnty was laid upon hats in Eng 
Ian* in 17M, and again in 1706 ; it was repealed in 1811. 

HAVRE-DE-GRACE. This place was defended ibr the Hngaenots by the 
English, in 1662. It haa been bombarded several timea by Uie British navy, 
in 1759, in 1794, in 1796 and in 1798. Declared to he in a slate of blockade, 
Sept. 6, 1803, The attempts to bum the shipping here failed, August 7, 

HAYTI, OR Haiti, the Indian name of St. Domingo, discovered by Columbus Ji 
1492. Before the Spaniards finally conquered it, they are eaid to have d/., 
Btroyed in battle or cold blood, 8,000,000 of its mhabltanfs, including 
women and children. Toussaint establi^ed an Independent repuhlic in St. 
Domingo, July 22, 1801. He surrendered to the French, May 7, 1802. Bes- 
salines made a proclamation for the massacre of all the whites, March 29. 
18M. See S(. Domingo. Dessalinea was crowned feing, by the title of Jac- 
ques I., Oct. 8, 1804. He died Sept. 21, 1805. Henry Christophe, a man of 
color, becsune president in Feb. 1807, and was crowned emperor by the title 
of Henry I., in March 1811 ; while PeUon ruled as president at Poitiu-Prince. 
Numerous black nobility and prelates wore oreaffid same year. Petion die^j 
and Boyer was elected in his room, in May 1818. Christophe committed 
suicide in Oct. 1820. Independence declared at St. Domingo, in Dee. 1821. 
Decree of the king of France confirming it, April 1826. Souloque elected 
president, MarcJi 2, 1847 ; procJEumed emperor of Hajti, August 24, 1849. 
HEBRIDES, NEW, discorered by tlia navigator Quires, ». u. 1806. Bourgaiu- 
vllle Tiaitfid them in 1768, and found that the land was not conneotfid, but 
composed of islands, which he called the Great Cyclades. Cook, in 1774, 
ascertained the estcnt and situation of the whole group, and gave them the 
name they now bear. 
HECATOMB. This waBasaerifice among the ancients of a hundred oxen; 
bat it was more paiiicularly observed by the Lacedemonians when they 
possessed a hundred capital cities. In the course of time this sac- 
rifice was reduced to twenly-three oxen; and in the end, to lessen tlio 
espenae, goata and iambs were substituted tbr oxen. — Potter. 
HECLA. Its first eraption ia recorded as having occurred i. d. 1004, About 
twenty-two eruptions have talten place, accoKling to Olaason and Paulson. 
The most dreadful and multiplied convulsions of this great volcanic 
moontain occun'ed in 1788. See Icelamd. 
HEGIRA, Era op the, dates from the flight of Mahomet from Mecca to Medina, 
which event took place in the night of Thursday the 15fb July, a. d. 622 ; 
the era commences on the fijUowing day, via : — the 16th of July. Many 
chronoiogiata have computed this era from the 15th July; but Cantemir 
has given examples proving that, in most ancient times, the 16th waa the 
first day of 13ie lii-n ; and there is now no doubt it is so. See Makom^Hsm 



HEIDELBERG, and HEIDELBERG TUN. Heidelberg, in Germany, on the 
river Necitar, wiia formerly the capital of the Palatinate : the proteatant 
electoral honsa becoming extinct in. 1693, a bloody is^renaned, inwbich the 
fiimous castle ivas ruined, aad the elector removed hia residence to Mann- 
heim. Here was the celebrated Heildelberg Tun, which held 800 hogsheadis, 
13 formerly kept full of the best Rhenish wine. The University of 
■■ ■■ ■, one of the most ce!ei)rat«d in Europe, was foimded in 1346, 
in 1840, 622 Btudenta. 

HELEN, Rape op, which oansed the Trojan war, 1204 b. c. Helen was the 
moat beautiful woman in the world, and even in her childhood was ao very 
lovely, tiiat Theaena stole her away in her tenth year. From him, however, 
she was released, yet innocent, by her brotheia ; and after her returnto the 
court of Sparta she was eagerly sought in marriage hyf]ie princes of Greece, 
and Ulyssea persuaded the saitora to bind themselves on oath to abide by 
the nnioflQenced chofce of Helen, and to defend her person and character 
&om that time. The princes took the oath, and Helen then loade choice of 
Menelans. Paris coming aoon after to the court of thifl king, abused his 
hoapitaJity by corrupting the fidelity of Helen.: carrying her away, though 
not an unwilling captire, to Asia Minor. At Troy, the Ihther of Paris, Priam, 
received her in Ma palace withont difficulty ; and Menelaua, asaembllng the 
priucea of Greece, I'etoiaded them of their oath : and the siege and destruc- 
tion of Troy followed, 1184 b. c. Paris was previously married, his wife 
beiug (Enone, who lived with him in happiness on Mount Ida ; and at h^ 
death by one of the arrows of Herculea, then in the posaeadon of Phiiloc- 
tetea, he desired in bis dying moments to be carried to CEnoue, whom he 
had so basely desertedi but he expired on the way. The nymph, however, 
still mhidful of their former happiness, threw herself upon the body, batlied 
it with her tears, and then plunged a dagger in her heart. 

ITELENA, St. Thia island waa discovered by the Portugnese, on the festival 
of St. Helena, a. d. 1602. The Dutch were afterivaids in posaession of it 
until 1600, when they were expelled by the English. The British East India 
company settled here in 1651; and the island waa aliemately possessed by 
the English and Dutch, until 1678, when Charles n. on Deo. 12, assigned it 
to the com^ny once more. St. Helena was made the place of Napoleon's 
captivity, Oct. 16, 1815, and it became the scene of his death. May 6, 

HELIGOLAND. Thia island formerly belonged lo the Danes, from whom it 
was taken by the British, Sept. 5, 1807, and formed a dep6t for British mer- 
chandise intended for the Continent during the war. Confirmed to England 
by the treaty of Kiel, Jan. 14, 1814, the same ti-eaiy hy whidi Norway waa 
ceded to Sweden. Though a mere rook, tills is an important possession of 
the British orown. 

HELIOMETER. A valuable scientiflc inetraraent for meaauring the stars, in- 
'■""■" 'a 1774- The helioacope was invented by Christo- 

)m, it is said, by the most savage ti-ibes. Among 
..._... «aa provided with a vizor of grated bars, to raise 

above the eyes, and a bever to lower for eating; the helmet of the Greeks 
was round, and that of the Romans square. Ricliard I, of England wore a 
plain round helmet | and after this monarch's reign most of the English 
kings bad crowns above their helmeta. Alexander lit of Scotland, 1249, had 
a flat helmet, with a square grated vizor, and the helmet of Robert I. was 
surmounted by a crovra, 1806. — GilriMim. 
■pELOTS. The people of Helos, against whom the Spartans bore desperate 


352 TiiE woiiLD's nioeftEss. [ 

reBentment f&r refusing to pay tribut*, 8SS n, o. Tiie Spartans, not satlafied 
Witt tlio ruin of their city, reduced the Helotn fo the most tlehasing Blavery ; 
and to complete their iclUmy, they called all the slaves of the state, and the 
prisonara of war, by the degrading name of BMie, and further exposed 
them to every apeciea of contempt and ridicule, 609 n. c. But In the Peio- 
pouneslMi war the Helots behaved with uncommon bravery, and were rewaiTi- 
ed with their liberty, 431 b, o. But thisact of justice did not last long; and 
the sudden disappcai'auce of 2000 nmuumitted slaves was attributed to the 
Lacedemonians.— .He/'oiii'&w, 

HEMP *Nn FLAX. Flax was first planted in England, when it was directed 
to be sown for fishing-nets, a. d, 1533. Bounties were paid to encourage its 
cultivation in 1783 ; and every exertion should be made by the government 
and legislature to accomplish such a national good. In 178E there were im- 
porfedfrom Russia in Britiah ships, 17,695tonsofhenipaiidtlBx.— Sir Joftm 
SmclaiT. The annual importations of these articles now amount to about 
100,000 tons. More than 180,000 lbs. of rough hemp are used in the cordage 
of a first-rate nmn-of-wai', including rigging and saUa, 

HEPTARCHY. The Heptarchy (or government of seven kinga_) in England 
was gradually formed from a. q. 45S, when Hengist became the king of Kent, 
and that kingdom was erected. The Heptorchy terminated in a. n. 82E, 
when f^bai-t redaced the other kingdoms, and became sole monaioh of 
England. For the several kingdoms of the Heptarchy, see Britaiit. 

HEIRACLTDM, The, or the ratucn of the Heraclidte into the Peloponnesus : i 
lUmous epoch in chronology that constitutes the beginning of profane his- 
tory, all the titae preceding that period being accounted fobulous. This 
return happened 100 years after they were expelled, and eighty years after 
the destruction of Troy, llOi b. c, 
HERAiDRT. Signs and marks of honor were made use of in the first ages of 
the world. — Ntsbet. The Phrygians had a sow ; the Thracians, Mars ; the 
Romans, an eagle : the Gotlia, a bear ; the Flemings, a boll ; the Sasona. a 
horse ; and the andent French, a lion, and afterwards the fienr-de-lis, mhich 
see. Heraldry, as digested into an art, and sabjected to mles, may be ascribed 
in the first instance to Charlemagne, aboat the year 800; and in the nas*^" 
to Frederick Barbarossa, about the year 1152 ; it began and grew with the 
feudal lav/.—Sir George Madtenxte. It waa at length metJiodized and 
perticfed by the ctUMdes and tournaments, the former commencing }u 

HEECULANEITM. An ancient city of Campania, overwhelmed, together with 
Pompeii, by an eruption of Ve-suviaB, Aug. 24, a. b. 79. Heroulaneum was 
buried under streams of lava, and successive eruptions laid it still deeper 
under the surfhce. All traces of ttemwere lost until a. d. 1711, from which 
year many ctiriosiljes, works of art, and monuments and memorials of wvU- 
iaed life have been discovered to the present time. 160 volumes of MSS. 
were found in a chest, in 1754 ; and many antiquiaaa were purchased by air ' 
William Hamilton, and re-purchased by the trustees of the British museujiji 
where they are deposited ; but the principal antiquities are preserved In the 
museum of Portici. 

HERETICS. Formerly the term heresy denoted a particular sect ; now here- 
tics are those who propagate their private opinions In opposition to the Ca- 
tholic church. — Boom. Tcna of thousands of them have suffered death by 
tortui'e in Roman Catholic counti'iea.— Siwiei. Soe IitqitUUimi. Simon 
MagDB was the fii'st heretic; be came to Rome a. d. 4L Thirty heretics 
came from Germany to England to propagate their opinions, and were 


BHeiuyVin, IB^i-S 
HERMITS. The nnme first given tci those that retired fo desert ijlaces, to 
avoid pai'secution, whaie Uiej' gave thomselvas up to prayeiB, tiLsting, and 
medilation. They nere also called anchorets; and commonly lodged in 
dark caves, where their food vms such roots as nature bestowed freely with- 
out cnlture. From these came tie monlia, and almost all the sorts of reli- 
gous assemblies that live in monasteries. In tlio seventh persecution of the 
hriatians, one Panl, to avoid the enemies of his Mth, retii-ed into Thebata, 
and became llie first example of a monastic life, about x. d. 250. 

HERO AND LEANDER: fbeir amour. The fldehty of these lovei-s was so 
great, and tlieir attachment to each other so strong, that Leander in the 
night frequently swam across the Hellespont, from Abydos to Sestos, to 
have secret interviews with Hero, a beautiful prieetess of Venus, she 'Ji- 
rocting bis course by a burning flambeaux. After many stolen interviews, 
Leander was drowned in a tempestuous night, and Kero threw herself troai 
her tower, and perished in the sea, 627 e. c.—Livy, Semdcias. 

HERRING-FISHERT. It was largely encouraged by the Scoteh bo early as 
the ninth century. The herring statute was passed in 1357. The mode of 
preserving herrings by pickling was discovered about 1390, and gave rise to 
the herring fishery as a branch of commerce.— jlMdrasms. The British 
Herring Fishery Company was inatitnted Sept. 2, 1750. 

HERSCHEL TEIL^ESCOPE, The. Herobers seven, ten, and twenty-feet re- 
fiectora were made about 1779. He discovers the Geoi^ium Sidus {wkich 
see), March 21, 1781. He discovers a volcanic monntain in the moon, in 
1788 ; and about -this time laid the plan of his great forty-feet telescope, 
which he completed in 1787, when he discovered two other volcanic moun- 
lamB, emittmg fire from their summits. In 1803, lie by means of his teles- 
copes, was enabled to lay before the Royal Society a catalogue of 6000 new 
nehulie, nebulous stars, planetary nebula, and clnatera of stars which ho 
had discovered. 

HESSE, House op. Its va u h ■an hes d rive their origin from Gerberge, 
daughter of Charles of L uin n 1 of Louis T. of France, who was 
descended from Louis th C te s She was married to Lambert II. earl 
of Louvain, fromwhon the p ot landgi'aves of Hesse-Cassel, by Hemy 
V„ first of the family wh b th tile of landgrave, ai-e descended. 
There is no family in Gc many m n bl by theh: alliances than this ; and 
it gives place t« none f th h oe nd statesmen it has produced. Sl£ 
thousand Hessian troops arrived in England, in consequence of an invasion 
being expected, in 1766. The sum of 471,000i, three per cent.- stock, was 
transferred to the landgrave of Hesse, for Hessian auxiliarieB lost in the 
American war, at WH. per man, Nov. 1786. The Hessian soldiers were again 
hired by England, and served in freland during the memorable rebellion 
there in 1798. 

HIEROGLYPHICS. The first writing men used was only the single pictures 
and engravings of the things they would represent. — Woodward. Hiero- 
glyphic characters were invented by Athothes, 2113 s, c,~Usher. The 
earliest records of them were the Egj'ptian, the first step towards letters, 
and some monnmenlB whose objects were described by exaggerated tradi- 
tion, or when forgotten, imagined. — Phillips. 

HIGH CHDECH *rjn LOW CHURCH PARTIES. These were occasioned by 


354 THE world's phogress, [hol 

the proaeoudon of Dr. Sacherere), preacher at St. Savioar's Sonthwarfc, for 
two seditious eennona, the object of whieli was to ronse the apprehenaiooa 
of flio people for the safety of the Church, and to excite lioatility against 
tlie dissenters. His friends were called Hieh Chnrch, and liis opponents 
Low Chnrch, or moderate men, 8 Anne, 1710. The queen, who favored Sa- 
cheverel, presented him with the valuable rectoiy of St. Andrew's, Holborn. 
He died hi 1724. 

HIGH TREASON. The highest offence known to tlie law, and in regufating 
the trials fbr which was enacted tho memorable statute, so tkvorable to 
British liberty, the 26th of Edward HI. 1552. By this statute two living 
witnesaea are required in cases of high treason ; and it arose iu the mfhsal 
of parliament to sanction the sentence of death against the dnlie of Somer- 
set — it Is that which regulates indictments for treason at the present day. 
By the 40th George m. 1800, it wna enacted that where there was a trial 
for high ta^ftson m which the overt act was a direct attempt upon the life 
of the soverei^, such trial should be conducted in the same manner as the 
case of an Indiclanent for murder. See Trials. 

HIGHNESS. The title of Highness was given to Henry VII, ; and this, and 
sometimes Your Grace, was the manner of addressmg Henry VIII. ; but 
aboat the close of the reign of the latter mentioned khig, the tithj of High- 
ness and " Your Grace " were jabsorbed in that of Mtyesty. 

HINDOO ERA, or Era of the Caliyug, began 8101 b. c. or 756 before tho De- 
luge, in 2348 ; and the Hindoos connt their months by the pciMi'ess of )3ie 
sun throueh the zodiac. The Samoat era b^ns 67 b. c. : and tSe Saca era, 
i. T>. 77 : t&ey are all used by the Hindoo nations. 

HISTORY. Previousiy to the invention of lettei-s the records of history are 
vague, traditionary, and erroneous. The chronielea of the Jews, the Parian 
Chronicle, the histories of Herodotas and Ctosias, and the poems of Homer, 
are the foundations of early ancient history. Later ancient history is con- 
sidered as ending with the destruction of the Roman einpii-e in Italy, a. r>. 
476 i and modern histovy dates from the age of Charlemagne, about a. d. 
800. There was not a proifessorship of modem history in either of tho 
English uniTOtsities until the years 1724 and 1786, wlien Eegiua professor- 
ships were established by George I. and George II. A professorship of 
histoiy founded at Harvard Cofipge, was filled by Jared Sparks, who was 
succeeded by Francis Bowen, 1851). 

HOHENLINDEN, Battle op, between the Austrian and French armies, the 
latter commanded by general Morean. The Imperialists were defeated 
witli gi'Uat loss, their kuled and wounded amounting to 10,000 men, and 
their loss in prisoners to 10,000 more, November 8, ISH). 

HOLLAND. The original inhabitants of this country were the Batavians, who 
derived their origin from the Catti, a people of Germany. Having been 
obliged to abandon their country on account of civil wars, they came and 
established themselves in a morass, formed by the waters of the Rhine and 
the Waal, wliich they named Bettuive, or Batavia, from Batton, the son cE 
their chieftain. To these have since been added a pretty large proportion 

of Francs and Frisians. 

SovecBigniyriiuiiloa by Tbicrtj', 

II falls 10 llieciawa ofFhUlp Ihe Qi 

. jrfBurL— , 
H10,0I« peiBODB ai-o Browned by Uie a 
btBatbg In " "— 

rhey rail » Spain, whose tyranny and 



HOLLAND, confiTiv^. 
Tbey bIbci ^ 

as Sladlholdni' 



liTi^la of xiiivij yeara, tbe kin^ 
Lin le obLi^ io declare the Do- 

uLilic wars a?ajnfit Spsio in Ibe 
md in Avneiiia i lheT)nKh ad- 
Peter Hen, lakea seieral Spi- 
aUeone, value ^OflOaiXm 9LeI- 

Willioin, prb3ce of Orange, having 
ie called to tuo Brlush Ihrono - Ifi 

Theodice ofSEadtholdorismadBbere- 

J gi,biiiimolpi,iiU!a. 

Isnda - ■ . Dec. 6,1a 

B receives Ihe oath of allegiance 

The BelsiaJia a.ia (he dly of Aolworp 

(mhiciii^e) ■ ■ OU. 27, IS 

Belginm is aeparaled ftom HoLlij^ 


Ho^laM renews ths ivar ag8]n6| M- 

Conference in London on Iho aflaira ol 

leolai'e u 


Holland and ths Neaierlandj termi- 

Jan IS 


iSy CwSSXnd 'mH B^lJoIS 

Tjn 21 


.'ml ii 

AbS™ ef W™1L™ l" InKt'S 

hioBon™ ° - - -"oSi.B. 

BeoEh or the ei-king - Dec. 12, 
Tbe ting promisee Eis assent to all re- 

forms passed lit Ihe chaJabeis 

March 14, 

New consliiuiiQn anpeara, April IJ, 

» LllO Ullo 

Death of WilUom (l - Wai'th IT, 

April i«, 


iei3 WilUsm I. 
1810 W 

nd ting of Englmid In IGW, 

HOLLAND, NEW. It ia not olaarly aacerCatoect when thia country wais first 
discovered. In 1605, ef seg., various parts of the coast were traced by the 
Spanish, Portuguese, Diifch, and English. Wliat was deemed till lately the 
south exteemit;, was discovered by Tasmaa, in 164iS, The eastern coast, 
called New South Wales, was taken possession of, in hia Britannic majeisty's 
name, by captain Cook, in 1770. See Bolamy Bay, New Simih Walei, and 
Van DienuMS Land. 

HOLY ALLIANCE. A Icagne so called between the emperors of Russia and 
Austria, and the king of Prussia, by which they ostensibly bound them- 
aelves, among other tilings, to be governed by Christian jiriiiciples in all 
their political transactions. Tliis alliance was ratified at Paris, Septem- 
ber 26, 1816. 

HOLT WATER is said to have beet, used in dmvches as early as 4. d, 120.— 


356 THE world's peooeess. f hop 

HOMER'S ILIAD and ODYSSEY. The miafortimes of Troy famish the two 
most perfect Epic* poems itt the world, written by the gimteat poet thnt 
has over liyed ; about 91a a. c. The subject of the first is the wrath of 
Achilles ; the second recounts the voyages and adventures of Ulyasea after 
the destrnctioa of Troy. Among the tliousands of volumes burnt at Con- 
stantinople, i. D. 477, were the works of Homei', said to hava been written 
in golden letters on the great gut of a, dragon, 120 feet long. — Univ. ifiii. 
The works of Homer are supposed by some to have done gi'eat injuiy lo 
maniind, by inspiring the love of military gioiy. Alexander was said to 
Bleep with them always on his pillow.— Donu™. 

HOMICIDE. This crime was tried at Athene by the Areopagites, 1507 s. -;. 
He that MUed another at any public exercise of skill, or who killed another 
that lay perdue to do a person jnisohief of a grievoua nature, was not 
deemed guilty. He who kiUed a man taken with another's wife, sisler, 
daughter, ov eoncubice, or he who killedamanwho. without jnstground% 
assanlted another violently, was not deemed a homicide. Among the Jews, 
wilful murder was capital ; but fbr chance-medley, the offender should fly 
to one of the cities of refuge, and there continue till the death of the high 
priest. In the primitive church, before the Christians had the civil power, 
wilful homicide was pimished with a twenty yeai's' penance. Our laws dit. 
tinguiah between justifiable homicide and homicide in its various degrees 
of guilt, and chcumatances of provoeatjon and wilfulness. See Mm'd^, 

HONEY-MOON. Among the ancients, a beverage prepared with honey, snch 
as Uiat known as mead, and aa metheglin, in England, was a lnx:urioi;s 
drink. It was a custom to drink of diluted honey for thirty days or a 
moon's age, after a wedding-feaet, and hence arose the term /umej-jnoffu, of 
Teutonic origin. Attila, me devastating Hun, who ravaged nearly all Eu- 
rope, draiik, it is stud, so freely of hydro-md on Ms marriage-day, that he 
died in the night fl'om snSbcation, 453 a. d. fiis death is, however, a^ciibed 
to another cause. See Allila. 

"HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE." It is said that the countess of Salis- 
bury, at a ball at court, happening to drop her garter, the king, Edwai'd 
HI., took it up, end presented it to her with these words: "Honi smi qui niiil 
f pense," " evil be to him who evil iJiinks." The^r afterwards became the 
motto of the Garter ; but this statement of the origin of the motto is un- 
supported hy sufHeient authority. — GoWamiiS. 

HONOR. Honor was a virtue highly venerated by the anoienla, particular!/ 
among the Romans, and tempRs were ultimately erected to Honor by that 
people as a divinity. The tiret temple was built by Sdpio Africanus, about 
B. o. 197 ; and others were raised to her worship by C. Marius, about 102 
B. c. These temples were so constructed that it was impoasible to ent^r 
that to Honor without going through the temple of Virtue ; and Marius 
ordered his edifices not to be built too much elevated or too lofly, thereby 
to intimate to the worshippers that humility was the true way to hmior. 

HOPS. Introduced from the Netherlands into England, a. d. 1524, and were 
used in brewing; but (he physicians havhig represented that they were un- 
wholesome, pariiament was petitioned against them as heinga wicked weed, 
and their use was prohibited in 1528. — Andersim. At present there are 
betiveen fifty and siity thousand acres, on an average, annually under the 


nuQ ] DicTioNARY OP HATES. 357 

culture of hops in England. They are gi'Oivn chiefly in Hereford, Kent, and 

Allians contesting for superiority, a 
each side to deteniiine to which it belonged ; and the tliree Horatii, Roman 
knighfa, and tte three Cnradi, AlbanB, being elected by their respective 
countries, engaged in the celebrated combat which, by the victory of the 
Horatii, Tinited Alba to Borne. 

HORSE. The people of Thessaly were excellent equesti'ians, and probably 
were the first, among the Greoka at least, who rode upon horses, and broke 
them in for service in war ; whence arose the ihble fiat Thessaly was ori- 

finally inhabited by centaurs. And Solomon had 40,000 stalls of horses Ibr 
is chariots, and 12,000 horsemen. — 1 Kings, iv. 26. The power of the 
horse is equal to fliat of five men.Sm^aUni. A horse can perform tiia 
work of six men. — Bosquet. The Greeks and Romans had some covering 
to secure their horeea' hoof^ from iiymy. In tlie ninth century, horeea were 
only shod in the time of frost. The practice of shoeing was introduced 
Into England by William I., 1066. m Bngliind there are two milhous 
of drau^it and pleasure horses, and one hundred thousand agricoltural 
horses, which consume the produce of seven milhons of acres. The horse- 
iflx was imposed in 1784, and was then levied on all saddle and coach horses 
in England. The existing duty upon " horses for riding" only in England, 
amounts to about 850,OOCS. pec year. See Race Horses. 

HOSPITALLERS. Military knights of the order of St. John, of Jerusalem, 
who were imder religious vows ; instituted by opening a hospital for the 
reception of pilgrims at Jerusalem, in a. d. 1048. They became a monastic 
order in 1092 ; and a military oi'der in 1118. See Malta. 

HOSPITALS or LONDON. Seveml of these most valuable and merciful in- 
stitutions ai'e of ancient date, and richly endowed. One of the most muni- 
ficent erections by a single individual is that of Guy's Hospilal, Southwark, 
a London bookseller of that name having built it at tbe cost of I8,T93i., and 
endowed it, in 1724, by a bequest of 2ia,499i, See Injmncmes. 

HOST, Elevation op the. Introduced in Roman Catholic woraWp, aud pros- 
tration enjoined, in a. d. 1201. Pope Gregory IX. was the first pontiff who 
decreed a bell to be rung as a signal for the people to betake themselves to 
the adoration of liie host, which is done to this day. — Dr. A. Bees. 

HOURS. The day began tobedivided into hours fVom the year 293 B.C., when 
L. Papirius Cursor erected a sun-dial in the temple of Quuinns at Rome. 
Previously to the invention of water-clocks (wkUh see), 158 b. c, the fima 
was called at Rome by public criers. The Chinese divide the day into 
twelve parts of two hours each. The Italians reckon twenty-four hours round, 
inst^ of two divisions of twelve hours each, as we do. In England, the 
measurement of time was alike uncertain and difficult: one expedient was 
by wax candles, three inches burning an hour, and six ivax-candles burning 
twenty-four hours : these candles were invented by Alfred, clocks and hour- 
glasses not being then known in England, a. d. 886. 

HUDSON'S BAY. Discovered by captain Henry Hudson, when in search of a 
North-West passage to the Pacific Ocean, a, d. 1610 ; but in faci^ this part 
of North America may more properly be said to have been discovered by 
Frobisher in the reign of Elizabeth, although Hudson ventured further 
north. The latter, passing the winter in this bay on his fourth voyage, was, 
with fom' others, tbrown by his sailors into a boat, and left to perish. The 
Hudson-Bay Company obtained chartered possessions here, in 1670. The 
forts were destroyed by the French in 1686 and 1783. 





HCE AUD CRY. The old common-law procoaa of pnraaiag " with horn and 
with voice," from hmidred to hundred, and coanty to cornity, all robhera 
and felons. Formeily the himdiid was booud to make good all loss oeua^ 
sioned by the robberies therein committed, nnlesa tlie felon were taken; 
but by subseiiuont laws it is made answei-able only for damage eonmiitl«d 
by riotous assembliea. 

HDGDENOTS. This word is of onoertain derivation. It was used, aa a tenn 
of reproach, by the French Catholics, to uicknftrae their eonnti^men of the 
reformed chm'ches, or Protestants of Prance, and bad its rise ia 1560. The 
memorable massacre of the Hagnenots of Fiance, on the festival of St. 
Bartholomew, took place on Aug. 24, 1573. — See Barthohnitem, Si, A coji- 
siderable number of Huguenots emigrated aRer that erent to North Ame- 
rica, and settled on the Belaware, and in the Carolina^, 

HUMILIATI. A congregation of relieious in the church of Rome, which was 
formed by some Milanese who had been imprisoned under Frederick I., 
1162. This order had ninety monasteries ; but it was abolished for luxury 
and cruelty by pope Pius V., and their houses wore gifen to the Dominl- 

d Cordelic 

n 1670. 

HUNGARY. The Pannonia of the ancients, and subject to the Eoffians, U 
E. c, and kept possession of by them until, in the fourth century of the 
Christian era, the Vandals drove them out of it. About forty years after- 
wards, tlie Yajidals migrated towards (Saul, and their deserted setUemenfs 
wore occupied by the Goths, who in the beginning of the fifth century were 
expelled by the Huns, a ferodous tribe of Scythians, headed by Atlttla, 
whose dreadful ravages obtained hira the appel^tion of " The Scourge of 
God." — In more recent times, the Hungarians have been much intermixed 
with Sclavonic nations, aa Bohemians, Croats, Russians, and Vandals ; be- 
sides German settlers, as Austrians, Styrians, Bavarians, Franks, Sivabians, 
Saxons, &c. Hungaiy waa annexed to the empire of Germany under Char- 
lemagne, but it became an independent kmgdom in 920 

Steplien vec^veE the Utle of ApoBliihii I Hs DbtiiriH tlif erawi of IMii-m a and 
lane from iha pops . . r. no" I = ,. :. i . „.. ^ ri , n i uin 

The Poles orsmin Eimj 



isioij of a 


[ua takea bv the Tuita 

[ 9 unhappy Hungariana 

nglh camea Buda Ijy el 

13, wliea Mary, Ihe dairghler 


KOBBuih appolnlBd bj^ llie Did pi'ssi- 
deut Df ibB defence coaanlOQe bnd 

rTnsurreclion of Vienna, Oct. 6.J 
IluDgariou arm^ ailvaiicea iviumi eiT£ 

oi Vienna ; Jeliacbicli alee ad- 

RaaG (Dec.) and Budi Pesih, entsred 
bj Winciissmffi ■ -1=^ U- 

Hkaas of Buffiioo et 

deiB die Hungaiian stray lo ; 

.unrai-; - Apill 3 

jaiian stray lo Uio Au 

by fhe coraplele tpubji 

gallon of Hnnsrtry, ond Ihe ^igbt i 

agajiL depoaedi and boB hia ■ 
Anilre\v, AK&sginsled by hia 
BsLa, iaiei by [ha fall of a 

I Coioman. 
E Sl«pii«n li. 

, EuiiiBined Tlinncler; 
B liad Ids eyes puE c 

IB^ Melthias U. 

Pei^nanil III!, dii 

See Qetmaay, 

On the deati of Charles VT., in 1740, his daughter, Maria Tlieresa, wlio had 
married info the house of Lorraine, waa in danger of being deprived of her 
falier's heredifaiy domioiona by France, and also by Bavaria ; but at length 
overcoming all difficulties, her husband was elected emperor, and Hungary, 
Austoia, and Boienua are at this time governed by then: descendants. See 
HONS. A flerce and warlike nation, occupying eaeiem Tartary nearly 1200 
years ; they were almost wholly exterminated by the Chinese, in a. d. 98, and 
the remnants settled on the Volga, and attacked tie Roman allioB on the 
Danube, in 876 ; but havii^ been subsidized under Aitila, they turned their 
arms towards Germany. The latter country and Scytliia were conquered by 
them, about a, d. 433. 100,000 of them were slain on the plains of Cham- 
pagne in 44t. They were defeated by Charles the Great in several battles 
during eight years, and were almost esUcpated, and soon ceased to appear aa 


;j60 THE world's ruoGKEsa. | u"J 

a distinct natiou after 780. When they settled in Parmonia, they gave it the 
name of Hungary, viMch see ; see iUbo Attda. 

HUSS, JOHN; Hia Mabtyhdom. The clergy having instigated the pope to 
issue a ball against liei-etics, Hues, who had been zealous to piomoto a refor- 
mation, was cited to oppear before a council of diviaes at Constance f« give 
an account of his docteinea. To encourage Mm to do bo, fJie emperor Si^- 
mund sent bim a safe conduct, and engaged ibr his security. On tbe 
strength of this pledge he preaentfid himself accordingly, but was soon 
Hirown into prison, and after some montlia' conGnemont was adjudged to be 
burned alive. He endured this dreadful death with magnanimity and resig- 
nation, July 6, 1416. The same unliappy fkte was borne with the same 
fortitude and constancy of mind by Jehome of Ph*6ue, the intimate coiii- 
panion of Hubs, who came to this council with the generous design of sup- 
porting and seconding his persecuted friend; he, too, suffered, May 30, 141S, 
See Craiiiaer, and Mwlfrs. 

HUSSAKS. This species of force originated in Poland and Hungaiy ; and as 
they were more fitted fbr a iiaaty enterprise than a set battle, they ai'e sup- 

Eosed to have taken their tiames l^om the h/assas or shout they made at their 
rst onset. They were generally opposed to the Turkish horse, "and were 
oddly clothed, liaving the skins of tigers and other wild heaats hanging ■?-■ 
tJieir backs, against bad weatjier, and wore fur caps, with a cock's feather,' 
— Pairrfffis. 

HYDROMETER. The oldest mention of the I^drometer occurs in the fifth 
century, and may bo ibund in the letters of Synesius to Hypatia ; but it is 
not improbable that Archimedes was the inventor of it, though no proofs 
of it are to be fbund. — BecimaMt. Hypatia was torn to pieces, 416 a. n., 
and ArohimedeB waa tilled 212 b. c. Hydraulic chemistry became a science 
in 1749. 

HYDROSTATICS were probably first studied in the Alexandrian school, abo^t 
300 a. c. The pressure of fluids was discovered by Archimedes, about 250 
B. c. The foreing-pump and air-fountain were invented by Hero, about 120 
B. c. Water-mills were known about the time of the birti of Christ. The 
science was revived by Galileo, about a. d. 1600. The (lieory of rivers was 
scientifleally understood in 1697. The connect theory of fluids and osciliar- 
tion of waves, explained by Newton, in 1714. A soientiflc form was given 
to hydrodynamics, by Bernoulli, 1738. 

HYMNS. Religious Honga, erodes, were at first used by the heathens inprai"^, 
ivf their iahe deitiea, and afterwards introduced both into the Jewish anu 
Christian churches. St. Hilary, the bishop of Aries, in Francs, is said 
to have been the first who composed hymns to be sung in Christian churches, 
about A. □. 431, The hymns of the Jews are usually accompanied with 
trumpets, drums, and cymbals. 

IAMBIC VERSE, lambe, an attendant of Metanita, wife of Ccleiis, king of 
Sp^u'ta, when trying to eshilaiato Ceres, while the latter was ti'avelling over 
Attjca in queat of her daughter Proserpine, entertained her with jokef; 
stories,' and poetical effusions ; andfi^m herfteeand satirical verses ha'e, 
been called IcDmiics. — ApoUodoras. Iambic verses were first written, aboi 
700B.C., by Arehlhicliua, whohad courted Neobule, the daughter of Lycam- 
bes ; but after a promise of mari'iage, the lather preferred another suitor, 
richer than the poet ; whereupon fliiihiloohus wrote so bitter a satire on tl .. 
old man's avaiico, that he hanged himself.— flferodndsi. 


:m] DicTio,N,my of dates. 361 

ICE. Galileo was the fivst wlio obsei'ved ice to bo lighter than the water whicli 
composed, it, and heuce ice &oa,ta, about 1597. Ice produced In Bummer hy 
means of chemical mixtureB, preyed by Mr. Walker and others, in 1781!, 
JjGtiie fiUEfl M-ater under the receiver of an air-pump by placing under it a 
vessel ftill of oil of vitrkil. One part of aal-aiamonia and two of common 
salt, with Hve of snow, produce a degree of cold twelve degrees below the 
aero of rahrenheit. FIto pai'ta of muiiate of lime and four of snow freeze 
mercnry ; and mercuiy can be solidified by prepax-ations of suiphnric acid, 
BO aa to bear the stroke of a hammer. See Cetd. 

ICE TRADE, The, in the United Statea, was conimsnced by Frederick Tudor, 
of Boston, in 1805, who shipped tlie first cai-go to Mai-tinique and tJie fli^t t« 
Calcutta, 1883. The ioe-houaea of Uie dealers near Boston at present are 
capable of containing 141,882 tons. 

ICELAJSD. Discovered by some Nonvegian chieft who were compelled to 
leave their native country, i. n. 871 ; according; ;o some accounts, it had 
been ptevioiisly visited hy a Scandinavian pirate. It was peopled by the 
Horwegiana, in 874. In 1J83, there occurred here the mist tremendous vol- 
canic eruption on record ; it was accompanied by violent wind and rain, and 
a darkness of tlie beavens ; and it was <^red that the island would All to 
pieces. Three. fire spouls broke out of Mount SItapta, which, after rising 
to a considerable beight in the air, foi^aed a torrent of red-hot lava that 
flowed for six weeks, and ran a distance of 60 miles to the sea, In a broken 
breadth of nearly 12 miles : 12 rivers were dried up ; 21 villages totally 
overwhelmed by Are or water; and 34 others were materially iiyua-ed. 

ICELANDIC LITERATURE, Royai, Society op, in Copenhagen. Thek 
library, contaming 2000 Icekndic MSS. and many books, bm'nt, 8eptemlier 
26, 1847. 
CONOLOGY. The science fliat deacrihes men and deities, distinguished by 
some peculiar characteristic, and the doctrine of picture or image represen- 
tation. Thns, Saturn is represented as an old man with a scythe ; Jupiter 
with B. thunderbolt, and an eagle by his side; Neptune with a trident, in a 
chariot drawn by sea-horses; Mercury, with wings on his hat and at his 
heela ; Bacchns, ci'owned with ivy ; Pallaa, leaning on her legis ; Venus, 
drawn by Swaos or pigeons ; Juno, ndlng in a eloud, Sui. Heathen mytho- 
logy gave rise to the later worship of the sun, moon, stars, and other objeeta ; 
and to the representation of the true God in various tbrms; and to images. 
The Iconoclastic schism rent asunder the Roman Catholic church in the 
early pai-t of the eighUi century. See Idnls. 
DE8. In the Koman calendar, the ides meant the thirteenth day of each 
month except in March, May, July, and October, in which months it was 
the flfteentli day, because in these four it was six days before the nories, 
and in the other months four days. The ides of March was the day on 
wliich Julius Coesar was assassinated in the senate house by Casea and other 
conspirators, ii b. o. 
DIOTS. It is shown by the latest returns, tirat exclusive of Imratics (see /m- 
son%), tliere are in England, pauper idiots, or idiots protected by national 
institutions, males. 8372; ftnrales, 8893; total, 7265. In England there ia 
one Juuatio or idiot in every 1033 individrrals ; in Wales, tiiere is one in 
every 807 ; in Scotland, one m 781 ; and in Ireland, one in 812. 
T^OLS, AKD IDOLATRY. The public worship of Idola was inlrodrrced by Ni- 
mrs, kmg of Assyria, 2Q5S n. c.— Vossias. Idols ai'e supposed t« hare origi- 
nated hi the pillar set up by Jacob, at Bethel, about 1800 B.c.—DTtf-resnoy. 
Constantine, emperor of Rome, ordered all the heatiien temples to be de- 
stroyed, and all sacrifices to cease, 330 a, d. — Dufiesiioy. In Britam, the 


religion, of the Dniids gave way to tlie more gross and bartiaroua supeiBti- 
fiona of the Sasons, who had their idols, altars, aod temples, and they soon 
overBprend the country with them ; they had a god for eveiy dit^ iu tiie 
week. Sea Weeli. The idolatry of the Saxons yielded to Chnstianity after 
the coming of St. Angastin. See Cliridianil/y. ■ 
nJUM. A city was built hare ty Dardanns, and called Dardania, 1480 b. c. 
Troy {widch see), another eity, waa founded by Troaa, about 1841 n. c. ; and 
Ilns, his successor, called the country liium. This kingdom existed 290 
years from the reign of DardauuB, Priam being the sixth and last king. The 
T>ojan war was audertaken by the united stales of Greece to recover Helen, 
whom Paris, sou of Priam, had borne away from her husband, Menehius, 
king of Sparta, 12tM n. c. See Helen. More than 100,000 warriors engaged 
in ttiis expedition ; and the invaders, having wasted many defenceless townc 
and villages, laid siege to the capital, 1193 n. c. Trey .was taken after leu 
years' war by strala^m. and humt to ashes by the conquerors, who put the 
inhabitants to the aword, or carried them off as slaves, 1184 a. c. — ApuM>- 

ILLINOIS, One of the United Stales, first settled on the Kasltaakia aufi Caho- 
fcia by the French from Canada. Ceded to Great Britain at the peace of 
1763. Chiefly settled hy emigi-ants from other states since 1800. Jn 178£- i 
was part of the North-West territory. In 1809 it was made a separate ten'! 
tory, and m 1818 admitted into tlie Union, being the 23d state. Populatlor 
in 1810, 12,282; in 1830, 157,675; in 1840, 476,183. It is a free state and hat 
always been so. The chief products are grain and Indian corn; it tiaa in- 
esliauslible lead-mines. New constitution adopted August 81, 1847. 

ILLUMIKAIT. These were heretics who sprang up in Spain, where they wen 
called Alumbrados, about a. ». 1676; and after tlieir supj>resaion in Spaiti 
they appeared in France, One of their leaders was the friar Anthony Bo' 
chet. The chief doctrine of this sect was, that they obtained grace, an 
attained perlfectiou, by their own sublime manner of prayer. A secre 
society bearing this name was founded by Dr. Adam Weishaupt, in May 

ILLUMINATED BOOICS *nd PAGES. The practice of adopting ornaments 
drawings, and emblematical figures, and even poclraits, to enrich MSS., is o 
great antiquity ; and illuminated pages are, many of them, exquisitety painted 
Varro wrote the lives of 700 iUustnous Romans, which ho embellished witl 
tlieii; lifeenesses, about 70 b. c.—PUii. Hist. Nat. 

IMPEACHMENT. The first impeachment by the commons house of parll' 
ment, and the lirst of a loi'd chancellor, was in 1388. By statute of the 12. 
and 18th of William and Maiy, it was enacted, that no pardon under t' 
great seal shall be pleaded to an impeachment by the commons in pari 
ment, 1699 and 1700. Memorable impeachment of Warren Hastings, Ft 
13, 1788 ; the trial lasted seven years, ending April 26, 1795, acquitta 
Impeachment of lord Melville, April 29, and his acquittal, Jane 12, 1801 
Inquiry into the charges prefiirred by colonel Wardle against the duke 
York, commenced Jan. 26, and ended Mai'ch 30, 1809, in hie acquit , 
Ti'ial of Cai'oline, queen of George IV., by bill of pains and penalties, 'CS- 
fore the house of fords, commenced Aug. IB ; Mr. Brougham entered •, 
hcrm^esty'a defence, Oct, 3; and the last debate on the hill took plac 
Nov, 10, 1820. See Qiteere of Gearge IF. 

IMPERIAL PARLIAMENT, By the Union with Ireland, the parliament ..„ 
Great Britain became Imperial; and the first Imperial parliament, admit 
thig 100 Irish members into the comnaons, and 28 temporal and 4 spiiitupl 
peers into the house of lords, wfts held at Westminster, January 22, IPf . 



TbB Imperial parliauient Is now constituted thus; in the Commons, since 
tbe passing of the Reform Bill (mli&l«e),ia 1833, there are 471 Englistj 
■20 Welsh; 105 Irish; and 63 Scotch members— in all 658. In the Lords, 
i59 memttara, of whom 28 are temporal, and 4 spiritual representative peers 
of Ireland; and 16 rapresentatiye peera of Scotland. See Cmitmons, Lords, 
PaHuemeiU, and Befoilii. 
Tablu, p. 317, 

jE30,R;a,G05 I la 1 
41,136.136 1 
- 3^14^! 


Iq 1710 - £i,7m,7n I Ii 
1750 - - 7,a89,6K 
1775 - - 14,81^65 | 

'BIPOSrORS. The names and pretensions of religions, poliljeal, aqd other im- 
postors, would" fill a yolnrae ; they Lave been, of course, fonnd in eveiy 
country, and have existed in every age. The following are eelected from 
various authorities, as being among the moat extraordinary ; — 
AJdebeit, wlio, in the eiehth cental?, pt 
tended, he had e, letter fcgm the Redeer 

WDoda and dosei-lB, and to lire In InxltaUon 

ensalvo M&tilq, a Spaniard, pretended to 
be theanfal Uichaet; heivasliuiTkL bj 
Iha inquisition of Spain, In 1360, 
eoTfe Davidi sen of a waterman at Qhent, 
9t7bd bimasir Ihs nephew af God, Hnt 
into the werld to adopt ehildren worthy ef 
heaven; he denied the resnrrecuDD, 
preached against maniage, In f&vat of a 
commubi^ of women, and tai^ht that 
the tiody only could be defiled by Bin ; be 

tended to be the sor 

Iher child had been autasTitnled la his 

flace : ha wa9 supporteQ by the anna of 
alBnd; bia Huccese aHlDmihed Uia ILna- 

detlraTAd into Mb hands Fedor, the red- 
ing czar, aad all his family, whom lie 
cniellj put to death : his Imposition being 

lien, by pretending to in: 

heaven, Jortellin? that the ^. 

an eaily and violent death if be 
Catherine of Spain, and niarri 

banged at Tjhutn, 34 Henry VIII, 1534.— 

n the first year of Mary's reijn, after bar 
marriage with Philip of Spam, Elifiahalh 
Croft, a girl of 19 jeaiB of »s, waa se- 
cretadinawall, ajiawitJiawhtBt1e,laadfl 
for the purpose, utlerad many BeditJouB 
speKhoa Beainirt the qoeea and the priat.e, 

Spiiit of the Wall,— flater'e Cftnm. 

William Hacket, a fanatic, peiaonated our 
Saviour, and was ej(ecntetl for bUiBpbemy> 
34 lilix., 1G91. 

James Naylor, pereenaled our Savbur; be 
wae convicted of bloBphemy, eceurged, 
and his tongue bored tbrotigh with a bet 
iron on the pillory, by sentence of the 
Housa of Oommona, under Cromwell'B 
admiiUBtjratioii, lfi5G. 

ValBaliae Greatra^s, an Itiah impostor, 
who pretended to cure all diseases hy 
elroldiie the patient ; his Imposture de- 
ceived the creduTous, aadoccaslwed very 
warm disputes in Inland, in IS6^ aod bl 
England, where it fell into disrepute. In 

RoTal Sodely, aflor which we hear no 

more of him. Bireh's Memoiri af Ifte 

R^. Society. 
Dr. Titus Oataa. See Conspiracies. 
Mar; l^jfls, of OodaluiinBi 'ay pretending 

she bred lahbile within her, bo impcEBd 

upon maoj pereona {among others, Mr. 

Si Andre, BurgBon to the kiiig), that they 

espoused her cause, 17^. 
The Cocb-laneghafltlirrpoalure by William 

Paisoiw, hla wife, and daughter, 17G2, 


the MesBlah, NewVork. 1630-31. 
ph Smith. See article Mannons. 

SEAMEN, Affirmed by Kr M. Foster to be of ancient 


pcaotico. The statute 2 Richard II. speaks of icapreasment aa a matter well 
fcown, 1378. The first commiseion for it was issued 29 Edward lH. 1866. 
Preasiuff, either for the aea or land sexviw, declared to be illegal by the Bri- 
tish parliament, Deo. 1641 . None can be pressed into tbe king^ naval service 
above 55, nor under 18. No appj'entjce nor landsmen who have not served at 
sea fov 8 or 2 years. No masters of merchants' ships, flret-inates of 50 tons, 
and boatswains and carpenters of 100 tons. No men empioyeii by tie pub- 
lio boards, and none except by an officer with a press-warrant. 

INCENDIARIES. The punishment for arson was death by tbo Saxon laws and 
Gothic constitutions. In the reign of Edward I. incendiaries were bm-nt to 
death. This crime waa made hig-h tj^ason by statute 8 Heaiiy VI., 1429; J.nd 
it waiS denied beneSt of clergy, 21 Henry VIII., 1528. 

INfJEST. It has been looked upon with horror by moat nations, but Persia and 
Egypt are exceptions. The history of the latter country abounds with in- 
stances of incestuous marriages among its soTereigns. Physcon married his 
brother's queen, then repudiated her, and married her daughter by his 
brother, and murdered his children by both wiveSj 129 b. c. See Egypt. 
In our own country, Vortigern, a king of South BritEiin, married his own 
daughter, a. d. 443. The instances are numerous in Portugal. Maria, 
queen of Portugal, married her uncle, the prince of Brnaii, June, 1760; and 

Portu^ was betrothed to his niece. Donna Maria, by procuration at Yiaai , 
in Oct. 1826, she being then only seven years ofase. in England, incest was 
early punished with death ; and was again made capital by a law of the 
Commonwealth, in 1650. 
INCOME TAX iH ENGLAND. This is not as some suppose, a new impost. 
In, 1512, parliament granlH3d a subsidy of two fifteenths from the comn:ons, 
and two tenths Itom the clergy, to enable the king; to enter on a war wf th 
France.— flitpm. This tax was atfemplfid in 1793, and 1799: and again in 
1802 i but was abandoned. In 1803, it waa revived, at the rate of 6 per 
cent, on all incomes above 160i,, and lower rales on smaller incomes. In 
1805, it waa increased to 6i per cent; and in 180S was raised to lOperccnt, 
embracing the dividends at the bank. It produced — 

In 13(M, SI 1g. In the pound - ;£4,esO,om | In 1SDI>, s( -2c. in Ihe miund - £l],500,00( 
In 1S06, e.1 It. M. dillo - - e,93T,50a | And Bubeequentl/ - - ie,648,99C 

-and salaries and pensions, 1,174,4662, ; total, sixteen millions and a u 
Repealed in March, 1816, Sir Soliert Peel's bill, imposing the present tc 
of 21. 18s, id. per cent, pej' anm., to subsist for three years, passed Juna 22 
1843; it prodaced about 5,350,000!. a year. This tax was renewed for tbrei 
yeaiB more, in March, 1845. 
INDEPENDENTS. Sects of Protestants, chiefly in England and Holland. The; 
ai'e such as hold the independency of the church, or that each congreg:Lt,ioi 
may govern itself in religious matters. They say there is no absolute oeca 
sion tbr synods or oouncua, whose resolutions may be taken to be wise an' 
prudent advice, but not as decisions to be peremptorily obeyed; they afdrn 
that one church may advise or reprove another, but has no authority to ex 
communicate or censure. Their first meeting-house founded in Englanil wa 
that by Henry Jacobs, 1616. 




lis, by wMeh the reading of the SwipturM w«8 
forbidden (with certain exeeptionB) to the laity, was eonfiiined by a bnll of 
pope Clement YHI. in 1595. It enumeratect most of the celebrated works 
of Fi'anee, Spain, Germany, and England, and wbicU at"e still prohibited. 

INDIA. Knomi to the ancients, many of whose nal^ona, partionlai'ly the Ty- 
rjaiis and Egyptians, canied on much commerce with it. It was conquered by 
Alexander, S27 B. c, and subsequently tbe intercourse between India and 
the Roman empire was very great. The authentic history of Hindoostan U 
reckoned to commence Willi the conquests of Malimud Gazni, a. d. 1000.— 

iy hla avfoM, nnder th& preu 
eslabllaluQic me norshm of (u 
hsdied- - - - 

The Mdeu! Tsnars, under Itie c 
Qf [he celebrnlfid Timour, or : 

Taeidy ^ mochS^ei- 

ly iLomjmrJ, distfacL and imiependeni 
BOFeretgnrJffl being Jbrm«i !^ — 

noiTi^am ami imillK-weBi p,i! 
ilt Franiaa Drake's Bspodiuoii 

Wral Bdvennire freid England 

19 140 British Bubjecls, of 

?3 perish in 


lordClii'e; hedefes 

Warren Haslinge heco 

Indil'^ilL.' See kdia 

son, TipcM SaiS - Dec. II 

rrial of mrren HosUngs. See B„si 

(mj, 1-rM of - Feb. i: 

DeflniliyelreBlyniliiTtppos; histw 

Eroyemment of loi-d Homingloo, after^ 
wards msiquia Wellesley May 17, ] 

Serinsapalam eUIOieil, and Tlppoa 
SaibTilled - - laSy 4, IT 

Vicloriea of Ihe British ; ihs Cnrnatli: 
CDOcmered , . - . 

Viclonea of Sir Arlhur Wellcsley 

Marquis ComwalllH reaumeB llie gov. 

Act hf nhjch tlie trade to lodia war 
thrown open , Ihal to CJuna lemain 

Lorf'anharttHgoiemniBnl Aug l] 

Ibab Soujah nsland to hie earerelgiity, 
and. he sod the Bnueh army enier 
inglishilereniDoatMahnmed, o- '■!'">• 


INDIA, contiifiied. 

Cabul! Sit A 


arWtlltain HBcnagluen m 

_. Brliiah, under ( 
«Te Oaiiul, pLadng Lmdj 
hoatafee in Ihe bonds u(& 
a dreadful mssau 

The Sikh Itoopa cross Uie SuUd river, 
i\L Che Br[ush peel nl Fsroze- 

ide defeated by SirChar- 
Scinde ia anerwardn an- 
BrU.iEti empire - Feb. 17, 1813 

!enrj HatdingB appoinled et 


I of Alinal ; Ihe Sikhs defeated 

1 killed and 

[The Sikha lost 1( 

tile beltveen the British under 
Ssugh, and the Sibhs under 
Singh, at Ramluggar, No7. S3, 
ialeo,afteralorigfieCT,Jau. 3, 
ins defeated by lJ>Td Oough 

Feb. 31, 1849 
■ to the 

Ui^unmi - March 29, 1819 

INDIA COMPANY, the East. Tlie ili^t commercial Intenwtirse of the En- 
gliah with the East Indies, waa a private adventure witli three ships fitted 
out in 1691 ; oQly one of them reached India, and ailer a, voyage of three 
jeara, the commandec, captain Laiicastar, was brought homo in another 
ship, the sailors having aeized on his oivn ; but his inforntation gave rise to 
a capital mercantile vo;fage, and the Company's Urst charter, in Deo. 1300. 
Then- stock then consisted of 72,O0W., and they fitted out fbur sliipa, and 
meeting with success, have continued to trade ever since. India stock sol'" 
at SOW. for a share of 100!., in 1688, A new company waa ftnned in 1608 , 
and both were united in 1702. The India-house was built in 1726, and en- 
larged in 1799. Board of control ioatitnted 1784. 
INDIA BILL. The bUl placmg the company's affairs under the control of the 
British govomment, and ra-organiaing the various departments in India 
passed June 16, 1778. See East India Bill. Mr. Fok's celebrated bib 
passed in the twrnmons, hut was thrown out in the lords' house, 1783. Mr. 
Pitt's bill constituting the Board of Conti'ol passed August 18, 1784. 

INDIA RUBBER. Also called Caoutchouc, first brought to Europe fronn 
South America, about the beginning of ihe eighteenth century. Sc'-iira 
planls produce various kinds of elastic gum; but that in conunerco ii 
chiefly the juice of tlie Siphimia Elastica, or syringe tree. Incisions in tht 
bark of this tree g;iYe vent to ft liquid which forms India rubber. No snlv 
stance isyetknown which is so pliable, and at thesame time so eiceoding. 
elastic ; it oozes out under the form of a vegetable milk, from incision: 
made in the tree, and is gathered chiefiy in the time of rain, because i 
flows then most abundantly. — M. Macguer. 

INDIANA, one of the western Uniled Sbites, first settled at Vincennes by th 
French ; ceded to England at tlie peace of 1763, but no settlement luad 
by them until 1787. Was part of the N. W. Territory in 1801. Suff'urci 
mooh during the war of 1812. See battle of Timvccanoe. Admitted inti 
the Union in 1816. Population hi 1800, 6,641 ; in 1820, 147,178 ; in 184( 

CNDIANS, NOKTH Amebicin. The origin of the aborigines of this continer 
continues to be a matter of speculation among the ethnologists. The 
have gradually but now almost entirely disappeai'cd befbre the track of th 
white man east of the Mississippi, and even in the fai" west their nmnb"' 


DATES. 367 

are yearly becoming smaller. King Philip's Indian war in New England, 
1675. Indians joined the French against the English colonies, 1390. At- 
tacked by Capt. Chui'oli, ITOi ; burned DeerfieH, Mass., 170* ; and Haver- 
hill, N. H., 1708; Indian war in South Carolina, 1715; again joined the 
French, 1754^; CheroKees subdued, 1761; Indiana hesi^ed Detroit, 1768. 
[Daring the revolntionmy war tlia Indians were employed at times on both 
sides, but chiefly by the British.] Treaty with the Chootaws, 1786 ; with 
the Creeks, 1790; Gen. Harroar defeated bythe Indians near Chillicothe, , 
1790; Gen. Butler defeated by the Indians on the Miami, 1791; treaty 
with Sis Nations, &c., 179i ; with the Delawares, 1804; Gov. Harrison de- 
feated hostile Indians on the Wabaah, May 16, 1811 ; Creek war in Florida, 
Gen. Jackson, 1818 ; treaty with Choctaws, Cherokees, &c., by Gen. Jack- 
son, 1816 ; Indian land In Ohio ceded to the United States, 1816 ; war with 
Seminolea, 1817 ; bill for removing the Indians west of Mississippi, passed 
May 27, 1832 ; war with Winnebagoes, 1832 ; Black Hawk captured, Aug. 
27, 1832; Winnebaffoea snbdned by Gen. Scott, 1S82; wai' against the 
Indians in Florida, jflabama, and Georgia, conducted by Gens. Scott, Gainea, 
Jessup, &c, 1835-40. In 1836 the Secretory of War reported as follows: 
NnmbsF of Iu<liaD9 emigralsd from the Atlaliliis Slstee tD ChB luDda proilded for 

Ihsm wesl of xh* Miaafflippi 31,357 

Numbarjeno be removed 72,181 

Number of iDdisDs of indlgenona Iribes, between the Miaalasipni and the Rooky 
Mounlains ...:...'... 160,341 

Total vrilhiaUieterriMty of the TJniledSlBles - -3^9 

Treaty with the Sons, they relinquishing 5,000,000 acres west of Missis- 
sippi for 81,000,000, Sept. 29, 1837 ; with Winnebagoes, Oct. I, 1887 j Powell 
alias Osceola, the Seminole chief, with GO warriora, taken prisoneiB in Flo- 
rida, Oct. 20, 1837 ; great mortality £W>m small-poi among the Mandans, 
Mintarees, Blaekfeet, and other Indians iu Missouri territoiy— the Mandans 
tribe entirely desfi'oyed— Nov., Dec, 1887; fight in Arkansas between the 
Robs and Ri(^ parties and Cherokees— Koss and about 40 others killed, June 
28,1889; iSOCblppewas treacherously massacred by the Sioux, at a mee(^ 
ii^ for a treaty at the Falls of St. Anthony, July 1, 1839 ; Cayuse Indiana 
in Oregon having attacked and murdered 15 personB, and carried off 64 pri- 
soners &om a missionary station, are chastised by the aettlera in a aevere 
engagement, Nov. 29, 1847- 

tNDIGiO. Before the American colonies were established, all the indigo used 
in Europe came from the East Indies ; and until the discovery of a passage 
round the Cape of Good Hope, it was conveyed like other Indian products, 
partly through the Persian Gulf, and partly by land to Babylon, or through 
Arabia and up the Red Sea to Egypt. The real nature of indigo was so 
little known in Europe, that it was classed among minerals, as appears by 
letters-patent for erecting works to obtain it from mines in the principality 
of Halberstadt, dated Dec. 23, ,1705 ; yet what Vitmviua and: Pliny c^l 
inrHcum is supposed to have been our indigo.— £ec4maiMi. The flrat men- 
tion of indigo occurs in English statutes in 1581. The first brought to 
Europe was procured fl'om Mexico. Ita cultivation was begun in Carolina, 
in 1747. The quantity imported into Great Britiun in 1840, was 6,881, 26Slb., 
and in 1846, it was 10,127,4881b. 

INDULGENCES. They were commejiced by Leo. IH., about a. d. 800 ; were 
much used by Urban II. 1090 ; and ^Tere subsequently confferred by the Ro- 
man pontiffs in tlie twelfth century as rewards to the cmsaders. Clement 
V. was the first pope who made public sale of indulgences, 1313. In 1517, 
Leo. X. published general indulgences throughout Europe, when the prao- 
tice led to the Reformation in Germany, in 1517, and to the Eeformation in 


England, in 15H.— Bower's Lives of the Popes. Indulgences wew for tlis 
pardon of sins, and weve sometimes so extensive as to be for the past, pi'e- 
Bent, and to coma. They weve written upon paichment, and sealed and 
signed by the pope or his delegates. — Ashe, 

INFIRMAEIES. Ancient Rome liad no houses foi- the cure of the sick. Dis- 
eased persons, however, were carried to the temple of JEsculapins for a cnre, 
as Christian believers were taken to churches which contained wonder- 
working images. Beneyolect institutions for the ftcoommodation of tra- 
vellers, the indigent, and sick, were first introduced with Christianity, and 
the first infirmaries or hospitais wera bnilt dose to cathedrals and monsate- 
ries. The emperor Louis H. cansed infirmaries situated on mountains to be 
visited, a. d. 8S5. In JerosalEm lis knights and broiJierB attended on the 
sick, liiere were hospitals for the sick at Constantinople, in the llth cen- 
tury. The oldest mention of physidans and snrgeona established in infir- 
maries, occurs in 1437. — BecJcvmnn. See HospUois. 

INFOEMEES. This tribe was once very nwnerons in Greece and Eome, they 
being countenanced by wicked princea. The emperor Titus punished in- 
formers by banishment, and someljnjes deati ; and Pliny gives praise to 
Trajan for the like good policy. In England, and particularly in London, 
nmnbers of nnprinoipled men obtain largo gains as informers against po.. 
sons whose sliglitest iuA'actions of the lair, imen nnconsciously committed, 
subject them to the poiver and exactions of this despised class. 

INK. The ancient black inlcs were composed of soot and ivory-black, and 
"Vitruvius and Phny mention lamp-black; but they had Ilkowise variouo 
colors, as red, gold, silver, and pnrple. Red ink was made by tliem of ver- 
milion and various kinds of gum. Inbiah ink is brought fl'om China, and 
mnst have been in nae by the people of the east froM the earliest a^es, 
most of the artificial Chinese productions being of very great antiquity. 
It is usually bronght to Europe in small quadrangular cakes, and is com- 
posed of a fine black and animal glne. — Bectataiai,. 

INNS or COURT. A number of inns of court wore established at different 
periods, in some degree as colleges for teaching the law. The Temple (of 
which there were thiee sociofies, namely, the Inner, the Middle and the 
Oater) was origiaaUy founded in the Temple church, built by the knights 
Templars, 32 Henry II. 1185. The inner and Middle Temple wei'e made 
inns of law in the reign of Edward HI., about 18i0 j the Outer not until the 
reign of Elizabetli, about 1580. — Siowe's Siirneg. 

INOCDLATION. Lady Mary Wortley Montague introduced inocuiatioo in 
England &om Turkey. In 1718 she had her own son inoculated at Adrian- 
ople, with perfect success ; and she was allowed to have it tried, for the 
first time in England, on seven condemned criminals, 7 George I. 1721. 
The practice was preached against by many of the bishops and other clerey 
ft'om that period until 1760.* Vaccine inoculation was introduced by Dr. 
Jenner, January 2i, 1799; he had discovered its virtue in 1796, and had 
been making experiment^ during the intermediate three years. He was 
voted lO.OOOS as a reward by parEament, June 2, 1802. The emperor Ns 
poleon valued this aei'vice of Dr. Jenner to mankind so highly that he libe- 
berated Dr. Wickhara, when a prisoner of war, at Jenner's request, and 
subsequently the emperor liberated whole families of English, making it a 

17B1) has this paragyaph : — >' We hear That Ihe soaond daughcer 

Tis(m,eaq.,of Bif 

maclale of Loudon moculatod Cnl^rine 


.n tha 

IHQDISITION. Before the conversion of Constantine the Great, the hiahopa 
only examined into doctrines, and punished heresy with excommunica- 
tion ; but after the emperors became Christians, they ordained thai such as 
were excommunicated ahould be also banished and fbrifait their estates. 
Thia continued till about the year 800, when the western biahops' power 
was enlarged to the authority of citing' persons to their courts, both to con- 
vict and punish them by Imprisonment, penances, or death. In the twelfth 
century, heresy, as it was then called, was much increasad ; and the inqui- 
sition arose in the persecution of the Albigenaea and Waldenaes. It was 
inatituted by^ pope Innocent Ht., in 1203 ; and Gregory IX. in a council held 
at Toulouse in 1229, gave it its flool form, committing the management of 
it to the bishops ; but afterwarila thinking these too indulgent, he gave the 
direction of hia inguLsition to the Dominicana. It was established in France, 
by St. Louia, in 1226; and in the fbur Christian kingdoms t{ Hpiun. Itwaa 
established in Portugal in 1686. The lost great Auto da Fe was celebrated 
in 1781 ! and although the rack and faggot are not now employed in the 
work of torture and death, yet the power of the Holy office is still exer- 
cised in encouraging vexations ; enjoining ridiculous^ penances ami priva- 
tions ; prohibiting liberal institutions ; and interdicting useful books. 

INSANITT. In England within twenty years, insanity iias more than 
tripled. In France it is more extensive in proportion to ila population tiian 
it is in most other countries. The total number of lunatics and idiots in 
Enghind is as follows: lunatics 6806— idiota 5741— together 12,547; but 
allowing flir deftotiTe returns, the nnmlier may be taken at 14,000— an ave- 
rage of rWM to every lAeiaaiui of the population. In Wales ; lunatics 188 — 
idiots T33-^total 896 ; and editing for parishes that have made no returns, 
they may be set down at 1000— a proportion of one to eight huitdred. Scotland 
has 3652 insane persona— -or ojie to about seneii, h-mtdred. In Ireland the nam- 
ber of lunatics and idiots exceeds 8000, as shown by retm-ns, which, however, 
were not completed. — Sir Aadrem HaSMcey. The number of insane persona 
and idiots In the United States, in 1810, was 17,484. There were 28 asylums 
■capable of containing 2840 patienla. Great advances have been made o( 
late years in the treatment of insanity. The late Dr, A. Bi'igbam of Utica, 
formerly of Hartfoi'd, was an able and successful philanthropist in this 

INSOLVENCY in the UWrfED STATES. In May, 1837. a ' commercial crisis' 
was at its height. The ' heavy' failures, in two months, in New York aione 
amounted to 260, besides countless smaller ones. F^lures in New Orleans 
to the amount of $27,000,000 in two day*. In Boston 168 feilores (torn Nov. 
1, 1886, to May 12, 1887. New York city Banks all suspended specie pay- 
ments May 10, 1887- The New Eng-land Banks generally; immediately 

INSOLVENCY. The first Insolvent Act in England was passed in 1649, but it 
was of limited operation ; a number of acta of more extensive operation were 
.passed at various periods, and particularly in the reign of George III. The 
beneflt of the act known as the Great Insolvent Act, was taken in England, 
by 60,733 insolvenlfi, fiom the time of its passing in 1814, to March 1827, a 
period of thirteen years. Since then, the acts relating to insolvency have 
been several times amended. Persona not traders, or, being traders, whose 
debts are lesa than 800J., may petition the Court of Bankruplcy, and propose 
compositions, and have jiio tern, protection from all process against his per- 
son and property, G Vict., 1842. Act amended, 8 Vict,, Aug., 1844. 

INSUKANCE ON SHIPS and MERCHANDISE. Suetonius cotyectures that 


370 a'liE world's peogrbss, [inh 

Claudius was Uie first cimtriver of it, a. d. 43. losoiance was iugeneraluae 
Inllaiy in 1194, and in England in 1560. Insurance policies were first used in 
Florence in 1523. The first law relating to insurance was enacted in 1601. 
Insurance of houses and goods in London began in 1667- Tliis was the year 
following that of the great fire of London. An office was then set up for 
insuring houses and buildings, principally contrived by Dr. Barton, one of 
the first and most ext«nsive bnilders of the city of London. The first regular 
office set up in London was the Hand-iii-Hmid, in 1636. A duty was laid 
on insurances of Is. Gil. per hundred pounds insured, in 1782 : this duty was 
increased in 1797, and was variously altered since. The date of the first Ib- 
surance office in the United States, has not been ascertained. 

INSURRECTIONS in the UNITED STATES. Shay's Insurrection in Massac 
chusetts (caused hy the scarcity of money and heavy taxes), 1786. Insur- 
rection in Pennsylvania, caused by duties on spirits, 1794. See Uie account* 
of Conspiracki, Massacres, HeielMaits, Rials, &<:. 

IMTEREST OP MONEy. It was twenty^ ce«/. iuEuropein the twtlfth cen- 
tury. Fixed at twelve per cent, in Spam, Germany and Flanders, by Charles 
V. in 1660, — Robertson, Till the fifteenth century, no Christiana were allow- 
ed to receive interest of money, and Jews were ifie only usuvers, and, there- 
fore, often banished and persecuted. Interest was first settled by law in 
England at ten per cent., 87 Henry VIII.. 1546. This law was repealed by 
EdwanI VI. i but it was restored by Eliaabeth. In those days the monardi 
could not borrow without the collateral security of tlio raetiopolis. Interest 
was TBduced to e^ht yer ceut., and the word first used instead of usury, 21 
James L, 1624. Reduced by the Rump-parliament to six per cemi.; and so 
confirmed at the Restoration. Reduced to five per cent,, 13 Anne, 1714, at 
which rate It remains. The rate in Ireland is six per cent.; regulated 14 
George III., 1773. AH interest above the legal standard of Britam is usury, 
and punishable by the statute. — Blacksiene. The law does not now apply-ti, 
bills havii^ only 60 days to run. See Usiiry Laics. 

INTEREOT OP MONEY in the UNITED STATES. The rates vary in differ- 
ent States, viz:— In La. &Yspr.ct., in Maine, N, H,, Vt., Mass., R, I., Comi., 
N. J., Pa., Del., Md., Va., N. Ca Tenn Kent Ohio, Ind., lllin., Miaso., 
Ark., and the United States government claims the rate Is six }Wr ceitt. In 
N. y., S. Ca,, Mich,, and Wise., ae en per cent In G!eo,, Ala., Misaiss,, and 
Flor., eight per «»(. Laws against uiury with penalty of forfeiting the 
whole debt, in Me., Conn,, N. Y., N J Penn Del Fortfeit of the usuiy, 
and double, treble, the usuiy, in 14 othei States Usurious ""-»■■-■>>■■ ■■"■■" 
in Md., N. Ca., Geo,, Tenn,, Ohio Ark 

INUNDATIOKS, It would be impossible 
catastrophes which class under this hi 

An ipundsllon at Ulaagow, which lirowne 
maie Ihan 400 famlliia, 73S.—F\irduit. 

which hxra niaeA Ibe com. 

meice of AiaEterdBm, l^Oa 

.jen. and chiliii ... 
ta B6Ea6dui»n 'bo 

(flkes In HolL 

wem AmvftiGd^ aa& Includible damage n 

done at Hamburg, 1717, 

t Madrid, eeveru of the Spanish noltil 



raUKDATIONS, co^itiimed. 

By the Drerflair of Iha SmulM, 
corpa of 2000 men, on & smr" 
WhTdJo, Ten finTpiiasd, ai 
deeUi, Ssn. 14, 1613. 

la 8iLeaa,«X)0 iDhabiluilB pel 
ruia of llie French army u '^^ 
was Hcceleraled liv Uie Bo 
lam] 4000 lijes w 

In Gotmaoj, 119 li 

d, ia Uarcti 1S16. 

Iha Vlaiulo bre^dng Uuuiigh i 
dikDS, by which 10^ hsad of 
4000 houses were deslntyed, and 

pejwna p«riflheUi al Gxtvor^ ir China, bi 
cenaequeiLcc of an munilrtLioD, occasioned 
by IncesBant raitia. Equal or groaur ca- 

in olhoc paria of China, Ocu 1833. 

poured lis Tratere tale Iho Rhone, broke 
Itarough ira banks, and covered 60,000 

were carried away at La GuiUeLiere; aiid 
upwards of 800 at Vaiso, MarfleHLes, and 
Nismos : the Saone had not alLained such 
a heiehi for 238 years, Oct 31 lo Nor. 4, 
Inundaiion of Ihe Alliislsslppi al New Or- 
leans, 160 squares and IbOO houses flood- 
ed, May I2,ls;e. 

ire destroyed, a^ nu 
ti>« hsl, Aprils, 1E39. 

INVOCATION OP THE VIRGIN and SAINTS. The pracfSca of the Romisli 
ciurch of invoking' tlie intercession of saints with Grod, particularly the 
prayers to the Virgin, has been traced to the time of Gregory the Grea ' 

caliing upon the dead, and demanding their suffrage as present in Uie di- 
vine offlces ; but the Wesfem church carried it so far sa ftequently to ca- 
nonize those they had any regard for, though the wiclcednesa of their ilves 
gave'thcm no title to any snch honor, to make processions, masses, litanies, 
prayers and ablations for and to them. 

IODINE. This moat important substance was discovered by M. de Conrtois, a, 
manufacturer of saltpetre at Paris, in 1812 ; the discoveiy was pursued with 
great advantage by M. Clement, in 1818. Iodine is very active ; it is of a 
violet hue, easily evaporates, and melta at 220 degrees ; changes vegetable 
blues to yellow, and a seven-thousandth part converts water to a deep yel- 
low color, and starch into a purple. Five volumes of oxygen and one of 
iodine form iodic aidd. 

IONIAN ISLANDS. They were suVjject to Venice until coded by the treaty 
of Campo-Formio l<i France, in 1707. By a ti'eaty between Russia and 
Great Britain they were placed under the protection of the latter power, 
" r 6, 1815. A constitution was ratified by the prince regent of 

seat of government. 

IONIC ORDER OP ARCHITECTURE. This order which is an Improvement 
on the Doric, was founded by the loniana, about 13bO b. c.— VHrumus by 

IONIC SECT OP PHILOSOPHERS. Founded by Thales of Mitetus, 670 b. o. 
This sect distinguished itself for its deep and abstruse speculations, undei- 
the successors and pupils of the Milesian philosopher, Anaxlmandcr, Anai- 
imenes, Auaxagoras, and Archelaus, the master of Socrates. 

IOWA, now one of the United States, once formed part of the French posses- 
sions, and was included iu the vast tract of country purchased in 1803 
under the general name of Louisiana. First purchase of land from the 



: woRLc's 


TPSUS, Battle op, by which Seleuous is confirmed in his klEpioia by the de- 
feat and. deatti of Antigonas, king of Asia. On the one side were Antigo- 
noB and his son; on the other sSeucus, Ptolemy, Lysimachns, andCas- 
Bander. The tbrmer led into the field an army of above 70,000 foot, and 
10,000 horse, with 75 elephanta. The litter's forces consisted of 64,000 iii- 
fontry, besides 10,600 horse, 400 elephants, and 120 armed cbai'iols. Auti- 
gonns and his son were defeated, 301 b, c.—PMarch. 

IRELAND. It ia dispated by historians from what nation this country was 
origmaUy peopled. It aeems, however, to be satiaftotoriljj shown that the 
first ooloeists were Ph(Bnician8. The Partholani landed in Ireland about 
2M8 B. c. The descent of the Damnonii was made about 1463 b. c. This was 
followed by the descent of Heber and Heremon, Milesian princes, from Gali- 

in, who conquered Ireland, and gave to its thro 

^e of 171 

A coloov ftom SlBJn 1 
the FhamdBalBUcn 

a of Ctontarf, whidi tetmlBa 


111, Connsugh^ a 

Sfhoiaberg killed 

rSi CmS oSuaj 
Ttito. (SeeS^al) 

ell died at Genoa si 


J ^ j^Bud, and by Talunteiy 

Site TroDi Ihe VnMd Smiea 

paiaed parliament Dec W 1817 

Milchell connelsd of liouon Mx) 2b, ISJS 
Habeas ConmB &ct HUBO^^d Ju^ai^Ib48 

. — , , jh cQndilion Ihit ha 

eampelled eiety LMi femllj- to pay 
a caielua lo Ihe HoIt See, and field 
il as a aef of the church - -IIL. _.. . ,. 

Henrj 11. lands lph Walerford, and re- O OoDnell b 

cejyes the submlasiona of the kmg^ " '" " " 

and princea of the counKy, aeltlos the 

Q^t of ili^land, and mafea his son 
John hwl of Ireland - - - II' 

Ireland wholly Btibdned - ■ -12 

En^ish laws and ciBloniB inlrodnced 

b, kins Join - . - -la 

Heiuy Vin. eBsnnies the tills or ting, 

insie^ ofttH-d of Ireland - - 1& 

Tte OalholicB enlcrinU aeoMplracy lo 
expel ths SogllHli, a[id cnellymaa- 
IRON. It was found on Mount Ida by the Daotyiea, owing to the forests of the 
momit having been burnt by lightning, 14S2 b. c. — AriimleHmt Mtsrblcs. 
The Greeks ascribed the discovery of iron to ihenieelves and referred glass 
to the Phixnicians; but Mosea relates that ironwas wrought by Tabal-Cain, 
Iron furnaces among the Romans were unprovided with bellows, but were 
placed on eminences with the grate in the (Mreetionof the prevailing winds. 
Swedish iron ia very celebrated, and Daunemora Is the greatest mine of 
Sweden. British iron was cast by Kalph Page and Peter Saude, in Sussex 
in 1548. — Rumer's Padera. Iron-mills were first used fbr slitting iron into 
bars for smiths by Godfrey Bochs, in 1590. Tinning of iron was first 
inttodTioed frem Bohemia in 1S81. There are upwards of 800,000 tons of 
iron produced annually in England.* For iron vessels, iron war-steamei's, 
&C., see Steama-s. 


Ita] mvnofiAiiY of dates, ;i73 

JRON-MASK, THB MAN op the, A mysterious prisonar in Prance, wearing a 
mask, and closely confined, under M. de St. Mara, at Pjenerol, Sainfe Mar- 
gnerife, and afterwards at tbe Bastile. He was of noble mien, and was 
treated with profound respect; but his keepers iiad ordera to diapatcli him 
if he uncovered. M. de St, Mars liimself ^waya placed tlie dishes on his 
table, and stood in his presence. Some conjecture hira to iiave been an 
Armenian patriarch forcibl/ carried from Constantinople, alHiDugli he died 
ten years betbre the mask; others that he was the count de Yermandois, 
son of Louis XIT., although he was reported to have perished in the camp 
before Dixmnde. More believe him to hare been the celebrated duke of 
Beaufoit, whose head is recorded to have been taken off before Candia ; 
while ^1111 more assert that he was the unfortunate Jamea, duke of Mon- 
month, who, in the imagination of the Londoners, at least, was executed on 
Tower-hilL But there are two better eonjecturea ; he is said to have been 
a son of Anne of Austria, queen of Louis XM., hisj^ther beine the duke 
of Buckingham | or the twin-brother of Louis XIV., whose bh'th was con- 
cealed to prevent civil dissensions in France, which it might one day have 
caused. The mask died after a long imprisonment, Nov. 19, 1703. 

ISLAMISM. The religion of Mahomet, planned by him in a cave near Mecca, , 
where he employed a Persian Jew, well versed ill history and laws, and two 
Christians, to assist him. One of these latter was of the Jacobite, and tho 
other of the Nestorian sect. With the help of these men he ftamed his 
Koran, or the book which he pretended to have received at different times 
from heaven by the hands of the angel Gabriel. At the age of forty he 
publicly a^iumed the prophetical character, calling himself the apostle of 
God, A. D. 604. . See Seraa, Mecca, ^c. 

[SLE OP FRANCE. Discovered bythe Portuguesa iu 1500; but the Dutch 
were the first settlers in 1698. The French Ibrmed their establishment at 
Port Louis in 1715. This island, together ivith sis French frigates and 
many Indiamen was taken by the British, Dec, 2, 1810, They retain pos- 
session of it, and it'is now a fixed British colony, SeeMawriUus. 

ISMAEL, Siege op, in Bessarabia. After a long siege by the Russians, who 
lost 20,000 men before the place, the toivn was taken by storm, December 
32, 1790; when the Russian general, Suwarrow, the most merciless and sa- 
vage warrior of modern timea, put the brave TurMsh garrison, consisting 
of 80,000 men, to the sword ; every man was butchered ; and Suwan'ow, 
not satisfied with this vengeance, deliverjd up laraaei tii the pillage of 
his ibrotJous soldiery, and ordered the massacre of 6000 women, who were 
murdered in cold blood. 

ISStTS, Battle op. Alexander defeats Darius in this, his second great battle 
with him; Darius loses 100,000 men, and bis queen and femUyare cap- 
im'ed, 38S s. c.—PlutarcA. The Persians lost 100,000 foot and 10,000 horse 
in the field; and the Macedonians only 300 foot and 160 horse. — Diodnrus 
jSitJtJw,!. The Persian army, according to Justin, consisted of 400,000 foot 
and 100,000 horse, and 61,000 of the former, and 10,000 of the latter, were 
left dead on the spot, and 40,000 were taken prisoners. — Justin, 

ISTHMIAN GAMES. These were combats among the Greeks, and received 
their name from the isthmus of Corinth, where they were observed, insti- 
tuted in honor of Melicerta, 1323e.c.— ieiwtei. They were re-institnted 
m honor of Neptune by Theseus, and their celebration was held so sacred 
and inviolable that even a public calamity could not prevent it, 1259 b. c. — 
Arandelian Mofiles, 

ITALY. The garden of Europe, and the nurse of arts as well as arms. It re- 
ceived its name from Itakis, a king of the country, or from lUdos, a Greek 
word signifying an ox. The aborigines of Italy were the progeny of 


i world's progiless 


Meshech, the sixth son of Japheth. In process of time, Hie Gomerites or 
Celts, who Inh&bited the greatest part of Gaul, sent sereral colon[ea into 
Italy, while other coloDiata arriyed from Greec«, aM the country was di 
Tided into tliree grsnd parts, Tiz.— Cisalpine Gaul, the settlement of the 
Celts; Italia Propria, the residence of the first inhabitants; and Magna 
Griecia, the aeat of the Grecian colonists. Tlie modern inh&bitanbi of Italy 
may be derived from the Goths and Lombards, who contributed so largely 
to ibe oTcrtlirow of the Roman empire, and who founded on its ruins this 
' ' "I.-' .■ I ......_. 3_ T-,_..Ti ,pire, see 7'aiBW FiCTcs. 

kingdoms of Italy and Lombardy. For 
Rome [ak«D and ploodered by the Vjei 
golJia onder Alaiic ^almme a-D, 


Tho Weatarn Booian ompire la de- 

airoyad by ihe HeruU, whose loader. 

Tlw Lombards overrun Italy 
Venice fltai govomod by a doge 
Gbariem^DB lovadaa Italy - 
He rapaits ia Rome, and ie cr 

emperor of Ihe W— 
[Durtng (be reJgn oi 

ELOt only ind^endem efTbut Buperior 
10 ell olherej 

Fop« Damaane II, ielbe Aral who caus- 
es himself w be crowned wlili a tiara IQ 

rope Gregory VIL, Bumamefl Hlldo- 
brand, prElandH to nnlrarsal aeve- 
reien^, iawhichheisRS»Htedbvthe 
ceimtan Mslildi^ mislresa of the 

DieputBH betwAeo ^e pepes and enipe- 

bishops, bMlo about ine, and agitata 
Italy and Gsnnany during ssveial 

The papal a 

lyed for 

to Ayigarmf in France ■ ' 13 

llnalH trot agraainr In the d«e- 
^ A pops, tbay «c flre 10 the coji' 
Bfld Bqnral^ and the papal 
L9 left Tsomt fee two veatB - lil 

Naples conquered by CKarles VIII. - 

Ikn proTb»efi in a eijigte campaign, 
aseailed bj the popoi the empertir, 
and the kinge of Spain and Fruice 
Leo X, havh^ exhausted all hia fiTia_ 
cea, opens iHfl sale of indulgences and 
absoluLiona, which Eooa repleuiehea 

Cosmo de Medii^ made grand- 

PopeQregorr XUl reforms th 

dat. See (Meiidar . 
Ambassadora from Japan 



In Ihe h 

MTlslon of the Vsnedsn states by 
France and Auetria 
taly overrun, and Pius VI. deposed 

lintea kingdom, and Naf 


w amounts to 23,677,000.- 

J. Introduced 

the alphabet by Giles Beys, printer, of Paris, 1660.— Zl« 

_ ^ to one of the principal parties in tl 

volution. The Jacobin club originated from a email and secre 
of about forty gentlemen and men of letters, who had united tc 



political anct oUier opinions ; tlie members were called Jacoliins from their 
meeting in the hall of the Jacobin fl'iavs at Paris. The club became nu- 
merous anil popular, and frateruat societies were instituted in all the prio- 
cipal towns of the kingdom. From its iaatitution, one prlndpal object was, 
to discuss such political questions as seemed likely to be agitated in the 
nadona! assembly, in order that the membets might act in concert. They 
are represented as having been determined enemies of monarchy, arialo- 
craey, and the Christian rel^ion, and may be regarded as tlie first grand 
spring of the revolution, ITiey were suppressed October 18, 1794. The 
religious sect called Jacobins are those of both sexes who foUow the ml^ 
of St. Dominick. See Dmrdniains. 

JACOBITES. Asect among the eastern Christians, so called from Jacob Ba- 
radfeus, a Syrian, whose heresy spread to a great extent in the sixth and 
seventh centuries. In England existed a political party called Jacobites. 
They were the partisans of James IL, and were so named after his expul. 
flion in 1688. Those who openly appeared in arms for, or who expressed 
their wishes to restore theabdioated fiimily, were called Jacobites; the dis- 
tinction is now entirely lost. 

JAFFA Celebrated in Scripture as Joppa, the port whence Jon&h emliarked, 
and the place where Peter raised Tabitlia tVomthe dead. In profane history, 
the pkce whence Perseus delivered Andromeda. JaSk was taken by Bona- 

Sarto itt February 179B ; and the French were driven out by the Britisli in 
une, same year. Here, accorfling to air Robert Wilson, were niassocred 
3800 prisoners by Bonaparte ; but this is reasonably doubted. 

JAMAICA Discovered by Columbus, May 8, 1405. It was conquered lW>m 
the Span ards by admiral Fenn, and the land forces commanded by Venobles 
n 1666 the expedition had been planned by Oliver Cromwell against St. 
Dom ng An awful earthquake occurred here in 1602; and tlie island was 
des lated by a furioas hurricane in 1722 ; and again 1734 and 1751. In June 
1 B5 tt Maroons, or original natives, who inhabit the mountains, rose 
Baa nst th English, and were not quelled till March 1796. Tremendous 
hu cane by which the whole island was deluged, hundreds of houses 
wa h 1 away, vessels wreclted, and a thousand persons drowned, October 
1816 An alarming insurrecljon, commenced by the negro slaves, in which 
num us plantations were bnmed, and property of immense value destroy- 
d B f e they were overpowered, the governor, lord Belmore, declared 
th 1 nd under martial law, Dec, 22, 1831. Awful fire here, Aug, 28, 
18i3 The Cholera in 1850, 

JANISSARIES. This order of infkntry in the Turkkh array was ftumerly 
reputed to bo the grand seignor's foot guards. They were first raised by 
Amurath I, in 1361 ; and liave several times deposed the sultan. Owing to 
an insurrection of these ti'oops on the lilth June, 1826, when SOOO of them 
were killed on the spot, the Ottoman army was reorganized, and a firraan 
was issued declaiing the abolition of the Janissaries two days afterwards. 

JANSENISM. This sect was founded by Cornelius Jansen, bishop of Ypres, 
about 1625. Jansen was a prelate of piety and morals, but his "AugiisU- 
■aus," a book in which he maintained the Angustinp doctrine of tree grace, 
and recommended it as the true orthodox belief, kindled a fierce contro- 
versy on its publication in 16i0, and was condemned by a bull of pope Ur- 
ban VUI. 

JANUARY. This month, the first in our year, derives its name iVora Janus, a 
divinity among the early RomaoK. See «e.ii article. January was added to 
the Roman calendar by Numa. 718 b. g. He placed it about the winter sol- 
slice, and made it the first month, because Janna was supposed to preside 
over Uie beginning of alt business. This god was painted with two fkces. 


because, as some pereons have it, on the one Bide the first of Januarj looked 
towards the new year, and on the other towards the old one. On the flret 
day, it was customary for Mends and acqnaintancea to niaka each othef- 
preeents, from ivhence the custom of new year's gifts, still retained among 
ns, was originally taken. 
JANUS, Temple op, at Rome. Was erected by Romulus, and kept open in 
the time of war and closed in time of peace. It was shut only twice, dui'm,j 
above 700 years, yia; — under Numa, 71i b. c, and under Augustus, 5 B.C.; 
and during that long period of time, the Romana were continually employed 

JANVILLIEBS, Battle op, between the French and Pnissiana, in whidi, after 
ac obsUnate engagement, Blncher, who commanded the latter army, was 
driven back to Chalons with considerable loss, Februaiy 14, 1814. About 
this period there were many battles fought between Napoleon and Blucher, 
and Napoleon and prince Bchnarlaenberg, until the capitulation of Pads, 
Mai'Ch 31, iai4. 

JAPAN, Thia island was first made inoiva to Europe by Marco Paulo; and 
was visited by the Portuguese about 16S5. The Japanese are as fabulous as 
the Chinese in the antiijuit^ of their empire, but the certain period begins 
with the hereditary saccession of the ecclesiastical emperors, &oia the year 
""" - The English visited Japan in iai2. There was once a great nr" 

and for its cruelty and cowardice fixes an indelible stain not only upon 
their nation, but upon man. The island capitulated to the British, Aviguet 
8, 1811. The aultan was dethroned hy the Enghsh, and the hereditary 
prince raised to the throne, in June, 1813. Java was restored to Holland 
la 1814. 

JEDDO. The capital of Japan, containing abont 1,680,000 inhabitants, a num- 
nearly equal to London. In 1619, ambassadors Irom Japan arrived at the 
court of Paul V. to do him homage as the head of the Christian religion, 
which their master had. embraced through the preaching of the Jesuit mia- 
sionaries; but the misconduct of the Jesulta, who were endeavoring to over- 
turn the Japanese government, caused them to be expe'Jed in 1622i and the 
inhabitants relapsed into their former idolatiy. The emperor's pahioe is of 
indescribable magnificence; its hall of audience is supported by many pillars 
of massive gold and plates of gold cover its three towers, each nine stories 
high. Several other costly palaces, belonging to the emperor, empress, con- 
cubines, and vassal kings, enrich this great eastern city. 

JEMMAPPES, BiTTLE OP, one of the most obstinate and bloody of modern 
times; 40,000 French troops forced 28,000 Austrians, who were mtronchedin 
woods and mountains, defended by forty redoubts, and an immense number 
of cannon ; the revolutionary general Dumouriez was the victor in this battie, 
which lasted four days. According to the most authentic acconnts, the 
number of killed on the side of the Austrians amounted to 10,000, on that 
of lie French to 12,000, Nov. 6, 1792. 

JENA, Battle op, one of the most sanguinary of modem times, between the 
French and Prussian armies; the one commanded by the emperor Na- 
poleon, and the other by the Pi-ussian king, who was signally defeated, witii 
the loss of S0,000 slain, and nearly as many thousands made prisoners. Id 


this battle the Prnssiaas lost 200 iield-pieces, and Napoleon adianeed to 
BerUn, Oct. 14, 1805. 
JEESEY, GUERNSEY, SAEK, jhd ALDERNEi, appendages to the ducliy 
of Noimandy, were united to the crown ol England by William the Con- 
queror, in 1086. Jersey was attempted by tlm Fiench in 1779 and 1781 A 
body of J^nch troops eurpriaed the goyemor, made him pnsoner, and 
compelled him to sign a capitulation; but major Piersou, the commander of 
the English troops, refhaing to abide by this (breed capitnliition, attacked 
the French, and Gomp«lled them io surrender prisoners of war ; but he was 
killed in the moment of Tiotory, Jan. 6, 1781. 

JERUSALEM. Built 1800 e. c. The first and most ftimed Temple was found- 
ed by Salomon, 1015 n. c. ; and was solemnly dedicated on Priday, OctobCT 
80, lOOi B. c, being one thousiiud years before the birth of Christ. — Blair; 
UsksT; Bible. Jerusalem was taken by the Israelilea, 1048 B.C. and by 
Nebnchadnezaar, 687 B.C. Baned to the ground by Titus, t. d, 70, after one 
of the most remarkable sieges in history. More than 1,100,000 of the Jews 
perished on this occasion. A city waa built on the ruins of the former by 
the emperor Adrian, i. a. 180. The walls were rebuilt by the empress En- 
doiia in 487. Jerusalem was taken by the Persians in 614 ; by the Sar^cena 
in 686; and by the crusaders, when 70,000 intidehi were put to the sword, 
1099. A new kinffdom was founded, which lasted 88 years. Taken from 
the Christians by^adin, in 1187; and by the Turlta, who drove away the 
Saracens in 1217. Jerusalem waB taken by the French under Bonaparte In 
. February 1799. See Jeas. 

TESTER. In some andent worka, a jester is described as " ft witty and jocose 
person, kept by princes to inform them of their fenlta, and those of other 
men, under the disguise of ft waggish story." Several of the early Engiieh 
kings kept jesters, and pai'ticnlarly the Tudors. There was a jester at court 
in uie reign of James I., bnt we hefti' of no licensed jeaterafterwai'dB. 

JESUITS. The order was foandatl by Ignatina Loyola (who was canonized), 
ft page to Ferdinand V. of Spain, and subsequently an officer of his army. 
Loyola haTiM; been wonnded at the siege of Pampeluna, in both legs, a. n. 
1521, -de voted himself to tliaology while untleT cure, and renounced the mi- 
litary for the ecclesiaBtical profession. His first devout exercise was to dedi- 
cate his life to tbe Blessed Virgin as her knight ; he next made a pilgrimage 
to the Holy Land, and on his return laid the Ibundation fbr his new order 
in France. He presented the insUtnles of it in 1539, to pope Paul III. who 
made many objections 1* them ; but Ignatius adding to the three vows of 
chastity, poverty, and obedience, a fourth of implicit auhmiasion to the 
holy see, the institution waa confirmed by a bull, September 27, 1540, by 

off by 

erfnlf , . , 

the first brothers of the order, carried it to the extremiUes of the habitable 
globe, it met with great opposition in Europe, particularly at Paris. The 
Sorbonne iasned a decree in 1554, by which they condemned the institution, 
as tveing calculated rather for the ruin than the edification of (he faithftil. 
Even in Eomish countries, the Intiignesand seditious writings of this order, 
have occasioned it to be diaooontenanced. The Jesuits ware expelled Eng- 
land by proclamation, 2 James I, 16M, and Venice 1006, They were put 
down in France by an edict from the ting, and their revenues conflscated, 
1764: and were banished Spain 1767, Suppressed by pope Clement XIV. 
in 1773. Restored by Pins VH. in 1814 ; and amce tolerated in other states, 





and esen. where not toleratod, tie bodj, as now in England, posseases a se- 
cret ond extensive existence. 

JESUS CHRIST. Bom on Monday, December 25, a. m. 4004, in the year of 
Rome 752 ; but this event shonld be dated four years before the commence- 
ment of the common era. See NativUy. Christ's baptism by John, and 
his first ministry, a. d. 30. He celebrated the last paesover, and institnled 
the eacrament in its room, on Thnrsday, April 2. He was crucified on FA- 
day, April 3, at three o'clock in the afternoon. He arose, April 5 ; ascended 
to heaven from Mount Olivet, on Thursday, May 14, following : and his 
Spirit descended on his disciples on Sunday, the day of PenWooat, May 24, 
A. D. 33. 

JEWELRY. Worn by most of the early nations. So prodigious was the ex- 
travagance of the Roman ladiea. that Pliny the elder says, he saw Lollia 
Paulino weaving orDamenfswhichweravaluedat 822,916i. sterling. Jewels 
were worn in France by Agries Sorel, in 1434. The manufccture was ex- 
tensively encouraged in England in 1C85. See article Dress. 

JEWISH ERA. The Jews usually employed the era of the Seleucldie until 
the fifteenth century, when a new mode of computing was adopted by them. 
They dale from the creation, which they consider to have been 3700 years 
and three months before the commencement of our era. To reduce Jewio'h 
time to o«rs, subtract 3761 years. 

JEWS. A people universally Icnown both Jn ancient and modem times. They 
derive their origin from Abraham, with whom, according to the Old Testa- 
ment and IJie Jewish wi'iters, God made a covenant, 1821 b. c. See Tabulsr 
Viems, p. 6 to p. 42. 

JEWS, Modern History oi 

,1(»PX) of Ihe Jevrs peilEh, mull 
ndes doaltoylng IhaniBelvas a. 
JM) Bneka and Koinans ore mu 
ered bv 1^ Jewa About Cytena 
rlaa robuUda Jenisalem, and erac 
. lomplB (o Jupilor - 
re than l3Sa,OI)Daftbe Jews sra 9la 


1 period, Ihe Jewa have been m 

Jewa finl amvo m Englani 
ThiDUng u> invoke llie diili 
-— ™-'".ionofaisPa 

"of a ri^ 

a fine of W,im 

hold, paBsed - 
Every Jew iBDdiln 

breast eigoifyin^ 

1, for 


d end quartered for 
liild at Monhamplon, 

fi casLle, woeia, Ibr wont of weapons, 
they Uirow Ibsir childim at their ati- 
emies. Rod IJien deetipy ooa oitotherl^ 

A fatal diBtfltoper raeiiis in Earope, 
tliey UB au9pected of having noifiun- 
ed the Hpringe, and l,ea(),lioa are raaa- 
eacred. — LihgleL ■ - - 1^ 

E(UJ»OJews an: banlslmd Spain, and 
160,009 froniPptUi^ - - 1* 

mished Englan 



JEWS, coiUirmed. 

Siainte Id nsnualize Ihem in EaglaDd, 

mased 176S 

TMe aa repealed on the pelilion of oil 

Ills cUies in Englsiul - - - 1161 

The Jewe of Spuia, Portugal, end 

of^nce'™ - '"''.'' ' "' ^T 1790 
Siui 1^ oriJis great Ssnbedrim^f Pam, 

MQV T Bomparor 8fK^«™jg(jj 

London SocioLy for promoting Chriali- 

snllyamongdieJews - -iat» 

16S - - - May IJ, ifl 

!dOflee HoaTofiDTQi eaq., elecled Bherio' 
of London ; and tnighled by tha 
queen, being Die flrsi Jev on whom 
thatliaaarliiiHbeencDnfbned.Mor.g, IS 
Ukase of Uie emperol of Buasia, pet- 
milling Uia lills of oilison of UiB Aral 
close lo be held hf ant Jow wbo ren- 
deiHhlmaelfworihjofil - -16 

Owing 10 Ihs diaapfiDarance of a &ieek 

JOAN OP ARC, OS MAID OF ORLEANS. The voun^aDd celebrated beroine 
of France. The Englisb under Bedford cloBely besieging Orleana, Joan of 
Arc pretended she had a divine commiBsion to expel them, and Charles 
Vil. intrusted her with the command of the French tromis. She raised 
the siege, and entered Orleans wit^ supplies, April 29, 1129, and the Eur 
glish who were before the place ftom October 12, precediQ|, abandoned tho 
enterprise. May 8, ibllowing. She captured several towns in the possession 
of the Eoglish, whom she defeated in a battle near Fatay, June 10, 1429. 
In her various achievements no unfeminine cruelty ever stained her conduct. 
She was wounded several times herself, but never tilled any one, or shed 
any blood with her own hand. She was taken at the siege of Compiegne, 
May 25, 1431 ; and to the great dis^aee of the English, v/as burnt for a 
witch Dve days afterwai'ds at Koaen, in the 22d (some say 29th) year of her 
age. — Voltaire's PuceUe d'Orkans. 

JOHN DOE AMD KICHARD ROE. Names, as pledges to prosecute, well 
knowu in the law. Magna Ckarta demanded witnesses tefore trial, and 
since the rei^ of Edwai'd QI, the fictitious names of John Doe and Richard 
Roo are put into writs, as pretended witnesses. 

JUBILEE. By Mosaic institution the Jews celebrate a Jubilee every fifty 
years. Among the Christians a jubilee every century was iDBtituted by 
pope Boniface VIII., in the year 1300. It was celebrated eveiy fifty yeai'S 
hv command of pope Clement VI. ; and was afterwards reduced by Urban 
VI. l« every thirty-third year ; and Sistus V. to every twenty-flfth year, at 
which period it is now fixed. 

JUDGES. On Hie Norman conquest tho jutlgea had the style of Jurfirfofms 
AttgUiR : these judges continued until the erection of the Courts of King's 
Bench and Common Pleas. The last who had the ofiice of Jiisiiciariw .Angrais 
WBH Phillip Basset, in 1261. Judges punished for hribeiy, 17 Edward I. 
12B8, when Thomas de Weyland wns banished the land ; and in 1351, Wil- 
liam de Thorp was hanged- John de Cavendish was beheaded by the Kent- 
ish rebels, 1882. Tresylian, chief justice, was executed for iUvoring des- 
potism, and other judges were seized and condemned, 1388. Tlie prince of 
Wales was committed by Judge Gaseoigne for assaulting him on tlie bench, 
1413, Sir Thomas More, lord chancellor, was beheaded, July 6, 1535. 
Judges threatened with impeachment, and Berkeley taken off the bench 
and committed by the commons, 1641, Throe impeached, 1680. Most of 
them dismissed for not allowing the legality of a dispensing power in the 
crown, 3 James II. 1687. The celebrated Judge Jefiiiries was committed by 
the lord mayor to the Tower, where he died, 1689. The independence of the 
Jndgea in England was established by making their appointments patents 
for life, 1761. Judges were sent to India, 1778. Three additional judges, 


380 THE world's I'EOGEESS. [ JUL 

one to eacli eouH, were appointed, 1784. A new judge took liis seat aa 
vice-ehaneellor, May 6, 1818. 
JUDGES IN THE XJNTTED STATES. Those of the Supreme Court, eight in 
'number, are appointed for life or during good conduct, by the President and 
Senate. The cliief justices of the Supreme Court of the United States Laye 
been John Jay, appointed, 1789; William Cushing, of Mass., 1796; Oliver 
Ellsworth, 1786; John Marshall, 1801; Roger B. Taney, 1836. U. S. Cir^ 
cuit Judges were first appointed 1801. The judges of the several States 
aie thus appointed : — 

By the Govenurr and Legislaiii/re, or Senate, or Council, in Maine, New 
Hampshire, Massachusetts, IVIaiyland, Louisiana, Missouri, Indiana, and 

By the Legidatv/re alone, in Vermont, Rhode Island, CoTinecticut, New Jeraej-, 
Vir^nia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, 
Tennessee, Ohio, and Illinois. 

By the Gorernor alone in Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Kentucky. 

By papular vols, in Mississippi and in New York.* 

The term op Office of the superior judges, is for life (or duniw; good 
behavior ") in Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland Virginia 
North Carolina, South Carohna, Louisiana, Kentucky and IIIidois 

Until seventy years of age, in Maine, New Hampshire, Connecticut 

Until sixty-five years of ag«, in Missouri. 

For periods varying ftom iioo to troete pears, in New Jersey, Georgia, Ala- 
bama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Tennessee, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan; and for 
one year in Rhode Island, and Vermont. 

Thsv a 

By impeachment in fourteen States. By conviction of miscondactina court 
of law, in Maryland. By joint resolution of Senate, and two-thirds of As- 
sembly, in New York. 

JUDICIAL COMMirrEE op the PEIVY COUNCIL, in lieu of the Court of 
Delegates, for appeals fVom the Lord Chancellors of England and Ire 
land in cases of lunacy— from the Ecclesiastical and Aamiraity Courtu 
of England, and Vice Admiralty Courts abroad— from the Courts of the 
Isle of Man, the Colonial Courts, &,c., fixed by statute 3 and 4 William 
IT. 1883. 

JUGGEBKAUT, or "Lord of the world." The first ohject of Hindoo venera- 
tion, is a celebrated idol of an irregular pyramidical black stone, with tivo 
rich diamonds to represent eyes ; the nose and moutli are painted Vermil- 
lion, and the visage is fMghifld. The number of pilgrims that visit the god 
is stated at 1,200,000 annually; of these a great many never return, and 
to the distance of fifty miles the way is stiewed with human bones : the 
temple of Juggernaut has existed above 800 years. 

JUGURTHA, THE WiB WITH. A memorable war against the Numidian to re- 
duce his kingdom, commenced 111 b. c. and contlnuedBve years, Ciecilius 
Metellus was iirst sent against him, and defeated him in two battles; and 
afterwards SylJa and Mai'ius ; the latttr of whom dragged him in chains t^ 
Rome to adorn his tiiumph. The name and wars of Jugurtha have been 
immortalized by the pen of Sallnat. 

JULIAN PERIOD. A teim of years produced by the multiplication of the 
lunar cycle 19, solar cycle 28, and Roman indiction 15, It consists of J980 

■ The elecltoa of judgea iy the people, in New York, was firsl provided for hy the new coiiali. 


jur] dictionary of bates. 381 

years, and began 1718 years before oar era. It lias been employed in eompnt- 
mg time, to avoid tie pnzaling ambiguity attendant on reckofiing any period 
antecedent to our era, an advantage ivliicli it lias in common ■wifli the mnn- 
dane eras nsed at diEForent timea. By_ subtracting 4713 ftom tl5e Julian 

Jeriod, our year is found | if before CliriEt, subtract the Julian period, firom 
714. For Julian year, see Cakiidaa- and YeaT. 

jULT. The seventh month of the year, ftom the Latin Jidms, the surname of 
C. Cceaar, the dictator of Rome, who was born in it. It was the flflh month 
in the Roman calendar until Numa added January and Pehmaiy to the 
year, 713 b. c. See ihase mimt/ts severally, and article year, 

fUNE. The sii^th month, but originally the fourtS month of the Eoman year. 
It had its name Jaains, which some derive i Jatwae, and others dJuniori- 
Sks, this being for the young, as the month of May was for aged persons. 
When Numa swided two months before March, this month became, aa it is 
now, the sixth of the calendar, 718 s. c. See Year. 

JUMUS'S LETTEfiS. Junius was the aeaumed name of a concealed political 
writer, who published his letters in the Public Advertiser, in 1769. They 
were written in a nervous, sarcastic, and clear style, and produced a power- 
fnl impression, and the Tolume is now one of tlie moat admired in Briti^ 
hteratuie. These letters have been ascribed to Mr. Burke, Mr. WUliaoci 
Grerard Hamilton, commonly called single-speech Hamilton, John Wilkes, 
Mr. Dunning (afterwards ICrd Ashburton), Mr. serieant Adair, the rev. J. 
Eosenhagen, John Roberts, esq.. Mr. Charles Lloyd, Mr. Samuel Dyer, ge- 
neral Lee, Hugh Boyd, esq., and air Philip Francis ; but '.he matter Is aljU 
hidden in obscurity. "I am the depositary of my own secret, and it shall 
perish with me." — Jindus. 

JDPITEE. Known as a phmet to the Chinese and the Chaldeans : to the for- 
mer, it is said 8000, b. c. ; and correctly inserted in a chart of the heavens, 
made about 600 b. o., and in which 1460 stars are accurately described ; this 
chart is said to be in ilie royal library at Paiis. The satellites of Jupiter 
were discovered by Galileo, a. n. 1810; but Jansen, it is affirmed, claimed 
some acquaintance with them about twenty years before. 

JURIES. Trial by jury was introduced into Eoghind during the Saxon Hep- 
tarchy, monljon being made of six Welsh and six Anglo-Sason freemen 
appointed to try canaea between the English and Welsh men of property, 
and made responsible with their whole estates, real and peraonal, for flilso 
verdicts. — Lmabard. But by most authorities their institution is ascribed 
to Aliped. In Magna Charta, juries are insisted on as the great bulwark of 
the people's hberty. When either party is an alien bom, the jury shall be 
one-half denizens, and the other half aliens, statute 28 Ed«wd III. 1S53. 
By the common law a prisoner upon indictment or appeal, might challenge 
peremptorily thirty-five, being under three juries ; but a lord <» parliament, 
end a peer of the realm that is to bo tried by his peers, cannot challenge 
any of his peers. 

JURIES, Coercion op. About the year 927, the plaintiff and defendant used 
to ffeed the jury empanelled in their action, and hence arose the common 
law of denying sustenance to a jury alter the hearing of the evidence. A 
jury may be detained durmg the pleasure of the judge if they cannot agree 
upon a verdict; and may be confined without meat, drink, or candle, tUI 
they are unanimous. Some jurors have been fined for having fruit in their 
pockets, when they were withdrawn to consider of their verdict, thongh 
they did not eat ii.—Leon. Dyer, 137. A jury at Sudbury not being able to 
agree, and having been some time imder duress, fbrcibly broke from the 
court where they were locked up, and went home, October 9, 1791. — 


382 THE world's PEOOEESS. [ KiW 

njSnCES OP THE PEACE. These are local Magistrates, invested with ex- 
tensive powers in minor cases, tut sul^ject to Bapercessiou and punish- 
ment by the king's bench for an abuse of their authority. Justices of tjm 
.peace in every county first nominated by William the Conqueror, in 1076. 
— Slawe. In tbo United States the oiBco is held hy special appoiutmeut, 
and the temu'e is different in different States ; it ia iisually for seven years. 

JUSTINIAN CODE. Wherein was written what may be termed the slatuts 
Uw, scaMeted through 2000 volames, reduced to fifty, completed a. d. S29. 
To tliis code of hiws Justinian added the Pandecfci, the Institutes, and 
Novels. These compilations have since been called, collectively, the body 
of civil law {corpus jwis cwilis). A digest was made in 533. — Jilair, 

KALEIDOSCOPE. This optical inatrament, which combines mirrors, and pro- 
duces « symmetilcal reflection of beautiful images, was invenl^id by Dr. 
Brewster of Edinburgh ; it was first suggested in 1814, and the Instrument 
■ perfected in 1817, when it found its way into every body's hands. It is in- 
tended to assist jewellers,' glass-painters, and other ornamental arlists, in the 
formation of patterns, of which it produces an infinite number. 

KAMTSCHATKA. The peohisula on the eastern coast of Asia. It was dis- 
covered by Morosco, a Cosaaclt chief, a. d. 1690; and was taken possession of 
by Russia in 1697; it was not ascertained to be a peninsula until visited by 
Bohring, in 1728. Four mouths, commencing at our midsummer, may be 
considered as the spring, summer, and autumn here, the rest of the year 
being dreaiy winter. 

KENILWORTH CASTLE. Built in 1120, but much of the pile was erected 
subsequently by John of Gaunt; and its remains now form one of the moat 
picturesque objects in the kingdom. This celebrated castle was conferred 
on Dudley, earl of Leicester, by queen Eliisabeth, whom he afterwards en- 
tertained within its walls for seventeen days. His sumptuous entertainment 
of the queen commenced July 19, 1575, and cost the earl daily 10002. a vast 
expenditure in those times. 

KENTCCJCr, one of the United States, was first explored by Daniel Boone, 
an enterprising hunter, (n 1770. First white settlement near Iiexington, 1775 
Was a part of Virginia until 1782, when it was madea separate districts Ad 
mitted mto the Union 1702. Popuhition in 1700, 73,677 ; in 1810, 406,511 
in 1880, 688,844 ; in 1840, 779,828, including 182,258 slaves. 

KEYS. The invention of them is ascribed to Theodore, of Samos, by Pliny, 
about 7S0 E. c. But this is an error, as keys are mentioned in the siege of 
Troy, 1193 u. c. Keys were originally made of wood, and the earliest form 
was a simple crook similai' to the common picklock now in use. The ancient 
keys now to be found in the cabinets of the curious are mostly of bronze. 
Tho hite Fi'anois Douce, esq., had some of remarkable shapes, the shaft ter- 
minating on one side by the works, on the other by a ring. Keys of this 
description were presented by husbands to wives, and were returned again 
upon divorce or separation. 

KIEL, Treatt or. Between Great Britain, Sweden, and Denmark, signed Jan- 
uary 14, 1814. By this treaty Norivay was ceded to Sweden, fi'evioiisly 
the Norwegians had been deserted by the king of Denmark, and had sent 
a deputation to England, to interest thatcoim&y in their Ihvor. Themissioii 
was ftuitleas. On the contrary, the English blockaded the porta of Norway, 
and the Swedes entered by hind. The Novwe^ns fought some brave actions, 
but they were defeated. The prince of Denmark quitted Norway, and the 
diet elected the king of Sweden to be their king. 


^.:]S I ElDTIONAity OF DATES. 383 

KING. The Latin Rex. the Scythian Rek, the Spanish Rey, the Treiich Roi, 
aJl come from the Hebrew Rosck, chief, or head. Nimrod was the first 
founder of a Itingdom, 2245 b. c. — Iht Fresnoy. Miaraim built cities in 
Egypt, and was the first who assnmed the title of Iring in that division of the 
earlh. Saul was the first Idng of Israel 1096 b. c. Most of the Gi'eoian states 
were governed hy kings ; and kings rivet ruled in Rome. The Egyptians 
understood the only just principle of government, namely, to make the peo- 
ple happy; and although among fhem the monarchy was hereditary, Uie 
sovereign waa as much bonnd by the laws as his meanest subject: there was 
a peculiar code for his direction in the most minute particulars of public 
and private lift. The king's hour of rising, the portion of time he should 
devote each da^ to the services of religon, the administration of jnstJce, 
the quality of his food, and the rank of persons by whom he was served, 
were all prescribed. 

KING OP ENGLAND. Thestjle "kiceof England," wasfirstusedbyEgbert 
A. D. 828 1 but the title Rex gentis Artglorum, king of the English nation, 
existed during the Heptarchy. See Srilain. The plural phraseology of wc, 
us, our, was first adopted by Iting John, in 1307. The title of " king of Ire- 
land," by British sovereigns, was not assumed until :.5i2. when Henry TUI. 
changed l»rd of Ireland into king. The style " Great Britain " was adopted 
at the union of England and Scotland, 6 Anne, 1707; and of the "United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland " at the union of these countries, Jan- 
uary 1, 1801, when the royal style and title was appointed to run thus : — 
"GeaTgius TViinj, Dei Oralia Britaitniar'am Rex, Fidei Defensor," "George 
the thh'd, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britam 
and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith." 

KING OP THE FRENCH. Decreed hy the National Assembly that the title o( 
" Icing of France" should he changed in the person of Louis XTI. to that oi 
" kitig of the French," Octoher IS, 1789. The royal title was abolished in 
1792; but restored in the Bourhon fiimily, in 1814. Louis-Philippe I. 
was invited to the monarehy under the style of the " king of the French," 
August 9, 1880. See Prance. 

.KING OF HUNGARY. Tlie averseness of the Hungarian people to the term 
queen, has led to the custom among tlicm, that whenever a female succeeds 
to the throne, she shall he called king. Thus it will be seen in the annals of 
Hungary, tliat tthe daughter of Louis L reigned as king Mary, in 1888. iSee 

1055. Riohai'd, brother of Henry IIJ. of England, was induced fc ^ 
Germany, where he disbursed vast sums under the promise of being elected 
next emperor; he obtained the title of "king of tie Romans," bnt Med In 
succeeding to the Impeiiol crown. The style " king of Rome " was revived 
hy Bonaparte, who conlferred it on his son, upon his birth, in April, 1811 : 
but the title ceased with the extinction of the dynasty of Napoleon, April 
5, 18U. 
iCING'S BENCH, Court of, in England. Obtained its name (Vom the king 
. sometimes sitting here on a high bench, and the judges, to whom the 
judicature belongs in his absence, on a low bench at his feet. The jurisdic- 
tion of this court extends all over England, and is not so subject to control 
as others, because the law presumes the ting to be here in person. The 
name of tliia cotirt has been altered to that of Qwen's Bench, since the 


384 THE world's progress, [ m*;- 

acceesioa of Victoria, in June, 1837, aa is the case with all institutions in 
immediate connection with, or dependant upon the sovereign. 

KING'S EVIL. Supposed to be cored by the toudi of the IdiKB of England, 
The first who touched foi- it was Edwai'd the Confesaoi', 1058. Thia vulgar 
creduhtj had in the age of Charlea 11. ariaen to such a height, that in four- 
teen years, B2,107 persons were t^nehed; and, according to Wiseman, the 
king's phyBician, they wore nearly all cured I Queen Anne officially a;i- 
nounced in the London Gazette, Match 12, 1712, her royal intention to touch 
publicly for the cure of the evil ; and touching for it contanued a custom un- 
til It was wisely discouraged, and ultimately dropped by George I., 1714. 

KING'S SPEECH. The first royal speech from the throne was delivered ty 
Heiu'V I., in 1107. A late celebrated writer, after remarking with his accus- 
tomed harshness upon Mr. Carming, who hud just then (April 1827} become 
chief of a new administration, aiud— " Canning being now minister, of one 
thing, and one thing only, we ai'e certain, we shall have no more grammati- 
cal blunders in king's speeches; these things will still bewiitl«n in the 
same meagre way, in point of matter, as before ; but we shall have them in 
a perspicuous and pure style." — C/Mett. 

KINGDOMS. The origin of kingdoms may be referi'ed to Belus, supposed tt; 
have been the Nimrod of Holy Writ ; he was the founder of the Eabyloc;_S 
monarchy, 2246 e. c. — Usher. Menfes, or Misralm, makes his son Atholas, 
surnamed tbe first Mercury, king of Uppei" Egypt ; and anofher son, Tose- 
thrus, he establishes at Memphis, 2188 b. c. — BlaiT. Ninus founds the As- 
syrian monarchy, 2059 b. o. — LengUl. 

KISSING. Kissing the hands of great men was a Grecian custom. Kissmg 
was a mode of salutation among the Jews, as we may collect from Judaa 
approaching his master with a kiss ; it was also customary in Rome. Kiss- 
ing the pope's foot took its rise from the custom of kneeling to sovereigns, 
and h^an with Adrian T. or Leo HI. at the close of the eighth century. 
Prom, EneeUng to sovereigns came also the ceremony of a vassal Itneeiing 
to his lord in homage, first practised, i. d. 709. 

KTT-KAT CLUB. A society which constated of about ihii'ty noblemen and 
gentlemen of distinguished abililjes, instituted in 1703, for the purpose -of 
promoting the Protestant succession in the honse of Hanover, which they' 
e&cted by spirited publications as well as other measures. Addison, Steele, 
and Dr. Garth were members, and made several epigrams upon the toasts o.^ 
the dub. The club took its name from one Christopher Kat, a pastry-coo^ 
who lived near the tavern where they met, in King-street, Westminster, and 
who served tliem with pastry. — Botoyer's lA/e of Qii*e™ Anno. 

KNIGHT. The origin of thia title aa a militaiy honor is said to be derived 
from the si^e of Troy, but thia solely depends ujion a passage or two in 
Homer. With certainty we may tiace the distinction to the Romans, who, 
after their nidon with the Sabines, created three centuries of knights, about 
750 1, c. — lAm/. 

KNIGHT-ERRANTRY. Took its rise in the combat? of the Celtic nations, 
particularly the JudioJal combats, and much prevailed in Spain, Trance, A'' 
Germany. Tilts and t«umamenls commenced with the return of the cru 
saders from the holy wars, and for about 800 years the]?- were the chief 
amusements of courts, and the successful combatants aoqnjred kniglithood, 
and the favor of the ladies. When public combats declined, the knights 
travelled in search of adventures, to correct injustice, and fight in tne 
cause of tlie fair ; and the consequent follies gave rise to the novel of Don 

KNIGHTHOOD. Was confbiTcd in England by the priest at tlie altar, after 



confcasion and ooBseci'ation of the aword, during the Saxon Heptarchy. 
Tbe first knight made hy tho sovereign vrllb the awoiii of state was Athel- 
Stan, on whom Alfred bestowed this new dignity, a. d. 900.— Speinww. The 
custom, of ecclesiastics conferring the honor of knighthood waa snppresaed 
in a synod held at Westminster in ll<H).—Askmole's Institii^s. All persons 
haTing ten pounds yearly income were obliged to bo Imightod, or pay a fine, 
38 Hemy 111. 1254.— Satowii. 
KNIGHTHOOB in EUEOPE. As a sysfew, under the denomination of chi- 
valry, knighthood is to bo dated &om the eleventh century. On the de- 
dine of the empii'o of Charlemagne, all Europe being reduced to a state of 
anarchy, the proprietor of every manor hecame a petty sovereign ; his man- 
sion was fortified bj a moat, and defended by a guard, and called a castle. 
Eseursiona were made 1^ one petty lord against another, and the women and 
treasure were carried off by the conqueror. At lengti the owners of rich 
tieSk associaied to repres these marauders and to make p^poi'ly secure and 
o protect the hidies bmdmg themedveB to these duties by a solemn vow 
nd the sanot on of a re g ous ceremony JTie flrtt knit,hls bemg men of 
t ranlv and largest possess ous adtue on nto tl e ord was 

med a great bono 

Bond, span 

Back Esge PruBsiB 
Fredsn fc 1 

Broths" yLo"'' aal«. 
Burgund an O 039 

Care t, Eoa and 

,"/." .0 

ChnBl, Portugal 
OhrlEilan Chan y France 

Coii«puim h V IT- 

Concord P-uasan udj-Thia 

Cnia eni N p 

Crowu Koyalirranca 

Dan bufgfi, De ma k, nsu u d b] 

Wa 11 SSr tt ai9 il 1 

Dea li 9 Head, Femal Orda by hi 

w ilow Louies Ellz b Ih o Sssi 

Bacof born, Briimny 

Elsj^anu Donaiart, bJ Chrialian I. 

P pi. r^ 
R a i;ag P UK a 

LTju 14(13; and'agiunhy^ameaVi -I 

13B0l Su Antliony,Bibtop1a 


KNIGHTHOOD in EUROPE, coJiiiii/tied. 

St. Geor^Bj tulolarj soin 

jL George, Spain 
it-Geo^aivW™ - 
it. Hubert, Germany 
Jiiliers SDd ClsTes 
St. James, HolUad ■ 
St. Janise, Porlugsl 

inofiUiodee ■ 300 ed iaJ' 

Si. LazatuSjandSt.Mau 

St Mary the Glorious 

St. Mary lie Mercetl, Spa 

Si, MIcliael, France - 

KNIGHTS, Femaiji. The title of kmglit, ivliioh was giTen to mi,a of snpenor 
worth, ability, and fortune, in farmer times, "was Bometimea pvea to wune 
also. As an Instance, it wbh conferred cm the women who preserved the 
city of Tortosa from fWliiig into the hands of the Moora in 1149, hy their 
stout resistance and vigorous atfacic of the beeiegers, by which means tiit 
Moors were ibrced to raise the siege. Large immunities and Sivors vero 
granled to them and their deBcendants for their heroism on this occasioD. 
KNIGffTS or the ROUND TABLE. Instituted by king Arthur, about *. i 
&2S.~Asser's lAfe of Alfred. This ancient order was revived hy Edwai 
HL at Windsor, upon New Tear's day, 13M. The king with a view tf tt 
recovery of France, which descended to him In right i h m tl bee m 
anxious to draw the best soldiers of Europe into his int est d h p 
projecting and setting up Mng Arthur's Konnd Tabl h pro laimrf 
solemn tuting, to invite foreigners of qnality and cour to il 
Ho published his royal letters of protection, for the B f d 

of snch foreign knights as had a mind to venture then: p t ti t th 
Jousts and tournaments. — Beatson. 
KNIGHTS OP THE SHIRE. Tlie barons, or fenanla in cl f ft h 11 b 
Doomsday-book, were 700 in number, hnt being split to m 1! pa t 
greater and lesser, all of whom were entitled to sit in p 1 m t 1 t 
latter, or lesser barons, were aUowed lo choose two p sentati h nci 
called knights of the shke, j. o. 1307. 
KNIGHTS TEMPLARS. A ruligioua and military orde m t tuted C 11 
They oame to England early in Stephen's reign, aiid settled at the Temi 
in London ; and at other places in the reign of Henry H. All the knigh: 
were arrested in France in one day, being charged with great crimes, an 
g great riches ; fifly-nine of them were biirnt alive at Paris in Oe 


and many thoaaands iveie BubBeqnently massacred, f heir wealth being given 
to tho knights of Uralta Slp Malta 

fOS.lVES. Fh'stnmiiu 11 I I'nl "■ They ware tie cariiefit branch of 
cutlery, and ivera fti't MathewH, of Fleet-Bridge, Lon- 

don, 6t!i Eljz , 151 I - i-i, edzt 1683. See Fbr/i;s. 

KORAN, OB ALEORA^ i 1 1 c n abont a. a. SIO. Its general 

aim was, to nnite tin ji i II In and the Jews and Christians in 

the worship of one God (uhiiM uiiie\ nd^tliechief point ineuleated), under 
certain laws and ceiemonies, exacting obedience to Mahomet oe the pro- 
phet. It was wiitten m the Koreish Arabic, and this language, which cer- 
tainly possessed every fine quality, was said to be that of paradise. Maho. 
met asserted that the Komn was rerealed to him, during a period of twenty- 
three years, by the angel Gabriel The style of this volume is beantifnl, 
fluent, and concise, and where the mtyesty and attributes of God are de- 
scribed, it is sublime and magnifloent, Mahomet admitted the divine mis- 
sion both of Moses and Jesus Christ.— Z>)-. Jortin. The leading artwle of 
fiilth which this impostor preached, is compounded of an eternartruth, and 
ia necessary Sotion, namely, that there is only one God, and that Mahomet 
ia the apostle of God. — Giibon. The Koran was translated into Latin in 
1148 I and into English and other European langnages about 1763, et seq. 
It is a rhapsody of 3O0O verses, divided into 114 sections. Sue Akorang 
Islamsm; Mecca; Mahomdism, ^-c. 

LA HOGUE, Battle op, between the English and Dulch conibined fleets, under 
admirals Russel and Rooke, and the French fleet commanded by admiral 
Tourville. The English attacked the French near La Hogue, gaining a 
splendid victory, burning thirteen of the enemy's ships, destroying eight 
more, forcing the rest to fiy, and thus preventing a threatened descent upon 
England, May 19, 1692. 

L& PEROUSE-S VOYAGE. It was commenced in 1T8E, when Perouso sailed 
from Fiance for the Paoiflo, with the Bmtsiele and AsiroJaie under hia com- 
mand. The last direct intelligence received from him was from Botany Bay, 
in March 1738. Several expeditions were auhseciuently dispatched in search 
of Perouse, but no certain information was hod until captain Dillon, of the 
East India ship Itesearch, ascertained that the French ships had bean cast 
away on two difierent ialands of the New Hebrides— a fate authenticated by 
various articles of the wreck of these vessels, which capt. Dillon brought 
with him to Calcutta, April 9, 1828, 40 years afterwards. 

LA VENDEEj W*a of. The French Royalists here took to arras, and were 
aneeesaflil m a number of battles with the Republican armies, fbught be- 
tween July 12, 1798, and January 1, 1794, when they experienced a severe 
Inverse. Nnmerous other engagements were fought, with various snooess, 
antil this war terminated, Jan. ID, 1800. 

LABYRINTH. , There wei'o (bur most fkmous in histoiy ; the first was built by 
Dffidalus, in the island of Crete, to secure the Minotaur, about 1210 n. c, ; 
the second in Egypt in the isle of Mceria, by Psammeticus, king of that 

6 lace, 688 b, c. ; and the fourth in Italy, erected hy Porsonna, king of the 
!etruri£e, about 520 B.C.— Kiny. The beauty and art of the labyrinth of 
Egypt were almost beyond benef ; it liad 13 halls and 3000 chambers, with 
pllsja, was encrusted with marble, and adorned with scnlptnivs. — Hsrodottts. 
The labyrinth of Woodstock is femoua from its connection with the story of 


388 TiiE world's paoguess. I l.-kM 

Pair Rosamond, ToLstresa of Henr7 II. ; there is a cutioua Mase at Hampton 
Court that is muoli Tisitecl. 

TiACE. Mention is mode of it as being of very delicate testuve in Prance abd 
Piandera in 1320 ; and fine lac&s were mucli in use for raffles and frills fbr 
tlie men, and headdresaea for the women, in the fifteenth centnry. Lace 
was general in the court costnme of Elizabeth's reign. Dresden, VaJencien- 
nea. Mechlin, and Bmsaels, have long been Smoua for their flna lace. An 
oance weight of Flanders thread has been ftequently sold for four ponnda 
in London, and ila yalne when mantifectured has been increased U> forty 
pounds, ten IJmes the price of Btandard gold. 

LACED^MON. See ^airta. Lelez begins the kingdom of Lelegia, in Lbco- 
nia, 1516 s, c. Eurotaa gives his daughter Spavta in marriage to Lacedse- 
mon, and makes him partner on the Uirone, 1490 b. c. The city of Spartf. 
was btiilt about this time, and hence the name by which the country is most ; 
known. The Lacedsemon republic became fiunons in hisiorj after 700 B.C. 
particularly by the conquest of Athens. It was made a Roman province 71 
n. c. The territory now belongs to the Turks. — I'kacyMdes; PnesUey. 

LADIES. The mistresses of raanor-houEes. in former tiaiea, served out to the 
poor weekly with their own hands certain quantities of bread, and were, 
therefore called Lef-days — two Saion words signifying dread-giiier, end the 
words were at length corrapted, and the mistress is called to this day lAtdij, 
that is, Lef-dav. The introduction of ladies to court, was first to tiiat of 
Louis XII. of France iu 1499. Asa title of honor, the title of lady properly 
belongs only to the daughters of earls, and all of higher rank ; but cuptom 
has made it a term of complaisance for the wives of knights, aod all women 
of eminenee or gentility. See Letd. 

LADEONE ISLES. Discorered by Magellan, in 1520 ; they are eleven in nun_ 
her ; at the island of Guam he first touched. Here, some of the natives 
having stolen some of his goods, and showinff a great disposition to theft, 
he^named the islands the Ladroiies, or Islands of Thieves, which they are 
called to this day. 

LADY DAY. This festival, flie 25th March, was instituted about a. d. 350, 
according- to some anthorities, and not before the seventh century aeiiord- 
ing to others. On this day, the 26th of ]>Iarch, the angel Gahriel brought 
to the Tit^n Slacy Hie message concerning her son Jestis ; hence it is caued 
the Annunciation, and is celebrated in the Catholic church as one of ite 
chief feasts; and in the Reformed church also, on account of the. cor- 
nection between the circumstance commemorated and the Incarnation. 1- 
England, before the alteration of the style, the new year began on the 26tl: 
of March . 

LA PAYETTE'S first visit to the United States, to aid the cause of America 
independence; he anived at Charleston, Apnl 25, 1777, being then ninfeteer 
years old. He raued a corps at his own expense; was wounded at Brandy 
wine; employed in Rhode Ishind, 1778 ; visited France, promoting new re 
inforcements for the United States, and returned 1779. His tiiumpha 
reception in the United States ona visit of pleasure, Aug, 13, 1824.>( re 
ceived &om Cftngress the sum of $200,000 and a township o? land in rewar* 
for his services : returned to France in the frigate Brandywine, Seplembe: 
7, 1826, B -^ . y 

LAMPS. See Lwtkt'ns. Lamps ai'e mentioned in all the early ages ; „the; 
were in use in Egypt, Greece, and Rome. The earthen lamp which Epic' 
totus tho philosopher had in his study sold, after bis death, for SOOi 
drachmas, a. d. 161. Lamps with hom sides were the invention of Alfred 
Lamps wero in general use throngh ttje streets of I,.ojidon up to the cl' 



of the IStb century, as were flambeaux which were carried by link-boys. 
Loudon streets were first lighled hy oil-lamps in 1681 ; and with gas lamps 
iu 1814. The domeetic lamp is now of elegant mannlkcture ; of this kind 
is the Argand lamp, broiiglit into genei'sl use in England in 1785, el seq. 
See Safe^ LaiBp. 

LANCA3TERIAK SCHOOLS. On a system of education by means of mutual 
instmotion, propagated by Joseph I/ancaster and Br. Bell ; they were not 
much patronized till about 1808, when Lancaster's ajBtem attracted general 
attention, notwithstanding the prejudices that existed against llie founder, 
wlio had been laboring to introduce schools upon his economic, plan ft'oni 
1798. They became general in 1818, and there are now some hnndreds of 
them in England, and in London more llian ftirty. They were foonded in 
Senegal, and were extensively inslatnted in Russia, m 1819. 

LAND. Was let generally in England for Is. per acre. 36 Henry VIII. 1544. 
The whole rental of the kingdom was ahont 6,000,00(«. in 1600. It was 
abont 14,000,00(H. in 1688. In 1798 Mr. Pitt proposed his Income Tax of 
10 ;«r cent, on an estunate of 100 miUions, taking the rent of land at 50 
millions, the rent of honses at 10 milliona, and the profits of trade at 40 
millions ; but in this estimate were exempted mnch land and the infi^rior 
flass of houses. See Income Tax. The rental of the United Kingdom has 
been recently estin:iated in parliament at 127 millions, hut nuthorities vary 
much on the amount. See fiMc La«j!s, V. S. 

LANDGEATE. This is from Tamd, and grave a count, a German title of do- 
mimon, which appears to have commenced in the eleventh centuiy ; it he- 
came the tide of the liouse of Hesse Cassel, about the year ISDO ; and the 
lank was snbBeqnently assumed by the branches of Hesse Hotubuj^, Hesso 
Philtpstal, Hesso Darmstadt, &c. See Hesse. 

{.ANGiSTDE, Battle oe; between the forces of the regent of Scotland, the 
uaii of Murray, and the army of Mary queen of Scote, in which the latter 
snHered a complete defeat. May 15, 1566. Immediately afler this last fiital 
battle, the unfortunate Mary Sed to England, and landed at Workington, in 
Cumberland, on May 16; and was soon afterwards imprisoned by Ehaabetii. 

LANGUAGE. Langnage must either have been revealed originally from hea- 
ven, or it is the frait of human invention. The latter opinion is embraced by 
Horace, Lucretius, Cicero, and mostof the Greek and Roman writers; the 
former opinion by the greatmajority of the Jews and Chrisdans,and the pro- 
foundest philosophers of France and England. It has been afBrmed that 
Uebraw was the language spoken by Adam ; bnt others deny this, and say that 
the Hebrew, Chaldee,imd Arabic, are only dialects of the original, which has 
for many ages been lost and nnltnown. Psammeticus the Powerful, desiring 
to know the most ancient people and laoguage on the earth, caused two 
children to be kept from all knowledge of the use of speech, until they 
wci-e two years old :. they were then brought into hia presence, and they 
both pronounced the sound beeeos, the Phcenician Icnu for bread. He there- 
fore gave tlie Phcenician the precedence, In pohit of antiquity, to all other 
nations, 647 b. c.—Herodoias, Polypi., Siraio. 
ANGUAGES. Of the Hebrew, the Cbaldee and Syriae are dialeola. Tbo 
iginal European ones are thirteen, viz ; Greek, Latin, Dutch, Sclavoniao, 
■ 'n the east; Welsh, Biscayan, spoken in Spain; Irish, Albanian, in 
.ntaina of Epirus,, the old Tllyrian, the Ja/ygian, remain- 
ing yet in Libuvnia; the Chaucij, in the north of Hnngaiy; and the Finnic, 
in East Friesland. Arabic is the mother tongne of Africa. Prom th« Latin 
sprung the Italian, French and Spanish ; and feom the Spanish the Portu- 
guese. The Turkish is a mixed dialect of the Tartarian. From the High 
Dutch, or Teutonic, sprang the Danish, Swedish. Norwegian, English, Scotch,. 


390 THE woiiLu'g PKOGitEsa. [ lat 

&o. There are 866i known Janguages now used in tliewovld. Of these, 
937 are Asiatic ; 5B7 European ; 276 African ; and 1624 American languages 
and dialeots ,^P)-(j/esso!- Adelmtg. 

LANTERNS. In general nse from a very early data. Those of scraped horn 
were invented in England, it ia aaid by Alft'ed, and it is supposed that horn 
was asBd for window-lighta also, aa glasB waa not inown. in Alfred's reign, 
i. Q. 872-SOl.— SfouM's Ci^rtm. London was lighted by suspended lantcina, 
with glass Bides, a. c. 1415. The pellucid larainie of the ox horn haa served 
for agea for the sides of lantema instead of glaaa, and for many nses am 
preferred. See arliclo, Lamps, 

LAOCOON, This exctuisite work of art, executed in marble, is univei'srlly 
allowed to bo the triumph of (Jreoian scnlpture. It was modelled by Ages- 
ander, Athenodorns, and Polydorus, all of BliiMles, and of great einiaence 
as statuaries ; and in all ages, and by all nations, this beautiflil gi'onpis 
allowed to he the greatest victory of art that has ever been achieved by 
human hands. 

LATERAN, COUNCILS op the. They were held in the Basilica cf the La- 
teran, at Roma. Of these councils there were five : by the first, the right 
of investitures was settled between pope Calistua II. and the emperor Henry 
v., 1122 ; by the second council was secured the temporalifies of eccle&ia^ 
tics, llB9j tlie third was to denounce schiamatjcs, 1179 ; the firarth on 
chui'ch affliira, attended liy 400 bishops and 1000 abbots ; and the fifth was 
the ^mouB council of Julius S., 1512. 

LATHE, ibr taming ivory, wood, iron, and other substances, so as to sbape 
them to the views of the artist, was originally an instrument of rude 
construction, invented by Tains, a grandson of Diedalus, about 1240 e. c. 
Pliny ascribes the invention to Theodore of Samoa. Modern lathe engine, 
frequently coat fSonsands of pounds. 

LATIN LANGUAGE. One of the thirtaan original languages of Europe; and 
from which sprang the Italian, French, and Spanish. It is named afl«r the 
Latini, and the Latini from LatinuB, their king, A vast portion of onr most 
beaatiful and azpresaive words are derived from the Latin. It ceased to be 
spoken in Italy, ahout i. d. 581 ; and was first taught in Enghrnd by Adel- 
mus, brother of Ins, in i^e seventh century. During six or seven )inndre<! 
years the Laljn tongue prevailad in all public proceedings from the Tweed 
to the Euphrati^s, and from the Danube to Monnt Atlas, and has been mort 
or less retained even to this day. In England it was ordered to be discori- 
tinned in conveyancing, and in courts of law, in 1781. 

LATITUDE. First determined by Hipparckus of Nice, about 170 b. c. It i: 
the extent of the earUi, or of the heavens, reckoned from the equator ti 
either pole. Maupertuis, in latitude 6S.2D, measured a degree of latitud 
and made it 69.498 ; he measured it in 1737. Bwanbevg, in 1803, made "i 
69,292. At Uie equator, in 1744, four astronomers made it 68.732; am 
Lambton, in latitude 12, made it 68.743, Mudge, in England, made i 
69.148. Cassini, in France, in 1718 and 1740, made it 69,12; and Biot 
68.769; while a recent measure in Spain makes it but 68.68— less th^^n a 
the equator ; and contradicts all the others, proving the earth to be a prr 
late spheroid, which was the opinion of Cassini, Bemouilli, Euler, an- 
others, while it has more generally been regarded as an oblate spheroid. 

LATIUM. Now the city of Romania ; built byLatjnns, Iring of Janiouluii 
who gave his name to tlie country, calling liis subjects Latines, 00* b. ( 
Lanrentiim was the capital of the countiy in the reign of Latinua, I/aviiiim 
under ^neaa, and Alba under Asoaflius. The Latins, though original!^ 
known only among their neighbors, soon rose in rank when Romulus ^ 
founded the city of Rome in tholr country. 


LATTER-DAY SAINTS. A, new sect, whose piinciples 
sented. By some we a e told H at U e'r t ' ' 
of the Churc of England the Sc ptm 

foundation of them E t j i a iiu vui- oi 

curing the sick us d work- 

ing miracles of se eratioa 

of men. They 1 a alira; 

and an address v-e \ Great 

immberE of these ta 

LAWS, ANCIENT The I P „ 1 n \ gos 1807 

E. c, were the fl st Attic la ys ed ced to a system by D aco fo the Athe- 
niane, 623 b. c hat the litte code was afte ards superseded by that of 
Solon, 578 a. c Ihe Spartan laws of Lycnrgns »e e n ado 884 bo (1 ey 
remained in full force for 00 vears and aie calculated to ra ee oui adm a- 
tion, as well by Oioir singnlaiity, as by tl e efleet they had n fo -m ng a ace 
of men totally differentfrom all others living in ciTiUaod society. The Roman 
laws were founded on those of Phoroneus. The Gregorian and Hermogin'fln 
codes were published in a. d. 2B0. The Theodosian code in 435. The Jnt- 
t!nian code, in 629, and the digest, in 633. — Blair. See Civil Liaw. 

LAWS, BRITISH. The British laws of earliest data were translated info the 
Sason, in A. D. 590. The Sason laws of Ina were publiahed in 709. Alfred's 
coda of laws, which la the foundaHon of the common law of England, was 
compiled in 887, but in use previously. Edward the Confessor promulgated 
. his laws, in 1065. Stephen's charter of general liberfies, 1130 ; Henry n.'s 
confirmation of it, 1154 and 1175. The maritime laws of Riohaid I„ 1194. 
See aiiicle Otefum. Magna Charta, by king John, 1216. Its confirmation 
^HentylU,, 1216, sisej. See Magna Charta aai Forests, Charier of ihe. 
Celebrated declaration made by the lord chief justice of the King's Bench, 
"Thatnoflrtion of law shall ever so f^ prevail against the real frath of the 
ilict as to prevent the esecntion of justice," May 21, 1784. — iwd Mansfield. 

LAW'S BUBBLE. The moat rainoua speoulation of modem times. The pr&- 
jector, John Law, of Edinburgh, raised himself to the dignity of comptroller- 
general of the finances of France, upon the strength of a scheme for esta- 
blishing & bank, an East India, and a Mississippi company, by the profits of. 
which the national deht of France was to be paid off. He first offered his 
plan to Victor Amadens, king of Sardinia, who told hlmhe was aotpowerfVil 
enough to rain himself. The French ministry accepted it in 1710 ; and in 
1716, he opened a bank in his own name, under the protection of the dnke 
of Orleans, regent of France; and most of the people of property of every 
rank in that kingdom, seduced by the prosMct of immense gains, subscribed 
both in the hank and the companies. In 1718 Law's was declared a Royal 
bank, and the shares rose to upwards of twenty-fold the original value, so 
that in 1719, they were worth more than eighty times the amount of all the 
current specie In France. But the foEowing year this great fabrio of felse 
credit fell to the ground, and almost ovei'threw the French goveiiunent, 
ruining tens of thousands of femilies. It is remarkable that the same dea- 
■petals game was played by the South Sea dh'ectors in England, in the same 
liital year, 1720.— Sisi. of Prance, Nmm. Diet. 

LAWYERS. The pleaders of the bar, called harristeis, are said to have been 
first appointed by Edward I. or in his reign, 1291. Seijeants, the highest 
membeis of the bar, are alone permitted to plead in the court of Common 
Pleafl. Tlie first king's counsel under the degi'ee of seijeant was sir Francis 
Bacon, in 1604. There are about 1200 barristers in England : and the num- 
tar of lawyers in England and Wales, counting London and country attor- 
neys, solicitors, &c., la about 14,000. A list of 19,537 practising lawyers in 
the United States, was published in New-Tork, 1850. 


dft\e mines were discovered in 1518. Tiie lead mines, of Cumberland a . 
Derbyehire yield aboutlB.OOOtonapCTattmMm. The finest sort of Mack lead, 
list most fit for pencils, is produced only at Borrowdale, but there in great 
c[uantitie3. Leaden pipes for tte conveyance of water were bronglit into nse 
in 1236. 
LEAGUES, POLITICAI. skd RELIGIOUS. The Lsagne of tie Public Good, 
was one between the dukes of Burgundy, Brittany, and Bourbon, and other 
princes against Louis XI. of France, in 1464. The League of Cambray was 
entered into in 1508. The H0I7 League against Louis XH., 1510. Th-; 
League of Smalcald, 1529. The League of the Beggars (the Frotestanis so 
called, though Catholics joined the iSigue) to oppose the institntion of the 
Inquisition in Flanders, 1B80. 'Hie League, so denominated by way of emi- 
nence, to prevent the secession of Henry IV. of France, who was tlien of the 
refonned religion, was commenced in 1676. The LeafHe of Wnrtzbure, 
1610. League against the emperor, 162S. Solemn wid Covenant ni 
Scotland, against the episcopal government of the church, and the regal 
authority, 13 Charles I., 1688. League of Augsburg, 1686. 
LEAP-YEAR, OR BISSEXTILE. The Leap-year originated with the iiBlrono=^ 
mers of Jnlins Csesar, 46 b. c. They fixed the solar year at 866 days 6hom's, 
comprising:, as they thought, the period from one vernal eqninox to anotlier i 
the sis hours were set aside, and at the end of four years, itoming a day, the 
fourtii year was made to consist of 866 days. The day thus added wa? 
called intercalary, and ivas added to Pebrnary. See flisffisiife. This almost 
perfect arrangement was denominated the Julian style, and prevailed threr^h- 
out the Christian world till the time of pope Gregory XUI., in 1682, when 
the calendar was altered to its prepent stota. See Cid&ndsr. The difference 
betifeen 365 days 6 hours, and 866 days 6 hours, 48 minutes, 61 seconds, 
and 6 decimds, which last is the true length of the astronomical year, in 
the course of years caused 1700 and 1808 not to be leap-yeavs, nor will 1900 
be a leap-year ; but the year 2000 wili he one. See Jidinm, Yem; Givgmiant, 
CaUw/ar, (f^. 
LEARNING *md the ARTS. These were curried to their height among the 
Greeks during the Ibuith century b. c. ; and with the Romans with the com- 
mencement or the Christian era. On the death of Augustus they declined 
until the reftigees ftom Greece caused them to revive in Italy, about a. e. 
1260. Learning had been ibnnd so to ohstmct the tyranny of the emperors, 
that mathematicians and philosophers were, by several decrees, banished from 
Rome, A. D. 16, and 80, si kj. After the dark ages, came Bnmetto, Latini, 
and numerous enlightened men; and Leo X., about 1518, gave vast encou- 
ragement to literature and the arts. 

The illnstrians Medici tiraiily greatly promoted learning in Italy, about 1650. 
—Fonlima, And about this time literature began to flourish in France, 
Germany, and Enghmd. The reign of Anne has been called by some the 
" golden," by others, the "Angustan age " of English iitersturo. 
LEATHER. It was very early Imown in Egypt and Greece, and Uie thongs of 
manufitctured hides were used for ropes, harness, &«., hy all ancient nations. 
The Gordian knot was made of leather thongs, 830 E. c. The ancients un- 
derstood the art of tanning leather, and it was practised early in England, 
and great improvements made in it np to 1795, Leather is converted inti/ 
many uses: a leathern cannon was proved at Edinburgh, fired three times, 
and found to answer, Oct. 28, lISS.—PMliips. The duty onleather produced 
annually in England, 460,000i., and in Ireland, about 60,000;. Itwas abolish- 
ed in both countries, May 29, 1830. 


LEGHORN. Livoi-no. This city auffered ikeadfiillj' by an eartbqtiake ia 1141. 
It was entered by the French anuy. in the tevolutionary war, July 17, 1796, 
but the iminsTiBC aojount of British property then there had been previously 
reraoTed, Leghorn wixs evacuated by the French in 1799, and visa rotaiten 
the following year. It was unauocea^lly attacked by the British and Ital- 
ian allied forces, in Dec. 1813. 

IjEGION. The Legio was a corps of soldiers in the Roman armies, and was flrst 
formed by Roajuliis, nnder whom it consisted of 8000 foot and 800 horse, 
abont 750 b. o. When Hannibal was in Italy, 216 b, c, the legion consisted 
of 6000 soldiers ; and nnder Mariua, in 88 n. c. it was 6200 Boldiers, besides 
700 hoi'se. There were ten and sometimes aa many as eighteen legions kept 
at Rome. Augaetns maintained a standing army of twenty-five legions, 
about 5 E. c; and the peace-establishment of Adrian wsB thirty of these 
formidable brigades. The peace of Brifain was protected jy three legions, 
A legion was divided into 10 cohorts, and every cohort Into 6 centuries, with 
a voxillum, or standard guarded by 10 men. 

LEGION OP HONOR. A mihtaiy order in France, embracing all distinctions 
in the army, and including in its incoiporation civil officers, and all snch 
individuals as have eminently distinguished themselves for services to the 
Etato, military deeds, and for public virtue ; instituted by Napoleon Bona- 

Kie, when first consul. May 18, 1802. On the restoration of the Bourbon 
My, Louis XVm. conflnoed this order, April 1814. 

LEIPSIC. Famous foe ita university and its fair. Here Guatavua Adolphus, 
king of Sweden, deltated the Impenalists, Sept. 7, 1681. The siege of Leip- 
sic was siistainHd in 1637. Leipsio was taken hy the Prussian army, 1756. In 
the same year, the Aastrians laid siego to Lie^io in vain, but Uiey took it 
two years afterwai'ds, though they did not retain it long. In the late wai's 
it has fi'cqnently fallen into adverse hands. See next article. 

LEIPSIC, Battle op. Ooe of the greatest, most eangninary, and decLsive of 
modern times, between the French army, conjmanded by Napoleon, on the 
one side, and the Austrian, Russian, and Prussian armies on the other ; the 
former 160,000, and the Jatler 240,000 sti'oog. This gi'eat battle was lost 
by the French, chiefly owing to 17 Qeiinan battalions, their Saxon allies, 
turning upon them in the heat of the engagement. 80,000 men perished in 
the field, of whom more than 40,000 were French, who also lost 66 pieces of 
artillery, and many standards. The victory of the allies was followed by 
the capture, next day, of Leipeic, and of the rear-guard of th(i French army. 
The ting of Saxony and his fiimil;y were also made prisoners ; and the em- 

SGror of Austria and Russia, the king of Prussia, and ci'Own prince of Swe- 
en, entered Leipsic immediately after the battle, Oct. 16 and 18, 1813. 
LENT, The quadragesimal (hst observed in the Catholic chureh, fmia. Ash- 
Wednesday (wAtcA xe) to Easter-day, and sapposed to ba of apostolic institu- 
tion. The primitive Cmistains did not commence their Lent until the Sunday 
which is now called the first Sunday of Lent ; and the fbor days beginnmg 
were added by pope Felix III., in uie year 487, in order that the number of 
festing days should amount to forty. Lent was first observed in England 
by command of Ercombert, king of Kent, in 640. Baker's Chrvn. 
LiEPANTO. Battle op. The great naval engagement between the combined 
fleets of Spain, Tenice, and Pius V., ancl the whole maritime force of the 
Turks. Don John of Austria commanded the Christian fleet, which consist- 
ed of 206 galleys, and 30,000 men, while the Turks hod 250 galleys, of 
which, after a dreadful conflict, they saved but lUO, losing 30,000 men in 
killed and prisoners ; and thus was prostrated for a time the naval power of 
Tuitey, Oct. 7, IblL—VoUaire. 



LETTERS. Thoaeof tte alphabet were imented by Memnon the EgHrtum, 
1822 B. c— Oa-ier, Blair. Tte flrat lettpr of the Phcemcian and Hebrpiv 
alphabet was i^ii, called by the Greeks alpiji and abbreviated brother 
nations to A. The letters, both in the antient and modeia languages so 
vary in number and sound, that a volume might be written in describmg the 
alphabets which are known. See MpluiMt 
LETTERS OP MABQUE jkd REPRISAL. Theee ave licenses, fii'st Isanod in 
England by Edward I., for the seizure of the enemy's vessels, and for repri- 
sal and retahaHon upon the enemy on the sea..— nyrner' s Fadera. They were 
first granfeil in llSh.— Baker's Onron. They are usually granted in tune of 
war to private oiraed ships, and do great mischief to the commerce of 
belligerent naliona, — Peieel. 
LETinRS nE CACHET. These instruments of oppression were so much in 
nse by the French government previously to the Revolution, that one ef the 
eai'liest acta of theTjational AsBembly was to denounce them, and decree 
their abolition, and the abolition of arbitrary imprisonment, Nov. 1, 1789. — 
Hist, of the PVencA Revol. 
LEUCTRA, BATrtE op, Oqo of the most Ikmous of ancient history, fbught at 
the village of Leuctra, between Platffia and Theapia, between the Thebans, 
tinder Epaminondaa, and the superior force of Cleombrotua, king of Sparta, 
the victory haing with the former. In this battle, 4000 Spartans, with their 
king, were slain, and not more than 300 Thebans ; July 8, 371 b. o. From 
this day the Spartans lost their preponderance in Greece, which they had 
maintained fgc about 600 years, and it passed fo the Thebims,— P^afowvii. 
LEVELLERS. Men whose purpose is to destroy superiority, aud bring aE 
things io a level or equality. — CoUier. There were various asaoraations of 
this fcmd. The moat exti'aordinary was that of which Muncer and Storok 
were the chieft. These two began by pulling down all the images in the 
churches which Luther had leil standing ; and then, finding an army in their 
followora, they became levellers, and Muncer openly taught that all diattac- 
tions of rank were nsm'pations on the rights of mankind. At the head of 
40,000 men, he wrote to the sovereign princes in Germany and to the ma- 
gistrates of cities to resign their authority; and on hia march to enforce 
these principles of equality and reformation, his followers ravaged the coun- 
try. The landgrave of Hesse at length defeated him ; 7000 of the enthaai- 
asts fall in battle, and thereat, with Sieirleader,fled; he was taken and be- 
hMided at Mnhoauaen, in 1625. — Nouv. DicLHist. AttheperiodoftheFrench 
Revolution some knots of peraons styled levellei's appeared in England. 
LEWES, Battle or. Between Henry IH., king of England, and Montfort, 
earl of Leicester, and lie rehehioits barons, fought May 14, 1254. In this 
battle the royal army was overthrown, and the Sing, his brother, Richard 
king of the Romans, bia son, and prince Edward, afterwards Edward I., 
were taken prisoners. One division of four of Montfort's army, a body of 
Londoners, gave way to the flirious attack of prince Edward, who pursuing 
the fugitives too far, caused the battle to be lost. From this time Montfort 
jised his power ao despotically as to be in the end the cause of hia own de- 

LEXICOGRAPHY. Morrison mentions a standard dicljonary in the Chinese 
language of 40,000 hieroglyphic characters, as having been compiled 1100 
B. c. Numerous dictionaries appeared in Europe about the close of the flf- 
toeiith and Ijoginnine of the sixteenth century. Calipini'a dictionary ap- 
peared ahout A. D. 1500. The Lexicon Heptaglotton was puhlished in 1769. 
See article, Dictionarij. 

LEXINGTON, Battle op. This battle claims distinction as being the first 
fought between Great Britain and the United States of America, in the wl-r 



of iiiilcpendence. The Britiali troops, under M^or Pitcaim, sent fi'om Bos- 
ton Ut destroy the American stores at Lusington, were attacked by the 
Americans and 278 of them were killed and wonnded, April 19, 1775, 

LETDEN, StEHB OP. A memorable siege snatained against the armies of Spain, 
and daring which 6000 of the inhabitants died of isiniQe and pestilence, i. d. 
1574, In commemoration of this Jong siege, a university was founded, ce- 
lebrated for its coUeges and medicinal garden, and valuable library, 1676. 
The nniversity was almost d